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Truncus arteriosus


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Published in: Health & Medicine

Truncus arteriosus

  1. 1. TRUNCUS ARTERIOSUS cyanotic
  2. 2. DEFINITION A single trunk arising from the heart Supplying the coronary, pulmonary, and systemic circulations No remnants of an atretic aorta or pulmonary artery, attached to both ventricles Overriding the ventricular septum due to failure of the Truncus arteriosus to divide during in the embryonic period
  3. 3. HISTORY  Wilson : 1st description in 1798  Buchannan : Clinical & autopsy report in 1864  Collett & Edwards : Classification in 1949  Van Praagh : Alternative classification in 1965  McGoon : 1st repair with homograft in 1967
  4. 4. QUICK ANATOMY Single artery arising from the two ventricles which gives rise to both the aortic and pulmonary vessels Abnormal truncal valve Right sided aortic arch in about 30% of cases (not shown) Large ventricular septal defect Pulmonary hypertension Complete mixing occurring at level of the great vessel Right-to-left shunting of blood
  5. 5. BLAMED  Baltimore-Washington Infant Study: maternal cigarette smoke(odds ratio [OR]: 1.9, 95% CI 1.04-3.45)  Texas Birth Defects Registry (1999 to 2004): advancing maternal age  22q11.2 deletions: Deletions in three genes in this locus (TBX1, CRKL, and ERK2) cause neural crest cell and anterior heart anomalies seen in patients with DiGeorge syndrome Retinoic acid Bismuth
  6. 6. EMBRYOLOGY Defect in the development of the truncoconal[more conal than Truncus] septum result in Conotruncal abnormalities including Truncus arteriosus Neural crest hypothesis Bulbar septum is deficient just below the singular truncal=semilunar valve
  7. 7. INCIDENCE  40% trunk connects predominantly with the right ventricle  40% overriding is symmetrical  20% trunk connects mainly with the left ventricle Prevalence:0.3:10,000 births 12 times higher in women with pregestational diabetes mellitus Sibling recurrence is 1/100 6 to 10 per 100,000 live births  0.7 percent of all CHD  4 % of all critical CHD.
  8. 8. SEMILUNAR CUSPS 2-6  Tricuspid:69%  Quadricuspid:22%  Bicuspid valve:9%
  9. 9. VSD Large Maligned  Conoventricular  Occasionally muscular
  10. 10. HOW THE PULMONARY ARTERY IS CONNECTED TO THE TRUNCUS? Type 1: a single pulmonary vessel originates from the arterial trunk and bifurcates in left and right pulmonary arteries. Type 2: the pulmonary arteries originate from the back of the Truncus Type 3: the pulmonary arteries originate on each side of the Truncus Type 4: absent pulmonary arteries; collaterals originate from the systemic circulation, most frequently from the descending aorta Collet RW, Edwards JE. Persistent truncus arteriosus: a classification according to anatomic types. Surg Clin North Am 1949;29:501-10
  11. 11. VSD OR NO VSD[SOCIETY OF THORACIC SURGEONS (STS) ] TYPE A[VSD+] TYPE B[VSD-]  A1: As CE type 1, in which a main pulmonary artery is present, and arises from the left side of the truncal root.  A2: h CE types II and III, as the two CE types do not differ embryologically and the surgical approach is the same. Type A2 consists of right and left branch pulmonary arteries with separate origins (regardless of the distance separating the two pulmonary arteries) from the truncal root.  A3: Unilateral pulmonary atresia with collateral supply to the affected lung.  A4:Interrupted aortic arch Van Praagh R, Van Praagh S. The anatomy of common aorticopulmonary trunk (truncus arteriosus communis) and its embryologic implications: a study of 57 necropsy cases. Am J Cariol 1965;16:406-26
  12. 12. Major classification systems for truncus arteriosus reproduced from [25] with permission from Elsevier. Sojak V et al. MMCTS 2012;2012:mms011 © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved
  15. 15. HEMODYNAMIC Hemodynamic is not affected during intrauterine life  Cardiac failure occurs after birth because of the fall in blood pressure in the pulmonary circulation leads to medical emergency  Pulmonary vascular obstructive disease may develop in surgically uncorrected patients with large pulmonary blood flow, with changes noted as early as six months of age Coronary under perfusion due to AR and pulmonary run off
  16. 16. NATURAL HISTORY a mean age of death at five weeks  survival of only 15 percent at one year of age  beyond the first year of life develop severe pulmonary vascular obstructive disease
  17. 17. SYMPTOMS Bluish skin (cyanosis) Delayed growth or growth failure Fatigue Lethargy Poor feeding Rapid breathing (tachypnea) Shortness of breath (dyspnoea) Widening of the finger tips (clubbing)
  18. 18. SIGNS Cyanosis presents at birth Heart failure may occur within weeks Systolic ejection murmur is heard at the left sternal border Widened pulse pressure Bounding arterial pulses Loud second heart sound Biventricular hypertrophy Cardiomegaly Increased pulmonary vascularity Hypocalcemia (if associated with DiGeorge syndrome)
  19. 19. ASSOCIATED Up to 50% of the cases, including unilateral renal agenesis or hypoplasia, absent gallbladder, pulmonary hypoplasia and cleft palate DiGeorge, velocardiofacial (DFG/VCFS) and conotruncal anomaly face syndromes (CTAFS) are associated with conotruncal anomalies Aortic arch anomalies :Right aortic arch – 21 to 36%,Interrupted aortic arch – 11 to 19 percent,Hypoplastic aortic arch (with or without coarctation of the aorta) – 3 percent Secundum ASD:9 to 20%, mild tricuspid stenosis:6%, aberrant subclavian arteries: 4 to 10%, persistent LSVC :4 to 9% and PDA :50%
  20. 20. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Pulmonary atresia/intact IVS Tetralogy of Fallot large ventricular septal defect (VSD)  pulmonary atresia with VSD Univentricular heart
  21. 21. TREATMENT Initial medical management Surgery Treat heart failure due to large left to right shunt Connect pulmonary artery[right ventricle to pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduits ] to right ventricle Primary surgical repair during the neonatal period (less than 30 days of age) has led to an improved survival rate at one year of age of greater than 80 percent compared with the 15 percent rate observed in uncorrected patients
  22. 22. THANKS  truncus_arteriosus  ents/child/encyclopedia/defects/graphic summaries/truncusswf/  e=player_embedded&v=RBYCU_DH4q Y