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Gerry Andrianopoulos Border Security


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Gerry Andrianopoulos Border Security

  1. 1. US- Mexican Operational Cooperation to combat Transnational Crimes (Counter-narcotics, Money-laundering) Dr. Gerry A. Andrianopoulos TEC, Campus Monterrey 2008 Border Security: Is it desirable to move to a common continental approach?
  2. 2. Regional Problems: Operational Level <ul><li>Gov´t agencies and actors exploring new strategies to solve common problems </li></ul><ul><li>Regional strategies to increase the efficiency, effectiveness and legitimacy of institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-border policies to improve the capacity of public agencies and institutions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Estimated Illicit Drug Market <ul><li>Mexico is the main foreign source of marijuana (2000, 7,000 metric tons) and methamphetamine (Seizures: 2000, 500 kilograms; 2005, 2,900 kilograms) </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico is the transit zone for 90% of cocaine from South America (2000, 220 metric tons; 2005, 260-460 metric tons) </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico is a major producer of export quality heroin (2000, 9 metric tons; 2003, 30 metric tons) </li></ul><ul><li>$8-23 billion to Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTOs) from US sales (2005 National Drug Intelligence Center estimate) </li></ul>
  4. 5. US Economic Costs of Drug Abuse <ul><li>US Interdiction Coordinator estimates </li></ul><ul><li>1--over 35 million Americans abuse cocaine, heroin, marijuana and synthetic drugs </li></ul><ul><li>2--over 20,000 deaths in recent years </li></ul><ul><li>3--$180.9 billion Economic cost—negative health, crime consequences, loss of productivity from disability, death, and withdrawal from the workforce (2000) </li></ul><ul><li>4--methamphetamine treatment admissions doubled from 2002-2004—130,000 cases </li></ul><ul><li>5--680 drug-related homicides in 2003 </li></ul>
  5. 7. DTOs Threat to Mexico’s National security <ul><li>last 10 years Mexico became a large market for cocaine, on par with UK </li></ul><ul><li>Use of heroin and methamphetamine has been increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican authorities note : </li></ul><ul><li>1. the negative impact of the drug trade on public health, security, economic development and government </li></ul><ul><li>2. Corruption within government undermines efforts to control drug trafficking </li></ul><ul><li>President Fox declared DTOs a serious threat to Mexico’s National Security (2000 deaths in 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>President Calderon’s War on Drugs aims to deny DTOs control of any part of Mexican territory </li></ul>
  6. 8. Increased Violence against Mexican Institutions <ul><li>Attacks on Government: Federal, State, Local </li></ul><ul><li>1. 06-2005 Nuevo Laredo police chief assassinated </li></ul><ul><li>2. 08-2005 Nuevo Laredo official for public security murdered </li></ul><ul><li>3. 09-2006 NL AEI Marcelo Garza y Garza murdered in MTY </li></ul><ul><li>3. 02-2007 Secretary for public safety for Agua Prieta murdered </li></ul><ul><li>4. 05-2007 head of Mexico’s drug intelligence unit murdered </li></ul><ul><li>05-2007 50 Gulf Cartel heavily armed gunmen fought Sonora State police—22 dead, 15 gunmen, 5 officers, 2 civilians </li></ul><ul><li>RESULT: Individuals refuse to serve in Law Enforcement </li></ul>
  7. 10. Increased Violence against Mexican Journalists <ul><li>Mexico is the 2nd most dangerous country in the world for journalists, after Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>January-July-2006, 208 acts of aggression </li></ul><ul><li>20 journalists killed </li></ul><ul><li>3. Editors encourage journalists to avoid Drug War topics </li></ul><ul><li>Nuevo Laredo paper attacked--no longer covers drug wars </li></ul><ul><li>RESULT : Self-Censorship, Refusal to report on drug trafficking </li></ul><ul><li>RISK —a Threat to democracy </li></ul>
  8. 11. US-Mexico Cooperation <ul><li>4 Strategic Areas of Cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration on extraditions of drug traffickers </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cooperation to counter money-laundering </li></ul><ul><li>US technical support to Mexico’s efforts to strengthen the rule of law and increase transparency </li></ul><ul><li>4. US infrastructure support and training to Mexican law enforcement agencies to interdict or disrupt production & trafficking of drugs </li></ul>
  9. 12. History of US-Mexican Cooperation <ul><li>1970-present, US assisted Mexico to combat Transnational Crimes: Drug Trafficking, Smuggling, Money-Laundering </li></ul><ul><li>4 Strategic Areas of Cooperation : </li></ul><ul><li>A—apprehend & extradite persons committing transnational crimes, including drug traffickers </li></ul><ul><li>B—counter money-laundering by seizing assets of DTOs </li></ul><ul><li>C—strengthen the application of the rule of law </li></ul><ul><li>D—interdict or disrupt the production and trafficking of illicit drugs </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAMS FOR : </li></ul><ul><li>1-interdict cocaine from South America </li></ul><ul><li>2-check Mexican production and trafficking of opium poppy & marijuana </li></ul><ul><li>3-control precursor chemicals for methamphetamine </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM DELAYS : 1990-96 Mexico’s sensitivity to its sovereignty delayed program implementation </li></ul>
  10. 13. Barriers to US-Mexican Cooperation <ul><li>Past efforts to resolve transnational problems undermined by lack of trust on both sides </li></ul><ul><li>US Concerns : </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Mexican institutional capabilities prevented joint operations </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption within Mexican institutions compromised joint operations and intelligence sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico Concerns: US does not do enough to: </li></ul><ul><li>deal with the demand for drugs in the US </li></ul><ul><li>control money-laundering and arms smuggling into Mexico </li></ul>
  11. 14. Bi-National Drug Control Strategy (02-1998) <ul><li>US-Mexico Senior Law Enforcement Plenary (meeting 2-3 times a year) facilitated cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Co-chaired by US Justice Criminal Division Dep Ass Attorney General & Mexican Deputy Attorney General </li></ul><ul><li>Includes US & Mexican senior officials responsible for drug control </li></ul><ul><li>Overseas 10 operational working groups focusing directly or indirectly on drug control </li></ul>
  12. 15. Results of Plenary Meetings <ul><li>04-2000 Bilateral Interdiction Working Group adopted Bilateral Air-to-Air and Ship- to-Ship communication plans to better respond to suspicious air & maritime threats </li></ul><ul><li>2003 Bilateral Chemical Working Group to facilitate Mexico’s efforts to reduce imports of precursor chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>US Justice’s Criminal Division suggested reforms for MX money-laundering and asset forfeiture statutory changes for Plenary talks </li></ul>
  13. 16. Fox Initiatives to Control Corruption <ul><li>2001 creation of the Federal Investigative Agency (AFI) in Attorney General’s Office (PGR) </li></ul><ul><li>7,000 officers subject to polygraph, drug testing & training </li></ul><ul><li>12-2005, PGR reported 1500 officers under investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Disband Federal Judicial Police—considered corrupt </li></ul><ul><li>2003 Civil Service Restructuring Law </li></ul><ul><li>1. outlining standards of conduct and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>2. providing better pay and benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive Corruption Investigations led to arrest and prosecution of officials as well as dismissals and suspensions </li></ul><ul><li>2002, 25 mid-level officials arrested </li></ul><ul><li>2006, 945 federal employees dismissed, 953 suspended </li></ul>
  14. 17. Security & Prosperity Partnership (SPP) <ul><li>03-23-2005, in Waco, Texas, Presidents Fox and Bush and PM Martin signed SPP codifying their belief that Security & Prosperity are mutually depended and complementary </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent and respond to threats within North America (GOAL 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and implement a strategy to enhance North American maritime transportation and port security. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Develop and implement a strategy to establish equivalent approaches to aviation security for North America. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Develop and implement a comprehensive North American strategy for combating transnational threats to the United States, Canada, and Mexico, including terrorism, organized crime, illegal drugs, migrant and contraband smuggling and trafficking. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Enhance intelligence partnerships related to North American security. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and implement a common approach to critical infrastructure protection, and response to cross-border terrorist incidents and, as applicable, natural disasters. </li></ul>
  15. 18. Fox Initiatives against DTO <ul><li>06-2005, Operation Secure Mexico - -300 officers to combat violence and police corruption in N. Laredo </li></ul><ul><li>Officers fired upon by the municipal police </li></ul><ul><li>700 NL force was suspended to investigate corruption </li></ul><ul><li>41 arrested, less than 350 return to duty </li></ul><ul><li>2006, Northern Border Initiative - -Federal-State effort to fight violence in Nuevo Laredo </li></ul><ul><li>800 PFP officers deployed—4 killed after locating a cartel safe house—Federal officers accuse municipal police </li></ul>
  16. 19. Calderon’s National Security Initiatives <ul><li>12-2006 President Calderon declared war on drug traffickers, vowing to deny them control of any part of Mexican territory </li></ul><ul><li>Early 2007 deployed 27,000 military and police officers in 8 states to eradicate crops, intercept drug shipments and apprehend wanted criminals </li></ul><ul><li>Convinced MX Congress to agree to 24% increase in the 2007 security budget (troop salaries in cartel operations up 50%) </li></ul><ul><li>Reorganize the federal police to deal with corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct more aggressive investigations </li></ul><ul><li>5. Permitted the extradition of several major drug traffickers </li></ul>
  17. 20. Calderon’s Anti-Corruption Initiatives <ul><li>12-2006 Calderon reorganized AFI & Federal Preventive Police (PFP) placing them under a single commander </li></ul><ul><li>01-2007 Federal Officers temporarily seized the weapons from the Tijuana police to determine their use in drug crimes </li></ul><ul><li>04-2007 over 100 NL police officer suspended for corruption </li></ul><ul><li>06-2007, 284 federal police commanders fired, including all in 31 states & DF after failing drug & polygraph tests </li></ul><ul><li>284 replacements were immediately named—had to pass financial, drug, polygraph & psychological tests </li></ul><ul><li>Test are now repeated on a regular basis </li></ul><ul><li>2007, Platform Mexico Initiative to improve Fed, State & local info exchange on Drug Cartels—a database to connect 5000 police stations by 2009 </li></ul>
  18. 21. US National Drug Control Strategy <ul><li>GOAL : strategies from 2002 to 2008 to reduce the drug use in the US by 25% through: </li></ul><ul><li>Greater prevention, education, and treatment </li></ul><ul><li>2. Enhanced law enforcement and international cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>A. Disrupt the production and distribution of drugs </li></ul><ul><li>B. Support Mexico to strengthen its institutional capability to fight the production and trafficking of drugs </li></ul><ul><li>since 2001 US youth drug use has declined 24%– 860,000 fewer young people using drugs in 2007 than 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>2007 US National Drug Control Strategy acknowledges the contributions of President Calderon’s War on Drugs </li></ul>
  19. 22. Cooperation to Extradite Persons Committing Transnational Crimes <ul><li>GOAL: deny individuals access to & control over DTOs, & hold accountable for crimes against US & Mexican citizens and interests </li></ul><ul><li>US works closely with Mexican police, military, and judicial authorities to investigate, arrest, prosecute, and incarcerate or extradite Persons Committing Transnational Crimes </li></ul><ul><li>US State and Justice officials work with counterparts in SRE & Attorney General’s Office to provide extradition training and to develop and assemble evidence for US and Mexican extradition request cases </li></ul><ul><li>2004 FBI & US Marshals Service and MX Attorney General’s office developed a unit in AFI specializing in fugitive apprehension </li></ul><ul><li>In one year AFI’s unit arrested 11 top tier & second tier criminals (2003, 7 arrests; 2002, 6 arrests) </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican extraditions to US increased from 17 in 2001 to 63 in 2006 (30 for drug offenses) </li></ul>
  20. 23. Extraditions under Calderon <ul><li>01-2007 Mexico extradited 4 1st tier drug lords—a major step towards cooperation for the US </li></ul><ul><li>01-2007 Osiel Cardenas Guillen, head of the Gulf Cartel; Ismael Higuera Guerrero & Gilberto Higuera Guerrero of theTijuana cartel; Hector Palma Salazar of the Sinaloa cartel </li></ul><ul><li>10-2007 Manuel Campas Medina leader of the Federation alliance </li></ul><ul><li>By 10-2007 Mexico extradited 79 individuals with another 52 pending (63 in 2006; 41 in 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>US Justice Criminal Division assists Mexico by : </li></ul><ul><li>1—working with US prosecutors to ensure that US prosecutions move forward without delay </li></ul><ul><li>2-- working with its Mexican counterpart to extradite US fugitives from Mexico </li></ul>
  21. 24. Cooperation to Counter Money-Laundering <ul><li>GOAL : combat drug trafficking by countering money-laundering activities through promotion of asset forfeiture </li></ul><ul><li>US agencies support Mexican police, investigators and prosecutors to identify and, when possible, seize assets of DTOs </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM —current Mexican law restricts the government’s capacity to seize assets and have them forfeited </li></ul><ul><li>US seeks legal and regulatory reform by Mexico to facilitate forfeiture of DTOs assets </li></ul><ul><li>2002, US agencies supported Mexico to establish an AFI unit for investigating money-laundering </li></ul><ul><li>From 2002-2004 the AFI unit, Mexican Customs & ICE seized $56 million in cash, primarily at DF International Airport </li></ul>
  22. 25. Cooperation to Counter Money-Laundering <ul><li>2004 Mexican Congress passed financial reform legislation as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent and combat money-laundering and terrorist financing </li></ul><ul><li>05-2004 Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) in Mexico’s Treasury brought together various functions from different Treasury divisions with the goal to detect and prevent money-laundering and terrorist financing </li></ul><ul><li>A—US gave $876,000 for equipment & to refurbish offices for the FIU </li></ul><ul><li>1. Since 2004 the FIU seized millions of dollars </li></ul><ul><li>2. FIU started to issue accusations against individuals named on the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) list of Nationals and Blocked Persons (drug lords & money-launderers) </li></ul><ul><li>B--04-2006, to assist Mexico on identifying suspicious financial transactions, US Treasury’s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network issued an advisory to all US financial institutions on the repatriation of currency smuggled into Mexico from the US </li></ul><ul><li>C-- AFI-US Treasury cooperate to identify assets of DTOs </li></ul>
  23. 26. Cooperation to Counter Money-Laundering <ul><li>2007 Mexico established the Ad Hoc Financial Investigative Task Force in the Attorney General’s Office </li></ul><ul><li>March & April 2007 US Treasury conducted asset forfeiture and financial investigative training for the Task Force </li></ul><ul><li>1--03-2007, in a chemical control violations investigation, $207 million in currency were seized in DF </li></ul><ul><li>2-- US assistance to Mexican authorities also led to seizure of $30 million in assets from a DTO </li></ul><ul><li>3—2006-2007, Mexico seized 30 clandestine labs, 20 tons of chemicals and 6.4 million dosages of pseudoepherdine and epherdine </li></ul>
  24. 27. US Cooperation in Mexico’s Rule of Law Efforts <ul><li>US GOAL : support Mexico to reform law enforcement and judicial institutions to promote more efficient and transparent administration of justice </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM : Current Napoleonic model—judges working independently from briefs arrive at a ruling & are vulnerable to corruption </li></ul><ul><li>USAID supports initiatives to introduce Adversarial Trials in Mexico— oral presentations before a judge in a public courtroom —open to public scrutiny, less vulnerable to corruption </li></ul><ul><li>USAID provided technical assistance to 14 Mexican states to implement judicial reforms, including oral trials </li></ul><ul><li>US encouraged legal and regulatory reform to restrict chemicals used in methamphetamine—import and sale restrictions in Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM : 2004 Mexican Congress failed to pass a comprehensive criminal justice reform package </li></ul>
  25. 28. Mexico’s Cooperation in Rule of Law Efforts <ul><li>2004 Federal Commission for the Protection against Sanitary Risk (COFEPRIS) study revealed an excess of imports of pseudoepherdine </li></ul><ul><li>2004 COFEPRIS study led to controls on pseudoepherdine </li></ul><ul><li>1—limiting retail sales to pharmacies </li></ul><ul><li>2—limiting sales to individuals </li></ul><ul><li>3—agreement with commercial distributors to limit sales to pharmacies with legitimate commercial needs </li></ul><ul><li>2005 COFEPRIS reduced legal imports of pseudoepherdine 40%--from 216 tons in 2004 to 132 in 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>2006 imports of pseudoepherdine were reduced to 70 tons </li></ul>
  26. 29. Cooperation on Interdiction of Illicit Drugs <ul><li>US supported Mexican efforts by providing for : </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure upgrades for law enforcement agencies to enhance border security measures </li></ul><ul><li>Professional training for law enforcement and judicial personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Military coordination—maritime surveillance & interdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Aviation support for surveillance & interdiction </li></ul><ul><li>2000-2006 US assistance of $101 million for computer servers, telecommunications data processing hardware & software, encryption systems, telephone systems, decontamination vehicle, motorcycles, renovation of new AFI building, network for tracking & interdicting aircraft </li></ul>
  27. 30. Types of US Assistance <ul><li>2005 US provided computer equipment to COFEPRIS to monitor imports of chemicals (complementing assistance of the UN Office on Drugs & Crime) </li></ul><ul><li>US also funded non-intrusive inspection equipment for Mexican Customs to scan trucks, trains & other cargo at Mexican Ports and border </li></ul><ul><li>US funded enhancements of secure rapid inspection lanes at 6 US-Mexico border crossings </li></ul><ul><li>US provided specialized equipment to Mexican agencies to detect and handle hazardous materials at clandestine labs—safety suits, evidence containers, drug-testing chemical kits, 8 specialized vehicles with oxygen tanks to handle toxic chemicals </li></ul>
  28. 31. Mexican Reforms for Interdiction <ul><li>07-2003 Mexican AGO reorganized its drug control planning capacity under the National Center for Analysis, Planning and Intelligence (CENAPI) </li></ul><ul><li>CENAPI gathers and analyzes strategic intelligence on organized crime and reports directly to the Attorney General </li></ul><ul><li>US equipped CENAPI with a state-of–the-art computer network and software for collecting, storing and analyzing information </li></ul><ul><li>(data on 30,000 criminals) </li></ul>
  29. 32. Cooperation in Aviation & Maritime Security <ul><li>GOALS : Professionalize MX military, build good relations between US & Mexican military & Cooperate in areas of interdiction </li></ul><ul><li>2000-2007 US spent $58 million to equip & train the Mexican military (2,500 trained) </li></ul><ul><li>MX Navy trained to interdict aircraft & vessels suspected of transporting drugs </li></ul><ul><li>MX Navy has responded to US information on suspected vessels transiting Mexican waters (2006, 46 times) </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary placement of Mexican liaison officers on US Coast Guard vessels and vise versa </li></ul><ul><li>MX Navy on occasion permitted US officers to participate on dockside searches & post-seizure analyses </li></ul>
  30. 33. Barriers in Military Cooperation <ul><li>PROBLEMS : </li></ul><ul><li>no bilateral Maritime Cooperation Agreement —US cannot interdict Mexican-flagged vessels on the high seas—permission given on case-by-case basis by SRE & MX Navy </li></ul><ul><li>MX Navy willing to respond to US intel but does not patrol beyond 200 nautical miles from shore </li></ul><ul><li>Little contact between US DoD and SEDENA which overseas the Mexican Army and Air Force </li></ul><ul><li>RESULT : </li></ul><ul><li>Delay results in the loss of evidence—drugs overboard or vessels escape or scuttled </li></ul><ul><li>MX Army cannot take advantage of US intelligence & expertise </li></ul><ul><li>President Calderon’s plan to consolidate eradication efforts under SEDENA might change this </li></ul>
  31. 34. Customs and Border Protection <ul><li>2001-6 Operation Halcon (HO ): CBP provided 8 Citation jets for detection & monitoring of drug trafficking aircraft along the border </li></ul><ul><li>HO led to fast operational cooperation between CBP & AFI (15-25% of the 294 aircraft identified by OH resulted in seizures) </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM : 11-2006 Mexico suspended Operation Halcon due to: 1. absense of an agreement on the status of US personnel in the program and </li></ul><ul><li>2. fears of US liability in case of an accident </li></ul><ul><li>RESULT : more drugs seized along the border due to greater quantities moved into US </li></ul>
  32. 35. US Aviation Support <ul><li>2000-2006 US provided $22 million for aviation programs for the Mexican AGO and Mexican Air Force </li></ul><ul><li>MX AGO got helicopters for surveillance & transport for officers to interdict traffickers </li></ul><ul><li>2000-06 US gave $4.5 million to refurbish 8 UH-1H helicopters </li></ul><ul><li>2004 at Mexico’s request, US provided 12 Schweizer 333 helicopters to AGO for reconnaissance, surveillance and command and control </li></ul><ul><li>US ended program (plan was for 28 Schweizers) </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico has requested helicopters with greater transport capability </li></ul><ul><li>2000-2006 MX Air Force got $4.2 million assistance to maintain & operate 4 C-26 US provided Aircraft for surveillance </li></ul>
  33. 36. Total US Assistance 2000-2007 <ul><li>2000-7 $397 million to Mexican counternarcotics efforts (GAO) </li></ul><ul><li>03-2007 in Merida, Calderon & Bush discussed: </li></ul><ul><li>1-- trade, immigration and agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>2--Agreed to expand bilateral and regional cooperation against drug trafficking </li></ul><ul><li>10-2007 Bush asked Congress for $500 for Mexico for 2008 to combat drug trafficking & organized crime—primarily for equipment—surveillance aircraft, secure communications systems, scanners, case management software </li></ul>
  34. 38. Merida Initiative <ul><li>a multi-year proposal to provide: </li></ul><ul><li>1—equipment and training to support law enforcement operations </li></ul><ul><li>2--technical assistance for long-term reform and oversight of security agencies </li></ul><ul><li>FY 08 Bush requested an initial $500 million for Mexico and $50 million for Central America </li></ul><ul><li>FY09 budget proposal includes $450 million for Mexico and $100 million for Central America . </li></ul>
  35. 39. Merida Initiative Components <ul><li>1. Non-intrusive inspection equipment, ion scanners and canine units to interdict trafficked drugs, arms, cash and persons in Mexico & C. America </li></ul><ul><li>2. Technologies to improve and secure communications systems that collect criminal information in Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>3. Technical advice and training to strengthen the institutions of justice – vetting for the new police force, case management software to track investigations through the system, new offices of citizen complaints and professional responsibility, and witness protection programs to Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>4. Helicopters and surveillance aircraft to support interdiction activities and rapid response of law enforcement agencies to Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Equipment, training and community action programs in Central American countries to implement anti-gang measures and expand the reach of these measures. </li></ul>
  36. 40. CRITISMS OF PLAN MEXICO <ul><li>US CRITICS </li></ul><ul><li>Bush did not consult US Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns with MX Human Rights given the record of MX army & police forces </li></ul><ul><li>Little is done to combat demand for drugs in the US </li></ul><ul><li>MEXICAN CRITICS </li></ul><ul><li>Concern with Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Militarization of Mexico (military aid in the package) </li></ul><ul><li>Fears equipment will be used against political opponents </li></ul>