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  1. 1. BRIEF HISTORY • The Dispute of a Man with His Soulan Egyptian record and the first known document dealing with suicide. • In Early Hebrew history suicide refers to an escape from the consequences of political or military defeat (Rosen, 1975).
  2. 2. • The earliest suicide mention in Greek Literature is that of Jocasta. • Eventually, suicide became common in the Roman Empire that the act was consummated with great ease. • When the Christian word spread, St. Augustine (354-430 A.D) spoke out against the taking of one’s own life.
  3. 3. • In 1854, attempted suicide was first recognized as a crime. • In the early nineteenth century, attitudes towards suicide were revealing a less moral or theologic bias and by the middle of the nineteenth century opinions with noticeable social and medical overtones were being heard. • Suicide had over the years changed status from a sin to a disgrace and, as a topic of discussion, a taboo – an attitude still quite prevalent today.
  4. 4. DEFINITION • Etymology- Latin word, suicidium, from sui cadere, “to kill oneself” • The action of killing oneself intentionally (Merriam Webster Dictionary)
  5. 5. • The act or an instance of taking one’s own life voluntarily and intentionally (Webster’s Third New International Dictionary) • “..the term suicide is applied to all cases of death resulting directly or indirectly from a positive or negative act of the victim himself, which he knows will produce the result.” (General Psychology Book)
  6. 6. TYPES OF SUICIDE • Altruistic Suicide • Egoistic Suicide • Anomic Suicide
  7. 7. CAUSES OF SUICIDE • Depression • Family Influence • Schizophrenia • Illness • Hopelessness • Losses • Alcoholism and Drug Abuse
  8. 8. WARNING SIGNS • Previous Suicide Attempt • Suicide Talk • Final Arrangements • Personality or Behavior Change
  9. 9. PREVENTION • Research and Information • Education and Awareness • Safety Precautions • Prevention Centers and Hotlines
  10. 10. TREATMENT • Hospitalization • Drug Therapy • Electroconvulsive Therapy • Psychotherapy
  11. 11. DATA AND STATISTICS The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that each year approximately one million people die from suicide, which represents a global mortality rate of 16 people per 100,000 or one death every 40 seconds. It is predicted that by 2020 the rate of death will increase to one every 20 seconds.
  12. 12. The WHO further reports that: In the last 45 years suicide rates have increased by 60% worldwide. Suicide is now among the three leading causes of death among those aged 15-44 (male and female). Suicide attempts are up to 20 times more frequent than completed suicides.
  13. 13. Youth Suicide Rates by Race/Ethnicity (Ages 15-24) Ethnic Group Suicide Rate per 100,000 American Indian/Alaskan Native 20.9 per 100,000 White 11.4 per 100,000 Asian/Pacific Islander 7.3 per 100,000 Black 6.6 per 100,000 Hispanic 4.7 per 100,000 *Number of suicides per 100,000 population, 2010 According to American Foundation for Suicide Prevention 14 14
  14. 14. In the US, the Centre of Disease Control and Prevention reports that: • Overall, suicide is 11th leading cause of death for all US Americans, and is the 3rd leading cause of death for people ages 15-24 years. • Males are four times more likely to die from suicide than are females. However, females are more likely to attempt suicide than are males.
  15. 15. Local Data and Statistics The Geneva-based World Health Organization (WHO) reported the Philippines has suicide rates (per 100,000) of 2.5 for men and 1.7 for women as of 1993. This fact may be appalling for Filipinos but the numbers are way too small compared to those in other Western countries.
  16. 16. EUTHANASIA The term Euthanasia originated from the Greek word for "good death." It is the act or practice of ending the life of a person either by lethal injection or the suspension of medical treatment.
  17. 17. TYPES OF EUTHANASIA • Voluntary Euthanasia • Active Euthanasia • Involuntary Euthanasia • Passive Euthanasia • Physician-Assisted Suicide • Assisted Suicide
  18. 18. How Can Teachers Help? Key tasks: Identification of at-risk students Referral for assessment and evaluation, according to school’s protocol or policy Teachers and other school personnel must know how to recognize “risk” in youth.
  19. 19. Local Organizations and Hotlines • Non-Government Agencies • Natasha Goulborn Foundation • Department of Social Welfare and Development • 0917-588-HOPE (4673) • NGO’s: 0917-5724673
  20. 20. Man is a prisoner who has no right to open the door of his prison and run away ... A man should wait, and not take his own life until God summons him. -Plato
  21. 21. Thank You!