First Step to Writing Research Papers
Have a general idea of what your research
paper will be about.
-Are you arguing/persuading? Are you
informing. Are you doing both?
Begin research in the library and on
Keep track of all sources.
• Begin a working bibliography to keep track of
• Outline ideas.
• Begin first draft.
--Introduction with thesis—this comes from you.
--Topic sentences and main ideas for each body
paragraph come from you.
Integrating Sources Without
Why include outside sources?
-They support your argument.
-They provide background information.
-They explain terms and concepts.
-They support your claims.
-They lend authority and credibility to your
from Diana Hacker’s Bedford Handbook
Integrating Sources: In-text Citations
When integrating research, you must cite your sources in
the text of your paper and on your reference page.
Why do we use them?
1. To give credit to the author.
2. Readers can access the original source if they’re
3. Readers can see where your ideas leave off and
another source’s ideas begin.
Smoothly Integrate Sources
Use signal phrases and transitions: (in fact,
indeed, additionally, however, etc.).
If necessary, explain the significance of the
– How does it relate to your argument?
– Briefly discuss the relevance of the source.
Incorporating Research: Paraphrasing
--for longer sources
--to restate the meaning the author is trying to convey
--must give credit to the source
--short sections of sources
--about the same number of words
--your own words and own structure—not mixed with author’s words
--word for word
--quotation marks or block quotes
From Diana Hacker’s Bedford Handbook
When paraphrasing and summarizing…
• Don’t look at the source!
• Include signal phrases when needed.
• Cite in-text.
• Cite on Reference Page.
“The attitudes that any person, especially an author,
takes toward the world may change with the passing
from adolescence to adulthood to old age. So also may
the author’s means of expressing attitudes and
judgments” (Arp & Johnson, 2010, p. 9).
Is the following example correctly paraphrased?
The outlooks that any person, especially authors, have
change with passing from youths to adults to elderly. The
author’s means of expressing attitudes and judgments
When you paraphrase…
Do not simply change a few words here and there.
Change the structure and wording.
Use roughly the same number of words to express the
same meaning as the source, but they must be your own
Do not borrow the language from the source unless it’s
really necessary. If you do, put quotation marks around
the borrowed words.
“The attitudes that any person, especially an
author, takes toward the world may change with
the passing from adolescence to adulthood to old
age. So also may the author’s means of expressing
attitudes and judgments” (Arp and Johnson 9).
As authors age and enter each stage of life, their
perspectives on the world change. Not only do their
perspectives change, but also the way in which they
express and absorb these outlooks change (Arp &
Johnson, 2010, p. 9).
Read the entire source.
Focus on paragraphs or passages you’d like to
summarize if you’re not summarizing the
Re-read the passages you want to summarize.
Put the source away.
In a few sentences, write a summary of the