Demographic Transition Model


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Demographic Transition Model

  1. 1. The Demographic Transition Model What does it mean and what are the reasons behind the trends?
  2. 2. Stage 1 The Birth Rate is……… HIGH The Death rate is……….. HIGH The natural Rate of Increase is……. LOW
  3. 3. Why is the Birth Rate High? Social Reasons • So many children die in infancy that parents have more in the hope that several will survive
  4. 4. Why is the Birth Rate High? Social Reasons (2) • No Birth control or family planning • More children to support the parents in old age • Children are regarded as a sign of virility in some cultures
  5. 5. Why is the Birth Rate high? Economic Reasons • Many children mean more workers in the fields (or factories)
  6. 6. Why is the Birth Rate high? Political and Religious reasons • Religious Beliefs (e.g. Roman Catholics, Muslims and Hindus) encourage large families • If a government does not or cannot provide education few will learn about family planning.
  7. 7. Why is the Death Rate High? • Famine, uncertain food supplies, poor diet,leading to • Malnutrition and • Malnutrition related diseases
  8. 8. Why is the Death Rate High? • Disease, eg Cholera, Plague etc • Lack of medical care, few doctors,hospitals, medicines • Poor hygiene and sanitation – no piped clean water, lack of sewage disposal
  9. 9. Examples? • The UK before 1780 • The Amazon Rainforest
  10. 10. Stage 2 • The Birth Rate remains… high • The death Rate starts to fall • The population grows rapidly
  11. 11. Why does the Death Rate drop? • Improved medical care, including vaccinations,hospitals and medicines, especially in the towns • Cleaner water, better sewage disposal • Improvements in the quality and quantity of food supplies and diet • Improved transport • A decrease in child mortality
  12. 12. Examples? • European countries as they passed through industrial development • Bangladesh, Kenya, Nigeria
  13. 13. Stage 3 • The Birth Rate falls • Towards the end of this stage the population growth starts to slow down
  14. 14. Why does the Birth Rate drop? 1. Family planning – contraceptives, sterilisation, abortion, government incentives 2. A lower infant mortality rate means that people need less children 3. People live in towns and cities,where it costs more to support children
  15. 15. 4. More mechanisation, means fewer workers needed 5. Materialism 6. State old age pensions 7. Emancipation of women – in the home, society, education and the workplace
  16. 16. Examples? • Argentina, Brazil • China, India
  17. 17. Stage 4 • The Birth Rate and the Death rate stabilise • Population growth is now stable • Many MEDCs
  18. 18. Stage 5 • Death Rate is Low • Birth Rate is Even lower • Result? • A natural rate of decrease
  19. 19. The result? • An ‘Ageing’ Population