Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
PENDAHULUANThe human body has a complex system ofprotective     mechanisms    to   preventinfection, involving both the ad...
PENGERTIAN
TERBAGI DUA KELOMPOK Defects,  accidental or intentional, in the  bodys innate defense mechanisms; Deficiencies in the a...
GANGGUAN SISTEM IMUN Primary   immunodeficiency -   Inherited or occurs by exposure in utero to     environmental factors...
GANGGUAN SISTEM IMUN Secondary    or acquired immunodeficiency -   Due to an underlying disease state) or occurs as a    ...
INFEKSI KLIEN IMUNOCOMPROMISED            KARENA FAKTOR FISIK   Infeksi luka bakar    The most important pathogens in bur...
INFEKSI KLIEN IMUNOCOMPROMISED         KARENA FAKTOR FISIK Traumatic     injury and surgical wound infections -   Staph. ...
INFEKSI KLIEN IMUNOCOMPROMISED          KARENA FAKTOR FISIK Infections of plastic devices in situ  Staph. epidermidis is ...
INFECTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH SECONDARY     ADAPTIVE IMMUNODEFICIENCY   Hematologic malignancy and bone marrow    transplant...
OTHER IMPORTANT OPPORTUNIST            PATHOGENSA. Fungi Candida is the most common fungal pathogen in compromised patient...
FUNGI Cryptococcus neoformans  - Most common in people with impaired cell-mediated    immunity  - An opportunistic yeast ...
FUNGI   Histoplasma capsulatum    -   Infection may occur years after exposure    -   Highly infectious fungus that cause...
FUNGI Aspergillus spp  - Usually a fatal disease in diseases of the lung  - Cause of invasive disease in compromised pati...
FUNGI Pneumocystis         jiroveci (formerly P. carinii) -   Causes symptomatic disease in people with deficient     cel...
OTHER IMPORTANT OPPORTUNIST            PATHOGENS BACTERIA  Nocardia asteroides   Uncommon opportunist pathogen with a wo...
OTHER IMPORTANT OPPORTUNIST           PATHOGENS PROTOZOA AND HELMINTHS  Cryptosporidium and Isospora belli   -   Cause s...
PROTOZOA AND HELMINTHS Strongyloides   stercoralis   -   Immunosuppression may lead to       reactivation of dormant para...
OTHER IMPORTANT OPPORTUNIST               PATHOGENS   VIRUSES     EBV infection       - Associated    with the developme...
VIRUSES Adenovirus infection Primary and reactivated adenovirus infections can result in disseminated disease in immunoco...
VIRUSES HepatitisB infection   Hepatitis B virus infection has an   immunopathological basis, with jaundice   occurring a...
VIRUSES Polyoma  viruses BK or JC viruses, acquired via the respiratory tract and latent in the kidney, are often detecte...
Infeksi pada klien dengan immunocompromised
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Infeksi pada klien dengan immunocompromised

1,189 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Great book! I'm on the second week and seeing definite improvement on my yeast infection symptoms. I must also note that the texture of my skin became very soft and consistent. I completely agree with many of your arguments in the book especially those about conventional methods for treating Yeast Infection. I wanted to let you know that I feel so fine you have no idea. I am not so tired all the time and I feel very energetic. The rashes on my neck and on the right side of my nose have also cleared up. I wish you all the health and happiness in the world and thanks so much for helping me. I really appreciate your time and efforts to assist me. ♣♣♣ https://tinyurl.com/y3flbeje
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Linda Allen - certified nutritionist and former yeast infection sufferer teaches you her candida freedom step by step success system jam-packed with a valuable information on how to naturally and permanently eliminate your yeast infection from the ROOT and achieve LASTING freedom from candida related symptoms. ♣♣♣ https://tinyurl.com/y4uu6uch
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • I have started the program this September and I must say I'm very pleased with the results. I was overweight and sick from candida and had severe swelling, and redness in the vulva area including vaginal discharge. Using your program I have lost a TON of weight. I no longer itch and scratch. The vaginal discharge had stopped and I'm feeling better than ever. I have also found through your book that some of my other health problems are from candida yeast overgrowth. My acid reflux and my skin texture had dramatically improved and I feel awesome physically. ♣♣♣ https://tinyurl.com/y3flbeje
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • STOP GETTING RIPPED OFF! LEARN THE SHOCKING TRUTH ABOUT CANDIDA, YEAST INFECTION, DRUGS AND CREAMS... To get the FACTS on exactly how to eliminate your yeast infection from the root 100% naturally and Permanently and achieve LASTING freedom from candida related symptoms without spending your hard-earned money on drugs and over the counters... ◆◆◆ https://tinyurl.com/y3flbeje
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • For years, I was plagued by chronic yeast infections, including but not limited to: rashes, weight gain, insomnia, acne, constipation, chronic fatigue, depression, sensitivity to chemicals, you name it. After following your program, I had made a significant progress. My thrush, acne and rashes had vanished. My skin had almost completely cleared up. I hadn�t looked that good in 15 years. I felt rejuvenated, energized, happier and so much healthier... ●●● https://tinyurl.com/y3flbeje
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

Infeksi pada klien dengan immunocompromised

  1. 1. PENDAHULUANThe human body has a complex system ofprotective mechanisms to preventinfection, involving both the adaptive(cellular and humoral) immune system andthe innate defense system (e.g.skin, mucous membranes).
  2. 2. PENGERTIAN
  3. 3. TERBAGI DUA KELOMPOK Defects, accidental or intentional, in the bodys innate defense mechanisms; Deficiencies in the adaptive immune response.
  4. 4. GANGGUAN SISTEM IMUN Primary immunodeficiency - Inherited or occurs by exposure in utero to environmental factors or by other unknown mechanisms. chronic granulomatous disease (Congenital defects in phagocytic cells ) - Rare , and varies in severity depending upon the type of defect - Immunoglobulin deficiency
  5. 5. GANGGUAN SISTEM IMUN Secondary or acquired immunodeficiency - Due to an underlying disease state) or occurs as a result of treatment for a disease. - Malnutrition is a common and the most important cause of acquired immunodeficiency - Treatment of disease can also cause immunosuppression
  6. 6. INFEKSI KLIEN IMUNOCOMPROMISED KARENA FAKTOR FISIK Infeksi luka bakar The most important pathogens in burn wounds are: - Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Gram- negative rods - Staphylococcus aureus - Streptococcus pyogenes; - other streptococci; - enterococci
  7. 7. INFEKSI KLIEN IMUNOCOMPROMISED KARENA FAKTOR FISIK Traumatic injury and surgical wound infections - Staph. aureus is the most important cause of surgical wound infection - Catheter-associated infection of the urinary tract is common - Staphylococci are the most common cause of intravenous and peritoneal dialysis catheter infections
  8. 8. INFEKSI KLIEN IMUNOCOMPROMISED KARENA FAKTOR FISIK Infections of plastic devices in situ Staph. epidermidis is the most common cause of prosthetic valve and joint infections Infections due to compromised clearance mechanisms Stasis predisposes to infection, and in health the body functions to prevent stasis
  9. 9. INFECTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH SECONDARY ADAPTIVE IMMUNODEFICIENCY Hematologic malignancy and bone marrow transplant infections A lack of circulating neutrophils following bone marrow failure predisposes to infection, Gram-negative rods such as Escherichia coli and P. aeruginosa, Staph. epidermidis dan fungi Solid organ transplant infections Most infections occur within 3-4 months of transplantation AIDS infections The clinical definition of AIDS includes the presence of one or more opportunistic infections
  10. 10. OTHER IMPORTANT OPPORTUNIST PATHOGENSA. Fungi Candida is the most common fungal pathogen in compromised patients , manisfestasi beragam tergantung area : - Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis - Oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis - Gastrointestinal candidiasis - Disseminated candidiasis
  11. 11. FUNGI Cryptococcus neoformans - Most common in people with impaired cell-mediated immunity - An opportunistic yeast with a worldwide distribution. - Cause infection in the immunocompetent host, - Infection is seen more frequently in people with impaired cell-mediated immunity.
  12. 12. FUNGI Histoplasma capsulatum - Infection may occur years after exposure - Highly infectious fungus that causes an acute but benign pulmonary infection in healthy people - Produce a chronic progressive disseminated disease. - Endemic only in tropical parts of the world and notably in the so-called histo belt of the central USA, particularly in the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys. - The natural habitat of the organism is the soil. - Transmitted by the airborne route and the fungal spores are deposited in the alveoli, from whence the fungus spreads via the lymphatics to the regional lymph nodes.
  13. 13. FUNGI Aspergillus spp - Usually a fatal disease in diseases of the lung - Cause of invasive disease in compromised patients - Usually in profoundly neutropenic patients or those receiving high dose corticosteroids). - Found in soil, but have a worldwide distribution - Infection is spread by the airborne route, and the lung is the site of invasion in almost every case
  14. 14. FUNGI Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly P. carinii) - Causes symptomatic disease in people with deficient cellular immunity - An atypical fungus which appears to be widespread, - High incidence of P. jiroveci pneumonia in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy to prevent transplant rejection and in people with HIV. - Very rare to find Pneumocystis infection in any other site in the body
  15. 15. OTHER IMPORTANT OPPORTUNIST PATHOGENS BACTERIA  Nocardia asteroides Uncommon opportunist pathogen with a worldwide distribution contain two pathogenic genera, Actinomyces and Nocardia  Mycobacterium avium Intracellulare disease is often a terminal event in AIDS This includes disseminated infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (Mycobacterium avium complex or MAC
  16. 16. OTHER IMPORTANT OPPORTUNIST PATHOGENS PROTOZOA AND HELMINTHS  Cryptosporidium and Isospora belli - Cause severe diarrhea in AIDS - Protozoan parasite that causes human disease - Well known to veterinarians as an animal pathogen
  17. 17. PROTOZOA AND HELMINTHS Strongyloides stercoralis - Immunosuppression may lead to reactivation of dormant parasitic - Roundworm that remains dormant for years following initial infection, - May be reactivated to produce massive autoinfection in the immunosuppressed patient
  18. 18. OTHER IMPORTANT OPPORTUNIST PATHOGENS VIRUSES  EBV infection - Associated with the development of Hodgkins disease, - Non-Hodgkins lymphomas in individuals with HIV infection, - Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease - Smooth-muscle tumors in immunosuppressed children
  19. 19. VIRUSES Adenovirus infection Primary and reactivated adenovirus infections can result in disseminated disease in immunocompromised hosts, in particular pediatric and adult bone marrow transplant recipients.
  20. 20. VIRUSES HepatitisB infection Hepatitis B virus infection has an immunopathological basis, with jaundice occurring after cytotoxic T cells have lysed the hepatitis B surface-antigen- bearing hepatocytes
  21. 21. VIRUSES Polyoma viruses BK or JC viruses, acquired via the respiratory tract and latent in the kidney, are often detected in the urine of bone marrow transplant recipients

×