Content: What is textile? History of several fabric Stages of textile Ancient & current processing of textile Textiles during industrial revolution Early inventions Modern developments Small brief on current textile world Bangladesh’s textile situation
What is textile: A textile is any kind of woven, knitted, knotted or tufted clothe, or a non-woven fabric (a cloth made of fibers that have been bonded into a fabric, e.g. felt). Textile has traditionally meant a woven fabric. The term comes from a Latin word taxere, meaning to weave. A textile is made from fiber or other extended linear materials such as thread or yarn. The various categories of textiles include woven, crochet, knitted, knotted or tufted cloth, and non- woven fabrics such as felt. Materials such as fiberglass, which are made from fibers dispersed in a matrix of another material are called composite materials rather than textiles.
History of several fabric: Yarn, fabrics, and tools for spinning and weaving havebeen found from the relics of the early human habitations.Linen fabrics were discovered in Egypt around 5000 B.C.Woolen textiles from the early Bronze Age in Scandinavia andSwitzerland have also been found centuries ago. Cotton hasbeen spun and woven in India since 3000 B.C., and silk hasbeen woven in China since 1000 B.C. Around the 4th centuryA.D., Constantinople began to weave the raw silk importedfrom China. Many textiles have been in use for almost amillennium, while others use artificial fibers and arerecent inventions. Therange of fibers has increased in the last100 years.The first synthetics were made in the1920s and1930s.
Ancient & current processing of textile In this section we discuss and compare the ancient textile processing technique with the current one. We can know here the revolution of textile technology. SPINNING Ancient Spinning: 20,000 years ago, tufts of animal hair or plant fiber are rolled down the thigh with the hand, and additional tufts are added as needed until the desired length of spun fiber is achieved. Later, the fiber is fastened to a stone which is twirled round until the yarn is sufficiently twisted, whereupon it is wound upon the stone and the process repeated over and over
The next method of spinning yarn is with the spindle, astraight stick eight to twelve inches long onwhich the yarn is wound after twisting.A spinning wheel is a device for spinning thread oryarn from natural or synthetic fibers. Spinningwheels appeared in Asia, probably in the11th century, and very gradually replacedhand spinning with spindle and distaff.Spinning machinery, such as the spinningjenny and spinning frame, displaced thespinning wheel during the IndustrialRevolution.
Present spinning: Most spinning now is done using breakor open-end spinning, this is a technique where the staplesare blown by air into a rotating drum, where they attachthemselves to the tail of formed yarn that is continuallybeing drawn out of the chamber. Other methods of breakspinning use needles and electrostatic forces. This methodhas replaced the older methods of ring and mule spinning.It is also easily adapted for artificial fibers.
We a v i n g ancient weaving: There are some indications that weavingwas already known in the Paleolithic era. An indistinct textileimpression has been found at Pavlov, Moravia. Neolithictextiles are well known from finds from the advancedcivilization preserved in the pile dwellings in Switzerland.One extant fragment from the Neolithic was found inFayum, at a site dated to about 5000 BC. This fragment iswoven at about 12 threads by 9 threads per cm in a plainweave.Flax wasthe predominant fiber in Egypt at thistime (3600 BC) and continued popularity in the Nile Valley, though woolbecame the primary fiber used in othercultures around 2000 BC
Present weaving: The weaving process uses a loom. The length way threads are known as the warp, and the cross way threads are known as the weft. The warp which must be strong needs to be presented to loom on a warp beam. The weft passes across the loom in a shuttle, that carries the yarn on a pirn. These pirns are automatically changed by the loom. Thus, the yarn needs to be wrapped onto a beam, and onto pirns before weaving can commence. A draper loom A wrapper
Textiles during industrial revolution The First Industrial Revolution between 1750 and 1850 The second phase or Second Industrial Revolution between 1860 and 1900 The three key drivers in these changes were textile manufacturing, iron founding and steam power
Reasons for revolutionsin textiles Before 17th century, people manufacture goods in their home They are transported throughout the country through river or by horses Need for more goods led to the industrial revolution in early 18th century
Early inventions The only surviving example of a Spinning Mule built by the inventor Samuel Crompton In 1764 James Hargreaves invented Spinning Jenny & Richard Arkwright invented water frame. Samuel Cromptons Spinning Mule invented in 1779 This was patented in 1769 and so came out of patent in 1783 In 1804 Joseph Marie Jacquard invented the Jacquard Loom
Early inventions 1856 William Perkin invented the first synthetic dye. The end of the patent was rapidly followed by the erection of many cotton mills Similar technology was subsequently applied to spinning worsted yarn for various textiles and flax for linen
Modern developments Ring spinning technology had successfully replaced the spinning mule, with mills having been converted mules to rings In the 1970s, the depleted industry was challenged by a new technology open-end or break spinning 1978 Carrington Viyella opened a factory to do open- end spinning in Atherton This was the first new textile production facility in Lancashire since 1929
Global textiles –Fact sheet Top 5 cotton bale producers Country No of bales (in Millions/yr) China 25.3 India 20.8 United States 19.2 Pakistan 11.7 Brazil 7.2
Major cotton producers World’s Major Cotton Producers China 25% 24% US India 4% Pakistan 6% Uzbeikistan 21% 8% Turkey 12% Others
Global total production andconsumption of fiber
Part of Asian counties in textiles Asian countries are major producers of fiber, yarn, fabrics and garments EU, USA and other countries depend mainly on south Asian nations especially China and India & bangladesh
Bangladesh textiles history Bangladesh began exporting ready-made garments (RMG) including woven, knitted, and sweater garments in 1978 We earn US$3.5 million in 1981 and it increases US$10.7 billion in 2007 Until FY 1994, Bangladeshs RMG industry was mostly dependent on imported fabrics-the Primary Textile Sector (PTS) was not producing the necessary fabrics and yarn.
Bangladesh textiles - Fact sheet Largest industry in the country 2nd largest employment generator after agriculture Employs about 4.2 million people the second highest knitted good manufacturer in the world Ready made garments sector currently about 40% of total manufacturing and accounts for 76% of the countrys export earnings and 10% of its GDP.
Bangladesh textiles - Fact sheet Now there are near 3000 factories of ready made garments In 2007 Ready made garments sector earned $9.35 billion. 85% of total employees are women
Markets for Bangladesh Bangladesh was the sixth largest exporter of apparel in the world after China, The EU, Hong Kong , Turkey and India in 2006. In 2006 Bangladeshs share in the world apparel exports was 2.8% Today, the US remains the largest market for Bangladeshs woven garments taking US$2.42 billion, a 47% share of Bangladeshs total woven exports In next five years Bangladesh will become largest ready made garments manufacturer Currently Bangladesh is now second largest ready made garments manufacturer after china
Future of Bangladesh After global financial crisis of 2009 the labor costs rise, for that many foreign investors, are coming to Bangladesh to take advantage of the low labor cost. Now the investors are start using locally accessories minting the required quality. Zippers, buttons, labels, hooks, hangers, elastic bands, thread, backboards, butterfly pins, clips, collar stays, collarbones and cartons are the major garment accessories produced in Bangladesh. Many small and medium accessory industries have grown here over the years, particularly to meet high demand from low-end garment makers The accessory market is dominated by multinational companies operating in Bangladesh Now it is time for the Bangladeshi Merchandiser to introduce more local trims and trims manufacturer to buyer to show their expertise