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• High temperature, relative humidity, and heavy rain are important factors
affecting the DBM population (Talekar and Lee, 1985)
• Maximum humidity and rainfall adversely affected the population of P.
xylostella , unfavorable for the immature stages (Ahmad et al ., 2010)
• The increased temperatures can lead to the production of more generations
per season (Talekar and Shelton ,1993)
• Although egg production and larval survival of P. xylostella are inhibited
by temperature above 30°C (Yamada and Kawasaki, 1983).
Sprinkler irrigation applied for five minutes at dusk on alternate days over
the first three to four weeks of starting of dry period in cabbage field have
shown significant reduction in the diamondback moth infestation
(Talekar et al., 1988)
Organophosphates Australia, China, Costa Rica, India, Pakistan,
Philippines, South Africa, South Korea
Carbamates China, India, South Africa, Taiwan, South Korea _
Pyrethroids Australia, Brazil, China, India, Japan, Malaysia,
New Zealand, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Philippines,
South Africa, South Korea, United states
Indoxacarb Australia, Brazil, United states,
Avermectins Brazil, China, Malaysia, Pakistan, Taiwan MFO/esterase
Phenyl pyrazols China, Malaysia, India, Taiwan
Spinosyns Malaysia, United states, Pakistan, Taiwan MFO or esterase
Table 8 :REPORTS OF DIAMOND BACKMOTH FIELD RESISTANCE TO
INSECTICIDES COUNTRY MECHANISM
China, India, Taiwan, Nicaragua
Central America, China, India,
Malaysia, United States, Taiwan,
No binding to gut
Malaysia, United States, Taiwan,
Chlorfenapyr China, Taiwan
Benzoylureas Brazil, China, Japan, Malaysia,
( Michael et al., 2013)
Table 11: Details of IPM modules evaluated for the management of
Module I (Recommended
Package of Practices)
Mustard trap crop + 100% RDF, super imposed with
sprays of NSKE (5%) at 15 and 25 DAT, malathion
(1 ml/l), at 35, 45, 55 and 65 DAT.
Module II (IIHR module ) Mustard trap crop + 100% RDF super imposed with
sprays of Btk @ 1 g/l from 15 DAT (5-6 sprays at 10
Module III (Adoptive
Mustard trap crop + neem cake 250 kg/ha + 50% RDF
super imposed with sprays of Btk (1 g/l) @ 15 and 45
DAT, spinosad (1.2 ml/l) at 25 and 55 DAT, Emamectin
benzoate (0.3 g/l) at 35 & 65 DAT.
Module IV (Biointensive
Mustard trap crop + neem cake 250 kg/ha + 50% N and
100% P and K super imposed with sprays of NSKE (5%)
at 15 and 45 DAT, T. bactrae (50,000/ha) at 21 DAT, Btk
(1.5 ml/l) at 25 & 55 DAT, novaluron (1 ml/l) at 35 and
Table 12: Effect of IPM modules on P. xylostella population in cabbage
No. of larvae/plant
15 DAT 30 DAT 45 DAT 60 DAT 75 DAT Mean
M1 – RPP Module 10.37c
M2 – IIHR Module 10.19c
M3 – Adoptive
M4 - Bio intensive
• Diamondback moth, P. xylostella is one of the most destructive pests of cruciferous
vegetables in the world and has been reported from at than 128 countries.
• High temperature, relative humidity, heavy rain are the important abiotic factors
and an a wide range of natural enemies including parasitoids, predators and
entomopathogens are the important biotic factors affecting the diamondback moth
• DBM have developed resistance to organophosphates, Organoclorines, Carbamates,
synthetic pyrethroids, newer insecticides and also to the microbial products
including Bacillus thuringiensis .
• IRM strategy for DBM back moth mainly consist of resistance monitoring,
rotation of insecicides, Use of synergists and trangenic plants and IPM
• IPM considered to be the most important tool of IRM .