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Prepared by
Mairembam Rakesh Kumar Singh
M.U. Roll no. : 012313
8th Semester (ECE)-2014 batch
MANIPUR INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOL...
Introduction
• How eye work?
• Disease related to eye
Artificial Eye
• What is Artificial Eye?
• Component
• Working
• Wor...
How eyes work?
The light coming from an object enters the
eye through cornea and pupil. The eye
lens converges these light...
DISEASE RELATED TO EYE
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur
4
CONTINUED…..
Four stages of Retinal Pigmentosa
ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur
5
IT WOULD BE BETTER TO TELL - “WE SEE WITH OUR
BRAINS THAN WITH OUR EYES”
THE SOLE PRINCIPLE USED TO VISIONISE A BLIND IS
“...
• Form of neural prosthesis to
restore vision.
• An externally worn camera and a
retinal implanted chip makes it
possible....
Component
Digital camera
Video-
processing
unit
Radio
transmitter
Radio
receiver
Retinal
implant
ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur
8
Digital Camera
• The camera used for
this is the CMOS image
sensor.
• The camera captures
the image and converts
it into p...
Video Processing Unit
• Video Processing Unit acts as a
optogenic transducer unit which
simplifies the image as spots of
l...
Retinal implant
• Electrode implantation is one
of the most critical jobs in this
artificial vision system
• The first ste...
Continued…….
• Each electrode is connected by separate Teflon
insulated wire to a connector contained in the
pedestal
• Th...
Camera on glasses views image
Signals are sent to video
processing microchip
Processed information is sent
back to receive...
Video Camera
Video
processing
unit
Receiver
Retinal ImplantNeuronsBrains
ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur
14
By using this technology the person can
read large letters or identify the objects
before him.
ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur
15
Normal vision-
Begins when light
enters and strike on
photoreceptor cells.
These cells convert
light to electric
impulses ...
Surgery is required to implant the
electrode array.
Repairing is difficult if any of the
devices got damaged.
Those who lo...
ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur
18
Revolutionary piece of
technology.
Good news for AMD and
retinal pigmentosa patients
ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur
19
• www.howstuffworks.com
• Chandu Gude,"Bionic Eye", Scribd, 2009.
• www.wikipedia.org
• www.sciencedaily.com
• www.electro...
ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur
22
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Artificial eye

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Artificial eye

  1. 1. Prepared by Mairembam Rakesh Kumar Singh M.U. Roll no. : 012313 8th Semester (ECE)-2014 batch MANIPUR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
  2. 2. Introduction • How eye work? • Disease related to eye Artificial Eye • What is Artificial Eye? • Component • Working • Working Diagram Image Identification Normal and artificial vision Limitations Future Scope Conclusion References ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur 2
  3. 3. How eyes work? The light coming from an object enters the eye through cornea and pupil. The eye lens converges these light rays to form a real, inverted and diminished image on the retina. The light sensitive cells of the retina gets activated with the incidence of light and generate electric signals. These electric signals are sent to the brain by the optic nerves and the brain interprets the electrical signals in such away that we see an image which is erect and of the same size as the object. ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur 3
  4. 4. DISEASE RELATED TO EYE Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur 4
  5. 5. CONTINUED….. Four stages of Retinal Pigmentosa ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur 5
  6. 6. IT WOULD BE BETTER TO TELL - “WE SEE WITH OUR BRAINS THAN WITH OUR EYES” THE SOLE PRINCIPLE USED TO VISIONISE A BLIND IS “DECEIVING OUR BRAINS” ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur 6
  7. 7. • Form of neural prosthesis to restore vision. • An externally worn camera and a retinal implanted chip makes it possible. • It is often usable for those who suffers from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or retinal pigmentosa. What is artificial eye? ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur 7
  8. 8. Component Digital camera Video- processing unit Radio transmitter Radio receiver Retinal implant ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur 8
  9. 9. Digital Camera • The camera used for this is the CMOS image sensor. • The camera captures the image and converts it into pixels of black and white. • This camera is placed on the goggles. • The battery required for this is provided from the video processing unit. ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur 9
  10. 10. Video Processing Unit • Video Processing Unit acts as a optogenic transducer unit which simplifies the image as spots of light and then reduces the image to the number of photodiodes. • This is connected to goggles through router. • This unit majorly consists of • Video decoder • Video scaler • DSP processor • Video processor ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur 10
  11. 11. Retinal implant • Electrode implantation is one of the most critical jobs in this artificial vision system • The first step done in this electrode implantation is perforating a platinum foil with each hole having a diameter of 3mm • 68 flat platinum electrodes of 1mm diameter are pierced through the holes into the nucleus of neurons of the occipital lobe ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur
  12. 12. Continued……. • Each electrode is connected by separate Teflon insulated wire to a connector contained in the pedestal • The group of wires pass the electrical impulses which are generated by the processor • When the electrode is stimulated by the processor by sending an electrical impulse, the electrode produces closely spaced phosphene (light spots seen by visual field) • By sending the electrical impulses in different combinations and permutations the phosphene can be created in a regular fashion describing the image ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur 12
  13. 13. Camera on glasses views image Signals are sent to video processing microchip Processed information is sent back to receiver Receiver sends information to electrodes in retinal implant Electrodes stimulate retina to send information to brain ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur 13
  14. 14. Video Camera Video processing unit Receiver Retinal ImplantNeuronsBrains ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur 14
  15. 15. By using this technology the person can read large letters or identify the objects before him. ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur 15
  16. 16. Normal vision- Begins when light enters and strike on photoreceptor cells. These cells convert light to electric impulses that are sent to brain via optic nerves. Artificial vision- The camera captures images and sends to retina implant. It stimulates neurons. The stimulated neurons send information to brain via optic nerves. ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur 16
  17. 17. Surgery is required to implant the electrode array. Repairing is difficult if any of the devices got damaged. Those who lost their visions due to other reasons could not use this device. The approximated cost of the device is $70,000 ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur 17
  18. 18. ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur 18
  19. 19. Revolutionary piece of technology. Good news for AMD and retinal pigmentosa patients ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur 19
  20. 20. • www.howstuffworks.com • Chandu Gude,"Bionic Eye", Scribd, 2009. • www.wikipedia.org • www.sciencedaily.com • www.electrooptic.com ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur 20
  21. 21. ECE Dept. M.I.T. Manipur 22

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