Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Monopulseradar

5,533 views

Published on

Monopulseradar

  1. 1. H.P<br />MONOPULSERADAR<br />PHANI RAHUL G K CHAITANYA DONEPUDI<br />
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION<br />Basic operating principle<br />Tracking radars<br />Techniques of target detection<br />Examples of monopulse radar systems<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />2<br />
  3. 3. RADIO DETECTION AND RANGING<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />3<br /><ul><li>OBJECT DETECTION SYSTEM
  4. 4. USES ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES TO IDENTIFY TARGET CHARACTERISTICS
  5. 5. RADAR CAN FUNCTION UNDER CONDITIONS IMPERVIOUS TO OPTICAL AND INFRARED SENSORS</li></li></ul><li>RADAR FUNCTIONS<br />NORMAL RADAR FUNCTIONS<br />Range (from pulse delay)<br />Velocity (from Doppler frequency shift)<br />Azimuth and Elevation (from antenna pointing)<br />SIGNATURE ANALYSIS and INVERSE SCATTERING<br />Target size (from magnitude of return)<br />Target shape and components (return as a function of direction)<br />Moving parts (modulation of the return)<br />Material composition<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br />Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />4<br />
  6. 6. SLANT RANGE<br />5<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />P<br />DISTANCE TO TARGET = DT<br />(SLANT RANGE)<br />DT<br />E<br />N<br />ANTENNA ROTATION<br />O<br />S<br />W<br />
  7. 7. AZIMUTH ANGLE<br />6<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />P<br />AZIMUTH ANGLE = AT<br />DT<br />AT = NOPI <br />PI<br />E<br />TRUE<br />NORTH<br />N<br />AT<br />ANTENNA ROTATION<br />O<br />S<br />W<br />
  8. 8. ELEVATION ANGLE<br />7<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />H.P<br />P<br />DT<br />ANGLE OF ELEVATION = ET<br />PI<br />E<br />N<br />ET = 0PPI <br />ANTENNA ROTATION<br />O<br />S<br />W<br />
  9. 9. TRACKING RADAR<br />Measures the coordinates and provides data to determine target path<br />Tracking can be performed in range, angle and doppler<br />Classified into two types<br />Continuous tracking radar <br />Track-While-Scan radar<br />Acquisition radar designates targets to the tracking radar<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br />Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />8<br />
  10. 10. TRACKINGRADAR<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />9<br />
  11. 11. TRACKING RADAR<br />Error signal generating methods<br />Sequential lobing<br />Conical scan<br />Simultaneous lobing (monopulse)<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br />Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />10<br />
  12. 12. SEQUENTIAL LOBING<br />Two lobes are required to track in each axis, each lobe must be sequentially switched four pulses are required<br />The radar measures the returned signal levels<br />The voltages in the two switched position should be equal<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />11<br />
  13. 13. SEQUENTIAL LOBING <br />12<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br />Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />
  14. 14. CONICAL SCAN<br />13<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br />Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br /><ul><li>The antenna is continuously rotated at an offset angle.
  15. 15. Redirection of beam
  16. 16. Rotating feed
  17. 17. Nutating feed</li></li></ul><li>CONICAL SCAN<br />14<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />All target returns have the same amplitude<br /> (zero error signal)<br />Thus, no action is required<br />
  18. 18. CONICAL SCAN<br />15<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />B<br />A<br />
  19. 19. DISADVANTAGES <br />16<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />Sequential lobing<br />Angle accuracy can be no better than the size of the antenna beamwidth. <br />Variation in echo strength on a pulse-by-pulse basis changes the signal level thereby reducing tracking accuracy<br />The antenna gain is less than the peak gain in beam axis direction, reducing maximum range that can be measured<br />Conical scan<br />The antenna scan rate is limited by the scanning mechanism (mechanical or electronic)<br />Sensitive to target modulation<br />Mechanical vibration and wear and tear due to rotating feed<br />
  20. 20. SIMULTANEOUS LOBING<br />With a single pulse angular coordinates can be obtained<br />Maximum unambiguous range is limited only by PRF<br />Monopulse is free of mechanical vibrations<br />Errors due to amplitude fluctuation of target echoes are greatly reduced<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />17<br />
  21. 21. MONOPULSE BLOCK DIAGRAM<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br />Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />18<br />
  22. 22. SUM AND DIFFERENCE PATTERNS<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />19<br />
  23. 23. HYBRID JUNCTIONS<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />20<br />Hybrid T junction<br />Hybrid ring (‘RAT’ race junction)<br />
  24. 24. AMPLITUDE AND PHASE COMPARISON MONOPULSE<br />A total of four hybrid junctions generate sum, azimuth and elevation difference channel<br />Range information is extracted form the output of the sum channel after amplitude detection<br />The angular error signal is obtained by comparing echo amplitudes which actuates a servo mechanism to position the antenna<br /> The angle of arrival is determined by comparing the phase difference between signals from two separate antennas<br />Antennas of phase comparison are not offset from the axis<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br />Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />21<br />
  25. 25. COMPARISON OF TRACKERS<br />In phase comparison four antennas are placed in awkward direction and its side lobe levels are high<br />Sequential lobing suffers more losses with complex antenna and feed system<br />Amplitude comparison has high SNR <br />It has higher precision in target tracking due to the absence of target amplitude fluctuations<br />Angle error in two coordinates can be obtained by a single pulse<br />Conscan integrates no of pulses and then extracts angle measurement but vice versa in monopulse<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />22<br />
  26. 26. NIKE AJAX GUIDANCE SYSTEM<br />First missile guidance system to employ monopulse technique<br />Developed in 1953<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />23<br />
  27. 27. PATRIOT AIR DEFENCE SYSTEM<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />24<br />
  28. 28. CONCLUSION<br />It is used if extreme accuracy is needed<br />Its improved interference immunity, resolution, radar signal processing and angular accuracy made it imperative in all modern missile tracking/guidance systems<br />"MONOPULSE RADAR " by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />25<br />THANKYOU<br />QUERIES?<br />

×