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Just in time


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Just in time

  1. 1. 1. POM Presentation Just In • Time • 2. Group MembersNiaz Hussain (09-IME-71)Salman Razaq (09-IME-72)Muhammad Usman (09-IME-73)Muhammad Waleed (09-IME-74) • Represents Pull type system A highly coordinated processing system in which goods move through the system, and services are performed, just as they are needed Management philosophy (produce only what is needed when it is needed) 3. What Is JIT • JITis now on the rise in American Industries. Toyota
  2. 2. Motor Company- Birthplace of the JIT Philosophy Under Taiichi Ohno. Evolved in Japan after World War II, as a result of their diminishing market share in the auto industry. 4. History of JIT Manufacturing • JITis a manufacturing philosophy involving an integrated set of procedures/activities designed to achieve a high volume of production using minimal inventories 5. Definition • Raw materials, parts 6. More Introduction & Simply put, JIT is a philosophy of “make what is needed … when it is needed”. sub assemblies are
  3. 3. pulled through the manufacturing process when they are needed. • Eliminate waste, especially excess inventory Make system flexible Eliminate disruptions Achieves a smooth, rapid flow of materials through the system The ultimate goal of JIT is a balanced system. 7. Goal of JIT • 8. Summary of JIT Goals and Building Blocks Ultimate A Goal balanced rapid flowSupporting Goals Eliminate disruptions Make the system flexible Eliminate waste Product Process Personnel Manufactur- Building Design Design Elements ing Planning Blocks
  4. 4. • Scheduling services of production Scheduling materials Little JIT – narrow focus Materials and inventory management Technology management Human relations Vendor relations Big JIT – broad focus 9. Big vs. Little JIT • Reduces setup and delivery times Makes the manufacturing delivery system flexible by allowing it to handle a variety of products and changes in the level of output Eliminate disruptions in production … caused by poor quality, schedule changes, late deliveries. Achieves streamlined production Eliminates waste 10. What JIT Does
  5. 5. • 11. Eight WastesTHE EIGHT TYPES OF WASTE OR MUDAWaste Definition1. Overproduction Manufacturing an item before it is needed.2. Inappropriate Using expensive high precision equipment when simpler machines Processing would suffice.3. Waiting Wasteful time incurred when product is not being moved or processed.4. Transportation Excessive movement and material handling of product between processes.5. Motion Unnecessary effort related to the ergonomics of bending, stretching, reaching, lifting, and walking.6. Inventory Excess inventory hides problems on the shop floor, consumes space,
  6. 6. increases lead times, and inhibits communication.7. Defects Quality defects result in rework and scrap, and add wasteful costs to the system in the form of lost capacity, rescheduling effort, increased inspection, and loss of customer good will.8. Underutilization of Failure of the firm to learn from and capitalize on its employees’ Employees knowledge and creativity impedes long term efforts to eliminate waste. • Product defects Inefficient work methods Processing waste Unnecessary transportation Waiting time
  7. 7. Overproduction 12. Sources of Waste • Reducing inventory levels allows the problems to be uncovered … thus creating opportunities for manufacturing process improvement Manufacturing in smaller lot sizes reduces excess inventory 13. Strategies For MinimizingWaste By Using JIT • Human Resource Management Inventory Management Supplier Management Production Management Total Quality Management 14. Principles Of JIT Manufacturing
  8. 8. • 15. 1st Principle Of JIT Total Quality Management • Minimizing waste Quality must be a higher priority than cost Seek long-term commitment to quality efforts with continuous improvement 16. Total Quality Management • Do it right the first time Quality is everyone’s responsibility Eliminate Quality Inspectors 17. Total Quality Management • 18. 2nd Principle Of JIT Production Management • Throughout entire process Poka-Yoke= Mistake-proofing
  9. 9. Design For Testability – In the process Flexibility of the system Push = Made for inventory Pull = Made to order Pull System vs. Push System 19. Production Management • Standardized Parts/ Simplicity Eliminate disruptions in the process Reduced lot sizes= Shorter cycle times 20. Production Management • Preventive Maintenance Stopping the process if something goes wrong =Jidoka ProblemSiren/light Completion of taskKanban Communication Techniques 21. Production Management
  10. 10. • 22. 3rd Principle Of JIT Supplier Management • Work Together The exact quantity When they are needed Where they are needed Delivery of Parts = 100% Defect Free Establish Long Term Relationships with few suppliers. 23. Supplier Management • Communicate problems to suppliers in a positive manner. Elimination inspection of parts 24. Supplier Management • 25. 4th Principle Of JIT Inventory Management
  11. 11. • Reduction in inventory opens up space JIT is not an inventory control system Eliminate Safety Stock = Zero Inventory 26. Inventory Management • Boat = Company Operations Rocks = Problems in the system Water Level = Inventory Inventory hides problems in a process. 27. • 28. 5th Principle Of JITHuman Resource Management • Build Pride In Workmanship High Employee Interaction Problem Solving Motivation for continuous improvement Company-wide
  12. 12. Involvement 29. Human ResourceManagement • ManagementSupport and Empowerment of workforce To eliminate boredom in process Absenteeism Employees Diversified Self-Inspection of work 30. Human ResourceManagement • Manufacturing planning and control Personnel/organizational elements Process design Product design 31. JIT Manufacturing Building Blocks • Concurrent engineering Highly capable production systems Design Simplification
  13. 13. Standard parts 32. 1. Product Design • 33. Design Simplification • Little inventory storage Production flexibility Quality improvement Limited work in process Setup time reduction Small lot sizes 34. 2. Process Design • 35. Benefits of Small Lot Sizes Reduces inventory Less rework Less storage space Problems are more apparent Increases product flexibility Easier to balance operations • Japanese term for autonomation Jidoka Automatic
  14. 14. detection of defects during production Autonomation 36. Quality Improvement Reserve capacity for • important customers Use many small units of capacity Crosstrain workers to help clear bottlenecks Usepreventive maintenance to reduce breakdowns Reduce downtime by reducing changeover time 37. Production Flexibility Leadership Continuous • improvement Cross-trained workers Workers as assets 38. 3. Personnel/OrganizationalElement s
  15. 15. • Preventive maintenance Reduced transaction processing (delays in delievery) Close vendor relationships Visual systems (kanban) Pull systems 39. 4. Manufacturing Planningand Control • Evaluation and selection of vendor (suppliers) network to develop a tiered supplier network – reducing the number of primary suppliers. 40. • Prepare for obstacles Convert suppliers to JIT Gradually convert operations Start by trying to reduce setup times Obtain support of workers Decide which parts need most
  16. 16. effort Get top management commitment 41. Transitioning to a Successful JIT System • Suppliers may resist Workers/management may not be cooperative Management may not be committed 42. Obstacles to Conversion • 43. Comparison of JIT and TraditionalFactor Traditional JITInventory Much to offset forecast Minimal necessary to operate errors, late deliveriesDeliveries Large SmallLot sizes Large SmallSetup; runs Few, long runs Many, short runsVendors Long-term relationships Partners are
  17. 17. unusualWorkers Necessary to do the Assets work • 44. Comparison Of JIT & Relies on computer system to trigger production and order inventory Inventories related to batch or lot sizes More complex Extensive shop floor control Lot size or batch production MRP Lower inventories related to need “at the time” Relies on visual or audible signals to trigger production and inventory (e.g. auto carpets) Simpler Minimal shop floor control Repetitive production JIT MRP • 45. JIT in ServicesThe basic goal of the demand
  18. 18. flowtechnology in the service organizationis to provide optimum response to thecustomer with the highest qualityservice and lowest possible cost. • Improved vendor relations Greater flexibility Increased productivity Shorter lead-time Reduced space requirements Lower costs Improved quality Reduced Inventory 46. JIT Benefits • Simplified scheduling 47. JIT Benefits (contd.) & Work force participation Valid production priorities Reduced paperwork Increased equipment utilization More product variety Better
  19. 19. utilization of personnel Increased capacity control • There are cases where JIT concepts apply to sub-processes of a make to stock environment. (e.g. computers etc.) JIT is less effective for the production of standardized consumer goods (e.g. basic clothing, food, soft drinks, toasters, etc.) JIT concepts work best when goods can be produced in response to consumer demand (e.g. automobiles, etc.) 48. JIT … Not For Everyone • Wesner, J.W., Hiatt, J.M., and Trimble, D.C. Winning with Quality: Applying Quality
  20. 20. Principles in Product Development. Reading, MASS: Addison- Wesley Publishing Co., 1995. Taver, R.W. Manufacturing Solutions for Consistent Quality and Reliability: The 9 Step Problem Solving Process. New York, NY: AMACON, 1995. Schneiderjans, M.J. Advanced Topics In JIT Management: JIT Systems. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999. Reinfeld, N.V. Handbook of Production and Inventory Control. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1987. O’Grady, P.J. Putting the JIT Philosophy Into Practice. New York, NY: Nichols Publishing, 1988. Hutchins, D. Just-In-Time:
  21. 21. Inventory Control. Brookfield, VT: Gower Publishing, 1988. Hernandez, A. JIT Quality: A Practical Approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993. Fisher, D. The JIT Self Test: Success Through Assesment and Implementation. Chicago, IL: Irwin Inc., 1995. Dear, A. Working toward JIT: Management Technology. London: Derek Doyle and Associates, 1988. Cammaranano, J. Lessons to be Learned: JIT. Atlanta, Georgia: Engineering and Management Press, 1997. 49. References