Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Alternate fuels ppt

alternate fuel/......

  • Login to see the comments

Alternate fuels ppt

  1. 1. ALTERNATE FUELS NAME: RAKESH KUMAR AMANTA ROLL NO: ME-13-76 REGD NO: 1301230207 GROUP:ME2G1 SEMINAR ON Synergy Institute Of Engineering & Technology,Dkl Date:11/08/2016
  2. 2. OVERVIEW  Introduction To Alternate Fuels  Why we choose Alternate Fuel ?  Different Types of Alternate Fuels  Road Block for Alternate Fuel !!!  Advantages and Disadvantages of Alcohol Fuels  Biodiesel As alternate fuel  Other possible Fuel  Conclusion  Reference
  3. 3. Synergy institute of engineering & Technology . dkl INTRODUCTION Conventional Fuels:-  Fossil fuels (petroleum), coal, and nuclear materials such as uranium. Alternate Fuels:-  Also known as non-conventional fuels’  Highly Oxidized, Sulphur Free, Environmental Friendly  Any materials or substances that can be used as fuels, other than conventional fuels  Example:- Alcohol Fuel, Vegetable Oil,Biodiesel,Natural gas
  4. 4. Synergy institute of engineering and Technology, dkl WHY WE CHOOSE ALTERNATE FUEL  Conventional Fuels are going to run out  To reduce pollution  To protect against Global Warming  To save money  Biodegradable and non-toxic  Easy to handle and store  Rural Development
  5. 5. Synergy institute of engineering and technology, dkl DIFFERENT TYPES OF ALTERNATE FUELS:-  Alcohol fuels (ethanol & methanol)  Water gasoline mixture  Vegetable oil  Biodiesel  Hydrogen  LPG & CNG  Electricity  benzol etc……
  6. 6. The first production car running entirely on ethanol was the Fiat 147, introduced in 1978 in Brazil by Fiat. ETHANOL Ethanol is a renewable, domestically produced alcohol fuel made From plant material, such as corn, sugar cane, or grasses. Using ethanol can reduce oil dependence and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Ethanol fuel use in the U.S. has increased dramatically from about 1.7 billion gallons in 2001 to about 16.4 billion in 2016 Ethanol is also known as ethyl alcohol. It’s the alcohol in beer, wine, rum, vodka, etc. Ethanol was used to fuel some of the first automobiles…
  7. 7. Alternate fuels…. ETHANOL  Alcohol-based alternative fuel produced by fermenting and distilling starch crops or cellulose  Most commonly used to increase octane and improve the emissions quality of gasoline.  Can be blended with gasoline to create E85, a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline.(FLEX FUEL)  An excellent, clean-burning fuel, has a higher octane rating (over 100) and burns cooler than gasoline. High ethanol blends present a problem to achieve enough vapor pressure for the fuel to evaporate and spark the ignition during cold weather
  8. 8. Annual fuel ethanol production by country (2007–2013) World rank country 2013 2010 2009 2008 2007 1 United States 13,900.00 13,231.00 10,938.00 9,235.00 6,485.00 2 Brazil 5,573.24 6,921.54 6,577.89 6,472.20 5,019.20 4 China 554.76 541.55 541.55 501.90 486.00 7 India 91.67 66.00 52.80
  9. 9. Chemical Formula: CH3OH , Density: 792 kg/m, Melting point: -97.6 °C Methanol Of all the fuel being considered as an alternate to gasoline, methanol is one of the most promising and experienced major research and development.  Methanol, also known as wood alcohol, can be used as an alternative fuel in flexible fuel vehicles that run on M85  The benefits include lower emissions, higher performance, and lower risk of flammability than gasoline  Methanol can easily be made into hydrogen for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in the future.  Methanol is extremely corrosive, requiring special materials for delivery and storage.
  10. 10. VEGETABLE OIL  RUDOLF DIESEL Designed a diesel engine in 1984 to run on peanut oil.  The use of vegetable oils for engine fuel may seem insignificant today. But such oils may become in the course of time as important as petroleum an coal tar products of the present time. -An Extract from Diesel’s speech in 1912
  11. 11.  Most diesel car engines are suitable for the use of straight vegetable oil (SVO), also commonly called pure plant oil (PPO), with certain modifications. Principally, the viscosity and surface tension of the SVO/PPO must be reduced by preheating it, typically by using waste heat from the engine or electricity, otherwise poor atomization, incomplete combustion and carbonization may result. One common solution is to add a heat exchanger and an additional fuel tank for the petrodiesel or biodiesel blend and to switch between this additional tank and the main tank of SVO/PPO. The engine is started on diesel, switched over to vegetable oil as soon as it is warmed up and switched back to diesel shortly before being switched off to ensure that no vegetable oil remains in the engine or fuel lines when it is started from cold again
  12. 12. BIODIESEL  Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant greases.  Biodiesel is safe, biodegradable, and reduces air pollutants such as particulates, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and air toxics.  Biodiesel can also be used in its pure form but it may require certain engine modifications to avoid maintenance and performance problems and may not be suitable for wintertime use.  Need to heat storage tanks in colder climates to prevent the fuel from gelling
  13. 13. IMPORTANCE OF BIODIESEL • Environmental friendly • Clean burning • Renewable fuel • No engine modification • Increase in engine life • Biodegradable and non-toxic • Easy to handle and store • Complete CO2 cycle • Sulphur free
  14. 14. FATTY ACID METHYL ESTER IS WELL KNOWN MOILECULE FOR VEGETABLE OIL.  Fatty acid alkyl ester prepared from any oil or fat…. TRANSESTERIFICATION
  16. 16. Not occur free in nature in useful quantities, but it is manufactured in a number of ways HYDROGEN:-
  17. 17. •A potentially emissions-free alternative fuel produced from domestic resources. Not widely used today as a transportation fuel Advantages  Emits only water vapour, assuming there is no leakage of hydrogen gas  It can store up to 3x as much energy as conventional natural gas.  Produced domestically.  Environmentally friendly. Disadvantages  It still costs a considerable amount of money to run a hydrogen vehicle  Dangerous
  18. 18. It is much safer than other fuels in the event of a spill, because natural gas is lighter than air and disperses quickly when released  COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS
  19. 19. Advantages  it can be efficiently and safely stored.  more environmentally friendly due to its low emissions after burning.  most of the natural reserves of natural gas field are underutilized.  Improve lubrication because the cylinders are not washed by petrol excess Disadvantages  still does create greenhouse gas emissions.  highly volatile and can be dangerous is handled or transported carelessly.  they aren't as roomy as gasoline cars.  higher overall costs of a natural-gas vehicle compared to a gasoline- powered car.