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Linking Justifications in theCollaborative Semantic Web        Applications Rakebul Hasan and Fabien Gandon, INRIA
Outline•   Context•   Linked Justifications•   The Ratio4TA Vocabulary•   An Example Scenario•   Related Work•   Future Wo...
Collaborative Semantic Web Platforms                                       2
84 articles modified per minute                              3
DBpedia-Live keeps DBpedia in synchronization                               with Wikipedia                                ...
Ever changing interlinked dataspace                                      5
• Results are difficult to understand by the end  users• Applications need to provide explanations  along with the flow of...
• Justification: metadata about why a  conclusion has been drawn• Justifications themselves can be RDF data  distributed a...
Linked Justifications• Applying the very approach of linked data to  publish justifications  – Use URIs as names of things...
• Abstraction of justifications to provide  explanation; navigation between explanations• Tracing the origin of inferences...
The Ratio4TA Vocabularyhttp://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v1/                                  10
An Example Scenario    AcadWiki                     rdf:type                                                     AcadWiki:...
AcadWiki:Scientist                           AcadWiki:ComputerScientist                                                   ...
• Named graphs         – Referencing triples/graphs         – Grouping justification related triplesJ. J. Carroll, C. Bize...
#graph for an inferred triplealoc:t1 {AcadWiki:BobAcadWiki:birthPlaceGeoWiki:UnitedKingdom.}#graph justifying the assertio...
rdf:type                   B                                     Example SPINInferencing Notation (SPIN)                  ...
• Consuming Linked Justifications  – Transforming to human understandable    presentation for explanation  – Navigation be...
Related Work  • Laconic and precise justifications [Horridgeet    al., 2008]          – fine-grained subclasses of justifi...
• Reasoning, explanation, reason maintenance and    semantic wikis [Kotowski and Bry, 2010]          – Explanation in incr...
Provenance, Justification, Explanation• Justifications: Why someone holds a belief,  explanation of why the belief is true...
Provenance, Justification, Explanation• Explanation: sets of statements to describe a  set of facts in order to clarify th...
Future Work• How other provenance vocabularies can be used together   – Combine with provenance vocabularies       • Provi...
• Summarization of justifications  Rules for finding components in the graphs of justification graphs                     ...
• Level of granularity  – Single triple  – Set of triples     • how to deal with overlapped triples in this level• Efficie...
Thank YouRatio4TA   http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v1/           http://kolflow.univ-nantes.fr/           http://wimmics.inri...
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Collaborative Semantic Web Applications and Linked Justifications

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Collaborative Semantic Web Applications and Linked Justifications

  1. 1. Linking Justifications in theCollaborative Semantic Web Applications Rakebul Hasan and Fabien Gandon, INRIA
  2. 2. Outline• Context• Linked Justifications• The Ratio4TA Vocabulary• An Example Scenario• Related Work• Future Work 1
  3. 3. Collaborative Semantic Web Platforms 2
  4. 4. 84 articles modified per minute 3
  5. 5. DBpedia-Live keeps DBpedia in synchronization with Wikipedia 4
  6. 6. Ever changing interlinked dataspace 5
  7. 7. • Results are difficult to understand by the end users• Applications need to provide explanations along with the flow of information 6
  8. 8. • Justification: metadata about why a conclusion has been drawn• Justifications themselves can be RDF data distributed across the Web 7
  9. 9. Linked Justifications• Applying the very approach of linked data to publish justifications – Use URIs as names of things (justifications and their components) – Use HTTP URIs – Provide useful information on lookups – Include links to the related URIs (justifications/resources) 8
  10. 10. • Abstraction of justifications to provide explanation; navigation between explanations• Tracing the origin of inferences – DBPedia live and the chains of dependent inferences 9
  11. 11. The Ratio4TA Vocabularyhttp://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v1/ 10
  12. 12. An Example Scenario AcadWiki rdf:type AcadWiki:Scientist rdfs:subClassOf AcadWiki:Bob rdf:type AcadWiki:ComputerScientistAcadWiki:birthPlace AcadWiki:birthPlace AcadWiki:birthPlace GeoWiki:UnitedKingdom GeoWiki:isPartOf GeoWiki:London GeoWiki:isPartOf GeoWiki GeoWiki:isPartOf GeoWiki:England Academician Locator 11
  13. 13. AcadWiki:Scientist AcadWiki:ComputerScientist rdfs:subClassOf Data AcadWiki:Bob AcadWiki:ComputerScientist rdf:type AcadWiki:Bob GeoWiki:London AcadWiki:birthPlace AcadWiki:Bob Bob was born in London AcadWiki:Scientist rdf:type r4ta:justifies r4ta:justifies r4ta:justifies Justifications r4ta:antecedent r4ta:antecedent r4ta:justifies AcadWiki London is part of UK Bob’s birthplace is UK because Bob was born in because London is part of England and England is Londonand London is part of UK part of UK r4ta:antecedentGeoWiki r4ta:antecedent r4ta:justifies r4ta:justifies GeoWiki:London GeoWiki:UnitedKingdom GeoWiki:isPartOf Academician Locator AcadWiki:Bob GeoWiki:UnitedKingdom AcadWiki:birthPlace 12
  14. 14. • Named graphs – Referencing triples/graphs – Grouping justification related triplesJ. J. Carroll, C. Bizer, P. Hayes, and P. Stickler. Named graphs, provenance and trust. In Proceedings of the 14th international conference on WorldWide Web, WWW ’05, pages 613–622, New York, NY, USA, 2005. ACM. 13
  15. 15. #graph for an inferred triplealoc:t1 {AcadWiki:BobAcadWiki:birthPlaceGeoWiki:UnitedKingdom.}#graph justifying the assertion of an inferred triplealoc:j1 { Link to the triple aloc:j1 rdf:type Justification. aloc:j1 r4ta:justifies aloc:t1. aloc:j1 r4ta:antecedent AcadWiki:j4. Link to justifications aloc:j1 r4ta:antecedent GeoWiki:j1. aloc:t1 rdf:type r4ta:InferredAssertion. aloc:t1 r4ta:inferredByRule aloc:pobRule. Link to rule} 14
  16. 16. rdf:type B Example SPINInferencing Notation (SPIN) SPARQL Rule this rdfs:subClassOf http://spinrdf.org/ Generic HTTPrdf:type A URIs for rules http://www.inria.fr/wimmics/corese/rules/typeprop @prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> @prefix sp: <http://spinrdf.org/sp#> .PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> @prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> . @prefix owl: <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> . @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .CONSTRUCT {?this rdf:type ?B}WHERE { _:b1 sp:varName "A"^^xsd:string . ?A rdfs:subClassOf ?B. [] a sp:Construct ; ?this rdf:type ?A sp:templates ([ sp:object _:b2 ;} sp:predicaterdf:type ; sp:subject _:b3 ]) ; sp:text """PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> CONSTRUCT { ?this a ?B .• Explanation for RDFS } WHERE { ?A rdfs:subClassOf ?B . – Type propagation ?this a ?A . }"""^^xsd:string ; – Property property propagation sp:where ([ sp:object _:b2 ; sp:predicate rdfs:subClassOf ; sp:subject _:b1 – subClassOf transitivity ] [ sp:object _:b1 ; sp:predicaterdf:type ; sp:subject _:b3 – subPropertyOf transitivity ]) . – Domain inference _:b2 sp:varName "B"^^xsd:string . _:b3 sp:varName "this"^^xsd:string . – Range inference 15
  17. 17. • Consuming Linked Justifications – Transforming to human understandable presentation for explanation – Navigation between related explanation allowing follow-your-nose principle – Tracing the origins of chains of inferences (reasoning/truth maintenance) 16
  18. 18. Related Work • Laconic and precise justifications [Horridgeet al., 2008] – fine-grained subclasses of justifications (laconic justifications and precise justifications) – algorithm to compute laconic justifications – our focus is on publishing and consuming distributed justifications • Proof Markup Language [McGuinneset al.,2007] – provenance, information about information manipulation steps and trust – we have a narrower focus: justifications•M. Horridge, B. Parsia, and U. Sattler. Laconic and precise justifications in owl. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on The Semantic Web,ISWC ’08, pages 323–338, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008. Springer-Verlag.•D. McGuinness, L. Ding, P. Da Silva, and C. Chang. Pml 2: A modular explanation interlingua. In In AAAI 2007 Workshop on Explanation-aware Computing,2007. 17
  19. 19. • Reasoning, explanation, reason maintenance and semantic wikis [Kotowski and Bry, 2010] – Explanation in incremental development of knowledge bases – reason maintenance:efficient knowledge base updates – do not discuss representation • Linked data and provenance in biological data webs [Zhao et al.,2009] – design patterns to encode provenance information using named graphs•J. Kotowski and F. Bry. A perfect match for reasoning, explanation and reason maintenance: Owl 2 rl and semantic wikis. In Proceedings of 5th SemanticWiki Workshop, Hersonissos, Crete, Greece (31st May 2010), 2010.•J. Zhao, A. Miles, G. Klyne, and D. Shotton. Linked data and provenance in biological data webs. Briefings in bioinformatics, 10(2):139–152, 2009. 18
  20. 20. Provenance, Justification, Explanation• Justifications: Why someone holds a belief, explanation of why the belief is true, how one knows what one knows. – Wikipedia – Justifications justify why conclusions are drawn.• Provenance: “sources of information, such as people, entities, and processes, involved in producing, influencing, or delivering a piece of data or a thing in the world”. – W3C Provenance ontology 19
  21. 21. Provenance, Justification, Explanation• Explanation: sets of statements to describe a set of facts in order to clarify the causes, context, and consequences of those facts. – Wikipedia – Main purpose is better understanding through an objective explanation. 20
  22. 22. Future Work• How other provenance vocabularies can be used together – Combine with provenance vocabularies • Provide context • Better understanding and trust [McGuinnes et al., 2007]• W3C Provenance Model – A core data model for provenance – Ratio4TA as a specialization of the W3C PROV Ontology (PROV-O) • r4ta:Assertion, r4ta:InferredAssertion – prov:Entity • r4ta:Justification – prov:Trace, prov:Account, prov:ProvenanceContainer • r4ta:InferenceRule – prov:Plan • r4ta:inferredByRule – prov:hadPlan, prov:Activity • r4ta:justifies – prov:traceTo, prov:qualifiedTrace • r4ta:antecedent – prov:specializationOf 21
  23. 23. • Summarization of justifications Rules for finding components in the graphs of justification graphs 22
  24. 24. • Level of granularity – Single triple – Set of triples • how to deal with overlapped triples in this level• Efficient storage and query – Huge number of graphs 23
  25. 25. Thank YouRatio4TA http://ns.inria.fr/ratio4ta/v1/ http://kolflow.univ-nantes.fr/ http://wimmics.inria.fr/ 24

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