Leadership ob


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Leadership ob

  1. 1. Chapter-12 1 Leadership CHAPTER - 12
  2. 2. Objectives of the Chapter To understand  Definition of Leadership  Traits of Effective Leaders  Leadership Skills  Leadership Theories  Leadership Styles  Roles and Activities of Managers  Determinants of Leadership  Task of a Supervisor  Effective Supervisory Practices
  3. 3. Chapter-12 3 Definition of Leadership A leader is one who sets vision, goals and motivates people and obtains their commitment to achieve the goals and realize the vision.
  4. 4. Chapter-12 4 Traits of effective leadership  Some researchers believed cognitive and psychological factors like intelligence, ambition, aggressiveness are common traits in leaders  Others believed height, large body structure and personal attractiveness are important  Initiative, desire to lead, integrity, self- confidence, analytical ability, charisma, creativity etc are some of the common traits of a leader
  5. 5. Chapter-12 5  Leaders are born not made  Leaders can be developed Leadership behavior Vs. Traits:
  6. 6. Chapter-12 6 Leadership Skills Robert Katz, identified three skills  Technical skills  Human skills  Conceptual skills  Technical skills: A person’s knowledge and ability to make effective use of any process or technique
  7. 7. Chapter-12 7  Human skills: Human skills also involve developing positive interpersonal; relationships, solving people’s problems and gaining acceptance of other employees.  Conceptual skills: It refers to the ability to analyze complex situation, interpret available information. Leadership Skills Contd…
  8. 8. Chapter-12 8 Leadership Skills Contd… Organizational Levels Top Middle Supervisor Conceptual Human Technical Knowledge & Skills required
  9. 9. Chapter-12 9 Leadership Theories Trait Theories Early researchers studied the personality traits and concluded that leaders are born and not made. Example: Napoleon
  10. 10. Chapter-12 10 “Great person” theory leadership traits can be acquired with training and experience. Example: Anil Ambani Leadership Theories
  11. 11. Chapter-12 11 Behavioral Theories Researcher tried to identify the behavior that were unique to leader & which distinguished them from non leaders. Four behavioral theories  The Ohio state studies  University of Michigan studies  The managerial grid  Scandinavian studies
  12. 12. Chapter-12 12 In 1945-study conducted at Ohio state university.  They defined two dimensions Initiating structure – Individual’s ability to define his as well as subordinate’s tasks and get them accomplished in time. The Ohio State Studies
  13. 13. Chapter-12 13  Consideration - Extent, to which a leader cares for his subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings and establishes work relation by mutual trust and respect.  The researchers concluded that a “high- high” type of leadership yielded best results. The Ohio State Studies contd…
  14. 14. Chapter-12 14  Research carried out at Survey research center, university of Michigan.  Leadership behavior could be categorized along 2 dimensions.  Employee-oriented leaders achieve higher job satisfaction and higher group productivity.  Production–oriented leaders achieve lower job satisfaction and lower group productivity. University of Michigan Studies
  15. 15. Chapter-12 15 Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid  Blake and Mouton developed a two dimensional matrix model of leadership styles.  The model consist of nine rows and column.  The rows represent the leader's concern for production, while the column represent concern for people.
  16. 16. Chapter-12 16 9,9 Team Management 5, 5 Middle of the Road Management 1, 9 Country Club Management 1, 1 Impoverished Management 9, 1 Authority Compliance Concernforpeople High Low High Low Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid Contd…
  17. 17. Chapter-12 17  Behavioral theories were developed (1945 & 1965).  Research result in emergence of new dimension called development oriented behavior.  Development oriented leaders experimented with new ideas and practices and embrace changes  The subordinate of development oriented leaders also showed higher level of job satisfaction Scandinavian Studies
  18. 18. Chapter-12 18 Contingency Approaches Contingency theories of leadership postulate that leaders have to change their style depending on situation they face.  Fiedler’s contingency model  Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory  Leader member exchange theory  Leadership- participation model  Path – goal theory
  19. 19. Chapter-12 19  Leader–member relationships: The extent to which a leader is accepted by his subordinates  Degree of task structure: Degree to which the task on hand can be performed efficiently.  The Leader’s Position: It refer to the power or formal authority that the leader is bestowed within the organization. Fiedler’s Contingency Model
  20. 20. Chapter-12 20 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory  It is other wise called Life cycle” model.  Maturity level of the subordinate plays a major role in influencing the leadership style of the superior  All employees will not have the same level of competence and commitment to do the assigned tasks.
  21. 21. Chapter-12 21 It is other wise called Life cycle” model. Four styles:  Low in his ability to perform as well as willingness to perform - telling style  Low in ability but high in willingness to perform - selling style  Capable of performing but not willing to perform - participating style  Capable and is also willing to carry out the task - delegating style Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory Contd…
  22. 22. Chapter-12 22 Leader – Member Exchange Theory George Green –leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of subordinates, usually early in their interaction. The small group is referred to as the in-group and the rest are called out – group.  In–group members receive high performance ratings and receive rewards and promotions quickly.  Leaders favor people who have attitudes and personality similar to their own.
  23. 23. Chapter-12 23 Leadership Participation Model  Victor Vroom & Philip Yetton  They established the relationship between leadership behavior and decision making style  Problem attributes: It is categorized into two classes  Decision-quality  Employee-acceptance
  24. 24. Chapter-12 24  Decision-quality dimension include cost considerations, information availability and nature of problem structure.  Employee-acceptance can have dimensions like need for commitment, their prior approval, congruence of their goals with that of the organization, and conflict among the employees. Leadership Participation Model contd…
  25. 25. Chapter-12 25 Leadership Participation Model contd… Leadership Styles: 5 styles of leadership  Autocratic I – leader takes a decision on his own  Autocratic II - leader obtains relevant information from subordinates & then attempts to find a solution  Consultative I – leader explains problem & invites ideas, he takes final decision
  26. 26. Chapter-12 26  Consultative II - leader meets a group of subordinates, discuses the problem & listens to their ideas , final decision may or may not be according to subordinates  Group II - after sharing the problem with the subordinates, the leader initiates a group discussion till a consensus is reached. The leader accepts the solution offered by his subordinates Leadership Participation Model contd…
  27. 27. Chapter-12 27 Path Goal Theory  Path goal theory is contingency model of leadership developed by Robert House.  According to this theory leader should provide required support & guidance to his followers.
  28. 28. Chapter-12 28 Path Goal Theory contd…  Directive leadership:  Leader clearly tells his subordinates what is expected gives schedules and instructs ‘how’  Supportive leadership:  The leader attempts to address the needs and problems
  29. 29. Chapter-12 29  Participative leadership – Discusses problems & seeks suggestions  Achievement–oriented leadership: Attempts to develop his subordinates Path Goal Theory contd…
  30. 30. Chapter-12 30 LEADERSHIP STYLES  Autocratic leadership: The leaders attain all the authority and decision making power  Consultative leadership: The leaders encourage employees to participate in decision making  Laissez faire: Leader completely delegates the responsibilities and decision making power to the subordinates
  31. 31. Chapter-12 31 Leadership Styles contd…  Bureaucratic leadership: Leaders set certain rigid rules and regulations and procedures  Manipulative leadership: They believe that the employees should be manipulated to get them to behave in the way the leader wants them to behave  Expert leadership: A person with high level of knowledge and abilities leads the group
  32. 32. Chapter-12 32  Likert Suggested Four Systems Of Management  System 1 management – “exploitative- authoritative” style- it represents dictatorial leadership behavior. All the decisions are made by managers and their i little employee participation Likert’s Four Systems of Management
  33. 33. Chapter-12 33  System 2 management – “benevolent- authoritative” style: Though the managers behave in a patronizing manner, they have confidence and trust in their subordinates. They permit upward communication to a certain degree and ask for participation from subordinates. Likert’s Four Systems of Management contd..
  34. 34. Chapter-12 34  System 3 management – “consultative” style: Managers in this system do not have completed confidence and trust in their subordinates. Though they seek advice from subordinates, they retain the right to take the final decision. Likert’s Four Systems of Management contd…
  35. 35. Chapter-12 35  System 4 management – “participative leadership” style: In this system, managers trust their subordinates completely and have confidence in their abilities. They always ask the opinions of their subordinates and make use of their ideas. Likert’s Four Systems of Management contd…
  36. 36. Chapter-12 36 Roles and activities of managers  Interpersonal role: There are three roles:  Figurehead role  Leader role  Liaison role
  37. 37. Chapter-12 37  Informational role: There are three roles:  Monitor  Disseminator  Spokesperson Roles and activities of managers contd…
  38. 38. Chapter-12 38  Decisional role:  Entrepreneur  Disturbance handler  Resource allocator  Negotiator Roles and activities of managers contd…
  39. 39. Chapter-12 39 Activities performed by managers  Communication  Traditional management  Human Resource Management  Networking
  40. 40. Chapter-12 40 Determinants of leadership  Quality of subordinates: a effective leader always build strong team consist of people who are independent & self motivated.  The nature of situation: According to situation's viewpoint, different individuals are effective in different situation..
  41. 41. Chapter-12 41 Task of supervisor First line supervisor:  Supervise work being done  Develop work schedule  Communication with worker  Making decision of day to day operation Second or third line supervisor perform more or less same activity. They may resolve the problems referred to them by there subordinates.
  42. 42. Chapter-12 42 Effective Supervisory Practice: Research conducted by the university of Michigan indicated the following four supervisory practices were effective:  Devote more time to planning & supporting function  Avoid close supervision  Concern foe employees  Promote group cohesiveness Task of Supervisor contd…
  43. 43. Summary of the Chapter To understand  Definition of Leadership  Traits of Effective Leaders  Leadership Skills  Leadership Theories  Leadership Styles  Roles and Activities of Managers  Determinants of Leadership  Task of a Supervisor  Effective Supervisory Practices