A project report on textile industry
SUBMITTED TO:-MS. ANUPAMA AMBUJAKSHAN
SUBMITTED BY:- ROLL NO. B-75 VASAVANI RAJENDRA.P
ROLL NO.B-74 RAJAT TRIVEDI
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We are going to make our project on textile industry in order to know the Manufacturing
process and Layout. This project also gives the some important information of textile industry
those brands, different product, New business, New technologies, New partnership. Because
technologies also shape corporate destines.
The Career of the Person depends upon many things. One of them is the knowledge. It
acquires through theory is not sufficient to develop. Her personality and to develop some skills,
but now a days, it is no more. Practical training is necessary to implement the theories & acquire
the knowledge, so for this purpose our institute –Global Institute of Management – affiliated by
Gujarat Technological University.
The report is made with clear objective of study of “textile industry” it’s working. The report
will give the details of Production .Our report provides you all the information related to the
Production. We hope this report fulfils need of the educational requirements.
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We are heartily thankful to the Gujarat Technological University, which has given us the
golden opportunity to prepare or analyze project report of “textile industry”. We are also
thankful to honorable professor Ms.Anupama Ambujakshan who has leaded us to enlighten
ourselves in preparation of this project.
We are heartily thankful to Management Faculty without whose constant guidance this
work would have been an impossible task to complete. Her inspiration and encouragement has
leaded me to come with a successful task.
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NO PARTICULAR PAGE NO.
1 PREFACE 2
2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 3
3 OVERVIEW OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY 5
4 TYPE OF PRODUCTION SYSTEM 6
5 MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY 7-14
6 FACILITY LOCATION 15-19
7 FACILITY LAYOUT/PLANT LAYOUT 20-22
8 INDUSTRIAL SAFETY MEASURES IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY 23-27
9 BIBLIOGRAPHY 28
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OVERVIEW OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY
Modernization Is A Continuous Process And There Should Be Concerted Efforts To Modernize
Both Machinery And Manufacturing Processes Regularly. It Is General Experience That Units
Which Maintained The Process Of Modernization Systematically Could Manage To Sustain
Their Growth In The Long Run.
Modernization In Fact Is Needed To Increase Production, Reduce The Cost Of Production,
Rationalize Labour, Reduce Maintenance And Power Cost Per Unit Of Production Etc. Due To
A Number Of Factors, The Vast Majority Of The Textile Units In India Never Tried To
Regularly Modernize Their Units. As A Result The Indian Textile Industry Had Been Suffering
From Technological Obsolescence Since The Beginning Of The 20th Century.
Textile Industry Is One Of The Leading Textile Industries In The World. Though Was
Predominantly Unorganized Industry Even A Few Years Back, But The Scenario Started
Changing After The Economic Liberalization Of Indian Economy In 1991. The Opening Up Of
Economy Gave Much Needed Thrust To Textile Industry, Which Has Now Successfully Become
One Of The Largest In The World.
Indian Textile Industry Largely Depends Upon The Textile Manufacturing And Export. Its Play
A Major Role In The Economy of The Country. Indian Textile Industry Is Also The Largest In
The Country In Terms Of Employment Generation.
Indian Textile Industry Can Be Divided Into Several Segments, Some Of Which Can Be Listed
Jute And Coir
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TYPE OF PRODUCTION SYSTEM
In the production system there are following types of production system can be used for the
conversion of raw material into the finished goods.
There is the different type of techniques used in the production process.
Batch production ( disconnected line)
Cell manufacturing (group technology)
The textile industry using the JOB-SHOP or BATCH PRODUCTION techniques for the
The Weaving Process Is Characterized By Long Planning Horizons And Relatively Slow Speed
Of Machines, Very Long Setup Times, Very Large Production Batches, And Mixed Order And
Stock-Based Production. On The Contrary, The Warp Making Process Is Characterized By Short
Planning Horizons And High Speed Of Machines, Short Setup Times, Small Production Batches
And Only Orders-Based Production. The Above Phases Pose The Most Complex Production
In the job shop machinery used mostly general purpose to produce the goods.
Highly skilled labor is needed for this type of production system to handle and operate the
Production Is Characterized By Processing Of Small Batches Of A Large Number Of Different
Products Most Of Which Require A Different Set Or Sequence Of Processing Steps.
In the job shop technique i.e., print shop…
Textile production systems may be treated as a succession of local problems, one per each
production phase. The coherence of these local problems should be taken into account by
“material requirements planning” or “just-in-time” approaches.
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MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY
Products are the goods and services produced and processes are the facilities, skills, and
technologies used to produce them. Production function or operation function is the primary
function of an industrial enterprise. It is also known as conversion process or transformation
process which transforms some of the inputs (raw material and components) into outputs which
are useful for the consumers.
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MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY
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Raw Cotton Contains Cotton Fiber Along With
Small Plant Parts And Field Trash That Are Not
Removed By The Ginning Process. At This
Stage, The Cotton Fiber Has A Coating Of Oils
And Waxes That Make It Hydrophobic. Raw
Fiber Is Suitable For Making Nonwovens To Be
Used In Industrial Products In Which
Absorbency And Aesthetics Are Not Important.
In Some Cases, Nonwoven Fabrics Made With
Raw Fiber Can Be Wet Processed In the Same Manner As Woven And Knitted Fabrics
Most Spinning Is Done Using Break Or Open-End Spinning, This Is A Technique
Where The Staples Are Blown By Air Into A Rotating Drum, Where They Attach
Themselves To The Tail Of Formed Yarn That Is Continually Being Drawn Out Of The
Chamber. Other Methods Of Break Spinning Use Needles And Electrostatic Forces.
This Method Has Replaced The Older Methods Of Ring And Mule Spinning. It Is Also
Easily Adapted For Artificial Fibers.
The Spinning Machine Takes The Roving, Thins It And Twists It, Creating Yarn.
In Mule Spinning The Roving Is Pulled Off A Bobbin And Fed Through Rollers,
Which Are Feeding At Several Different Speeds. This Thins The Roving At A Consistent
Rate. If The Roving Was Not A Consistent Size, Then This Step Could Cause A Break In
The Yarn, Or Could Jam The Machine. The Yarn Is Twisted Through The Spinning Of
The Bobbin As The Carriage Moves Out, And Is Rolled Onto A Cop As The Carriage
Returns. Mule Spinning Produces A Finer Thread Than The Less Skilled Ring Spinning.
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MULE SPINNING RING SPINNING
Weaving Is A Method Of Fabric Production In Which Two Distinct Sets Of Yarns
Or Threads Are Interlaced At Right Angles To Form A Fabric Or Cloth. The Other
Methods Are Knitting, Lace Making, Felting, And Braiding Or Plaiting. The
Longitudinal Threads Are Called The Warp And The Lateral Threads Are The Weft Or
Filling. (WEFT OR WOOF IS AN OLD ENGLISH WORD MEANING "THAT
WHICH IS WOVEN".) The Method In Which These Threads Are Inter Woven Affects
The Characteristics Of The Cloth.
Cloth Is Usually Woven On A Loom, A Device That Holds The Warp Threads In
Place While Filling Threads Are Woven Through Them. A Fabric Band Which Meets
This Definition Of Cloth (Warp Threads With A Weft Thread Winding Between) Can
Also Be Made Using Other Methods, Including Tablet Weaving, Back-Strap, Or Other
Techniques Without Looms.
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The Most Commonly Used Processes For Imparting Color To
Cotton Are Piece Dyeing And Yarn Dyeing.
In Piece Dyeing, Which Is Used Primarily For Fabrics That Are To
Be A Solid Color, A Continuous Length Of Dry Cloth Is Passed
Full-Width Through A Trough Of Hot Dye Solution. The Cloth
Then Goes Between Padded Rollers That Squeeze In The Color
Evenly And Removes The Excess Liquid. In One Variation Of This
Basic Method, The Fabric, In A Rope-Like Coil, Is Processed On A
Reel That Passes In And Out Of A Dye Beck Or Vat.
Yarn Dyeing, Which Occurs Before The Cloth Is Woven Or
Knitted, Is Used To Produce Gingham Checks, Plaids, Woven Stripes And Other Special Effects.
Blue Dyed Warp Yarns, For Example, Are Combined With White Filling Yarns In Denim
Colored Designs On Cotton Cloth Is Similar To Printing On Paper.
Long Runs Of The Same Fabric Design Are Produced On A Roller
Print Machine Operating At Speeds Between 50 To 100 Yards A
Minute. As Many As Of 10 Different Colors Can Be Printed In One
A Typical Printing Machine Has A Large Padded Drum Or Cylinder,
Which Is Surrounded By A Series Of Copper Rollers, Each With Its
Own Dye Trough And Doctor Blade That Scrapes Away Excess Dye.
The Number Of Rollers Varies According To The Fabric Design, Since Each Color In The
Design Is Etched On A Separate Roller. As The Cloth Moves Between The Rotating Drum And
Rollers Under Great Pressure, It Picks Up Color From The Engraved Area Of Each Roller In
Sequence. The Printed Cloth Is Dried Immediately And Conveyed To An Oven That Sets The
Automatic Screen-Printing Is Another Principal Method For Imparting Colored Designs To
Cotton Fabrics. Although Slower Than Roller Printing, It Has The Advantage Of Producing
Much Larger And More Intricate Designs, Elaborate Shadings And Various Handcrafted Effects.
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Finishing, As The Term Implies, Is The Final Step In Fabric Production. Hundreds Of
Finishes Can Be Applied To Textiles, And The Methods Of Application Are As Varied As The
Cotton Fabrics Are Probably Finished In More Different Ways Than Any Other Type Of
Fabrics. Some Finishes Change The Look And Feel Of The Cotton Fabric, While Others Add
Special Characteristics Such As Durable Press, Water Repellency, Flame Resistance, Shrinkage
Control And Others. Several Different Finishes May Be Applied To A Single Fabric.
The Fabric Is Then Cut With The Help Of Cloth Cutting Machines Suitable For The
Type Of The Cloth. These Can Be Band Cutters Having Similar Work Method Like That Of
Band Saws; Cutters Having Rotary Blades; Machines Having Reciprocal Blades Which Saw Up
And Down; Die Clickers Similar To Die Or Punch Press; Or Computerized Machines That Use
Either Blades Or Laser Beams To Cut The Fabric In Desired Shapes.
It Is The Most Important Department/ Section Of A Garment Manufacturing Industry. Sewing
Machines Of Different Types Are Arranged As A Vertical Line To Assemble The Garments.
Sequence Of Types Of Sewing Machine Arrangement Depends On Sequence Of Assembling
Operations. Number Of Sewing Machine Per Line Varies From 20 No.S To 60 No.S Depending
On The Style Of The Ga4rmnet To Be Produce. Production Pr Line Pr Hour Also Varies From
100 To 150 Pieces Depending On Specific Circumstances. Number Of Sewing Machine
Arrangement Per Line May Be Up To 60 Depending On Design And Output Quantity Of
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Raw Product Storage
Movement Of Card Cans
Movement Of Drawing Cans
Winding Yarn Onto Beam
Preparing Loom Beams
Storing Loom Beams
Producing Fabric Rolls
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Plant location may be understood as the function of determining where the plant should
be located for maximum operating economy and effectiveness. The selection for locating
a plant is most important factor which influences the industry.
Any industry has try to locate their plant near by the market place, where transportation
, labour force, raw material, power…etc
Popularly Termed As The Textile State Of India, Gujarat Has One Of The Most Flourishing
Textile Industries In The Country. Also Said To Be The Manchester Of The East And The
Denim Capital Of India The Textile Industry In Gujarat Contributes Almost 3% Towards The
GDP Of India. India Holds A Major Portion Of Global Textile Market Share. Textiles In Gujarat
Are Responsible For Contributing A Major Share Of India's Art And Crafts.
It Is Also Among The Oldest Industries In The State. Due To Its Perfect Combination Of Skilled
Labor, Vast Variety Of Raw Materials, Seamless Blend Of Yarns And The Use Of Traditional
Techniques The State Produces The Finest Range Of Textiles.
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One Of The Major Factors Behind The Success Of The Textile Industry In Gujarat Is That The
State Has Managed To Preserve Its Old Tradition And Culture.
The Textile Industry In Gujarat Involves Quite A Sizable Chunk Of The Population. Brands Like
Arvind Mills, Parag And Praful Belong To Gujarat. More Than 90% Of The Polyester Used In
India Is Produced In Surat. The Two Major Textile Manufacturing Cities In Gujarat Are
Ahmedabad And Surat. Both These Cities Together Account For Almost 50% Of The Total
Textiles Produced In Gujarat.
Textiles in Gujarat
Bandhej Is The Name Given To The Tie And Dye Fabric Of Jamnagar, Mandvi And Bhuj. The
Art Of Bandhej Is Known For Its Typical Designs And Patterns. These Are Often Used In
Wedding Outfits When They Are Called Gharchola Odhni And Sarees.He Tie-Dyed Fabrics Or
The Bandhej Of Gujarat Are Certainly The Best Of Its Kind Produced In India Also Lso Known
As Bandhani Or Bandhni.The Cost Of The Bandhej Of Gujarat Rests Not Only On The Quality
Of The Fabric, But Also On The Number Of Times It Has To Be Tied And Dyed As Well As
The Intricacy Of The Pattern.
Matani Or More Popularly Called Matani Pechedi Or Mata-Ni-Pachedi Are Made By The
Vaghris For The Purpose Of Various Rituals. They Employ A Combination Of Block Printing
For The Outline Of The Pattern As Well As The Painting Of The Mordants.The Matani Is
Actually A Tribute To The Mother Goddess Durga.Matani Reflects A Passion Among The
Gujaratis For Colors And A Vision For The Intricate Designs And Forms. It Is The Expression
Of An Artistic Personality As Well As Rich Cultural Heritage.
The Patola Silk from Patan Is Very Popular And One Of The Largest Selling Fabrics In The
Country. The Sarees Are A Mark Of Tradition And Grandeur Depicting Gujarat As A Land Of
Prosperity And Wealth. This Is Unique To Patan And Is Known For Its Utmost Delicate Designs
Woven With Great Expertise And Quality. Gujarat Patola Exhibits A Passion For Color And A
Deep Sense For Design And Form. They Convey A Message Of The State's Rich Cultural
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SIZE OF THE INDUSTRY:-
The Indian Textile Industry Today Has Approximately 1200 Medium To Large Scale
Textile Mills In India. 20%Of These Mills Are Located In Coimbatore (Tamilnadu).
The Industry Has 34 Million Cotton Textile Spindles For Manufacturing Cotton Yarn
Which Account For 70 Percent Of India's Textile Exports. (China Has 40 Million Cotton
Of The Indian Textile Yarn Exports, Almost 80 Percent Come From Coarser Yarns
(Counts Below 40's). Consequently, There Is A Need To Upgrade The Technology.
The Domestic Knitting Industry Is Characterized By Small Scale Units With Facilities
For Dyeing, Processing And Finishing. The Industry Is Concentrated In Tirupur
(Tamilnadu) And Ludhiana (Punjab). Tirupur Produces 60 Percent Of The Country's
Total Knitwear Exports.
Knitted Garments Account For Almost 32 Percent Of All Exported Garments. The Major
Players Include Nahar Spinning, Arun Processors And Jersey India.
The Indian Textile Industry of India is vast and growing with presence of several national and
international brands. The main segments of the Indian textile industry are Man-made Textiles,
Cotton Textiles including Handlooms, Silk Textiles, Woolen Textiles, Handicrafts, Coir,
Readymade Garments, and Jute.
Job opportunities are diverse in nature in the textile industry ranging from production, designing,
distribution and sales. The need for manpower for the textile industry is growing to keep up with
the growing demand; fresher’s are finding numerous job opportunities in the textile industry of
The Indian textile industry offers opportunities to fresher's from various academic backgrounds
as nature of job is diverse. A textile engineer must have an engineering background; either B.E.
or B.Tech is preferred
Indian Textile Industry Covers 61 % Of The International Textile Market And 22 % Of
The Global Market
Indian Textile Industry Is Known To Be The 3rd Largest Manufacturer Of Cotton Across
This Industry Of India Claims To Be The 2nd Largest Manufacturer As Well As Provider
Of Cotton Yarn And Textiles In The World
India Holds Around 25 % Share In The Cotton Yarn Industry Across The Globe
India Textile Industry Contributes To Around 12 %Of The World's Production Of Cotton
Yarn And Textiles.
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The need for the selection of the location may arise under any of the following
1) When the business is newly started;
2) The existing business unit has outgrown its original facilities and expansion is not
3) A lease expire and the landlord does not renew the lease;
4) Other social or economic reasons; for example inadequate labour supply, shifting of
Size Of The
1200 Medium To Large Scale
Textile Mills In India
Output Per Annum 16% Per Annum Growth Rate
And 1000 Million Kg Per
7% Share In The Global
4% To The Share Of GDP
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STEPS IN LOCATION:-
in choosing a plant location, the entrepreneur would do well to proceed step by step,
the step being;
1) Within the country or outside;
2) Selection of the region:-
Availability of raw material
Nearness to the market
Availability of power
Suitability of climate
Competition between stat
3) Selection of the locality or community;
Availability of labour
Civic amenities for workers
Finance and research facility
Availability of water and fire-fighting facility
Local taxes and restrictions
4) Selection of the exact site.
Soil, size, and topography
Disposal of waste
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FACILITY LAYOUT/PLANT LAYOUT
Plant layout is the physical arrangement of industrial facilities. It involves the allocation of space
& the arrangement of equipment in such a manner that overall operating costs are minimized.
There Are Three Classic Approaches To Laying Out The Equipment And Processing Functions
Within A Manufacturing Facility.
1) FIXED POSITION FACILITIES:- Comes The Closest To Meeting Our Goal Of
Moving The Product As Little As Possible As It Undergoes Production Processing. In
These Facilities, The Product Occupies A Constant Fixed Position In The Center Of The
Manufacturing Area. Rather Than Physically Moving The Product Through Different
Processing Points, The Workers And The Equipment Necessary For Manufacturing Steps
Are Brought To The Product. A Good Example Of A Fixed Position Manufacturing
Layout Is A Shipyard, Where The Ship Under Construction Occupies A Fixed Position In
The Drydock. Certain Aerospace Industries Also Operate With Fixed Position
2) PROCESS LAYOUTS:- Are Those In Which Equipment And Workstations Are
Arranged According To The Type Of Process They Perform. Saws Would Be One Part
Of The Manufacturing Area; Drill Presses Would Be In Another; Welding Stations
Would Be In A Third; And Paint Booths Would Be In A Fourth Area. Process Layouts
Are Used Primarily In Job Shops, Where The Facility Produces A Variety Of 9 Different
Products And Each Requires A Different Series Of Processing Steps To Be Performed In
A Different Sequence.
Process Layouts Require The Most Movement Of Products From Workstation To Workstation
Since The Equipment Is Arranged Without Regard To The Processing Needs Of Any One
Product. Job Shops Can Attempt To Reduce This Unnecessary Handling, However, By
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Assessing Movement Between Various Workstations For Each Product. They Can Then
Determine The Total Number Of Product Movements Between Workstations For All Of Their
Products And Arrange The Different Process Areas To Reduce The Total Number Of Product
Movements. Process Layouts Do Have The Advantage, However, Of Maximizing The
Efficiency Of Machinery Usage. All Products Requiring Drilling, For Example, Are Moved To
The Same Drill Press. Therefore, The Total Number Of Drill Presses Required Is Kept To A
3) PRODUCT LAYOUTS:-On The Other Hand, Are Geared To Production Line
Operations Which Manufacture Only One Product Or A Limited Series Of Products
Which Undergo Approximately The Same Processing Steps In Approximately The Same
Sequence. In These Cases, Equipment And Manual Workstations Are Arranged To
Mirror The Required Flow Of These Specified Products Through The Steps In The
Manufacturing Process. If The First Production Process Following Reception Of
Incoming Raw Materials Is Cutting Boards Into Door Frame Components, The First
Piece Of Equipment Located Adjacent To The Receiving Dock Will Be A Saw. If The
Next Process Step Is To Assemble These Components Into A Door Frame, Then
Adjacent To The First Cutting Station Will Be A Frame Assembly Area. While Product
Layouts Do Require Handling Of Products From Step To Step In The Manufacturing
Process, They Minimize The Unnecessary Movement Of Products Between Related
Steps By Ensuring Their Close Proximity.
Unlike Process Layouts, However, Product Layouts Maximize The Need For Expenditures On
Equipment. Studies Have Shown That Savings In Process Efficiency Far Outweigh These
Additional Machine Costs. If Cutting Stations Are Required At Several Steps Along The
Processing Route, Product Layouts Would Require Purchasing Separate Saws For Each Step To
Allow The Uninterrupted Flow Of Work Along The Line.
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IMPORTANCE OF THE LAYOUT:-
Economies in handling
Effective use of available area
Minimization of production delay
Improved quality control
Minimum equipment investment
Better production control
Improved utilization of labour
Improved employee morale
Avoidance of unnecessary and costly charges
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INDUSTRIAL SAFETY MEASURES IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY
There Are Numerous Health And Safety (H&S) Issues Associated With The textile Industry.
These Include: Chemical Exposure From The Processing and Dyeing Of Materials; Exposure To
Cotton And Other Organic Dusts, Which Can Affect The Throat And Lungs; Musculoskeletal
Stresses; Noise exposure, Which Can Lead To Hearing Loss; Temperature And Ventilation,
Which Can Lead To Fatigue And Dehydration If Temperatures Are Too High; And Working
Hours And Breaks, Including Access To Food, Drinks And Bathroom Facilities. This Booklet
Reviews Some Key Areas Of H&S In textile Dyeing Such As The Information Present In
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), Fire Hazard Training And Various Other Components Of
Health And Safety Regulations Have Been In Place In Textile Industries Across Europe And The
USA Since The 1970s. In England, The Health And Safety At Work Act Was Introduced In The
Early 1970s And The Health And Safety Executive (HSE) Was Formed And Given
Responsibility For Providing The Framework For Workplace H&S. Different Countries Have
Different Standards On H&S Practices And This Booklet Takes Some Of The Key Elements Of
These That Are Applicable To Promoting A Safe Working Environment In The Textile Industry
Hazardous Chemicals and their Symbols
Material Safety Data Sheet
Risk Assessment of Chemicals
Health Effects of Dyes and Chemicals
Chemical Storage and Disposal of Waste
LABORATORY SAFETY PROTOCOL
Laboratory Safety Protocol
Factory Floor Safety Protocol
Role of The Management
Role of The Factory Staff
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HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS AND THEIR SYMBOLS
Substances used directly in work activities (e.g. adhesives, solvents, cleaning agents);
Substances generated during work activities (e.g. fumes from soldering and welding);
Naturally occurring substances (e.g. dust); and Biological agents such as bacteria and
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Exist To Provide Workers With The Proper
Procedures For Handling Or Working With Particular Substances And Should Therefore Be
Supplied For Each Individual Substance. MSDS Includes Information As Physical Data (Melting
Point, Boiling Point And Flash Point), Toxicity, Health Effects, Reactivity, Required Storage
Conditions, Disposal Methods, Protective Equipment, First Aid, And Spill Or Leak Procedures.
When A Substance Is Bought, The Manufacturer Should Provide The Purchaser (The Textile
Factory) With The MSDS For It. The MSDS Should Be Received By The Factory The First
Time Goods Are Delivered.
They Should Be Available In The Manager’s Office, The Storeroom Or An Appropriate
Place Where People Can Have Easy Access To Them When Needed. Staff Members Who
Regularly Handle Such Chemicals Should Be Aware Of The Contents Of The MSDS And
Should Be Provided With Training To Advise Them Of The Aspects That May Impact On Their
Health If Chemicals Are Not Handled Correctly.
RISK ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICALS
An inventory and risk assessment of all chemicals and dyes that are present at the factory must
be undertaken by the management. The MSDS simplify this process by providing much of the
information required in this risk assessment. The risk assessment should consider how chemicals
are stored and handled. The information in the inventory and risk assessment must be made
available to all workers. The factory management team should remove unnecessary risks and
protect against those that remain. The steps involved in undertaking a risk assessment include:
• Reference to the supplier’s MSDS;
• Observations at the factory (on the production floor, in the laboratory and in the
• Consultation with employees and supervisors; and
• Assessing feedback and results from monitoring of potential health risks.
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HEALTH EFFECTS OF DYES AND CHEMICALS
There is no evidence to suggest that the majority of the dyestuffs currently used in textile
dyeing and finishing are harmful to human health at the levels of exposure that workers generally
face in the factories. However, with long-term or accidental over exposure, there can be potential
health hazards and all dyes and chemicals must therefore be treated with care. The most common
hazard of reactive dyes is respiratory problems due to the inhalation of dye particles. Sometimes
they can affect a person’s immune system and in extreme cases this can mean that when the
person next inhales the dye their body can react dramatically. This is called respiratory
sensitization and symptoms include itching, watery eyes, sneezing and symptoms of asthma such
as coughing and wheezing.
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ROLE OF THE MANAGEMENT
The Management Should Regularly Check And Document The National Laws And Regulations
Concerning Workplace Safety. The Management Should Then Develop A Protocol Through
Which To Implement These Laws.
It May Also Be Necessary To Consider The Requirements Of Certain Buyers, Who May Have
Codes Of Conduct That Include Aspects Of H&S, Corporate Social Responsibility And
Environmental Responsibility. The Protocol Given In This Document Should Provide A Good
Basis For This And If Implemented Correctly Could Improve The Safety Of The Working
Environment In Most Factories.
PROVIDE BASIC NEEDS
Employees Should Be Given Access To Safe Drinking Water As Well As A Clean Area For
Meals. Meals Should Be Taken In A Separate Area Away From The Factory Production. The
Factory Staff Should Also Have Access To A Sufficient Number Of Toilets Of Adequate
Quality, This Is A Legal Requirement And Contained In Most Codes Of Conduct Provided By
There Should Also Be Signs Saying “No Food And Drink” In Areas Such As The
Laboratory, Store Room And Factory Floor, And Any Other Areas Where It Is
Not Safe To Consume Food, For Example Because Of The Risk Of
Contamination By Chemicals.
Hazardous Chemicals Should Be Clearly Marked In An Appropriate Language
And With Clear Symbols That People Have Been Trained To Recognise And
Heavy Objects Should Be Marked As Such To Avoid Musculoskeletal Accidents.
Substances Or Items That Present A Fire Hazard Should Be Clearly Labelled
With The Universally Recognized Symbol.
Signs Should Be Placed Near Inflammable Substances Stating That It Is Not
Permitted To Smoke Or Have Open Fires.
Showers And Eye Washes Should Be Made Available And Clearly Marked.
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ROLE OF THE FACTORY STAFF
Each Employee Should Have Sufficient Appropriate Training And Experience So That They Can
Perform All Their Required Job Activities. Where Relevant Each Employee Should:
• Be Aware Of The Contents Of MSDS And Of Potential H&S Hazards.
• Follow All Protocol In The Safe Handling And Disposal Of Dyes And Chemicals.
• Be Aware Of The Fire Protocol, Where Fire Extinguishers Are And Where The Nearest Exit Is
And Where Assembly Points Are.
• Be Aware Of Where The First Aid Kit Is.
• Wash Hands Before Meals, When Leaving The Work Area And At The End Of The Shift. This
Will Prevent Accidental Ingestion Of Chemicals Or Contact With Eyes.
• Maintain Correct Posture When Lifting Or Carrying Heavy Objects.
• Report All Accidents And Sicknesses To The Manager As Soon As They Occur.
• Report Any Defects Or Problems With The Machinery That Might Lead To Potential
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BOOK:- 1) operation and supply management 12th
2) Production and operation management (k.aswathappa Himalaya publishing house)