International Business_Chapter 4_International Trade Theory_Charles W. Hill

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International Business_Chapter 4_International Trade Theory_Charles W. Hill

  1. 1. Chapter 4 International Trade Theory
  2. 2. 4-2 Trade theory-overview   Free Trade occurs when a government does not attempt to influence, through quotas or duties, what its citizens can buy from another country or what they can produce and sell to another country The Benefits of Trade allow a country to specialize in the manufacture and export of products that can be produced most efficiently in that country McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. 4-3 Trade theory-overview    The Pattern of International Trade displays patterns that are easy to understand (Saudi Arabia/oil or China/crawfish). Others are not so easy to understand (Japan and cars) The history of Trade Theory and government involvement presents a mixed case for the role of government in promoting exports and limiting imports Later theories appear to make a case for limited involvement McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. 4-4 Mercantilism: mid-16th century  A nation’s wealth depends on accumulated treasure   Theory says you should have a trade surplus.    Gold and silver are the currency of trade Maximize export through subsidies. Minimize imports through tariffs and quotas Flaw: “zero-sum game” McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. 4-5 Mercantilism-zero-sum game  David Hume in 1752 pointed out that:     Increased exports leads to inflation and higher prices Increased imports lead to lower prices Result: Country A sells less because of high prices and Country B sells more because of lower prices In the long run, no one can keep a trade surplus McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. 4-6 Theory of absolute advantage    Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations (1776) argued:  Capability of one country to produce more of a product with the same amount of input than another country can vary  A country should produce only goods where it is most efficient, and trade for those goods where it is not efficient Trade between countries is, therefore, beneficial Assumes there is an absolute balance among nations  Example: Ghana/cocoa McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. 4-7 Theory of absolute advantage Fig 4.1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. 4-8 Absolute advantage and the gains from trade McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. 4-9 Theory of comparative advantage  David Ricardo: Principles of Political Economy (1817).     Extends free trade argument Efficiency of resource utilization leads to more productivity. Should import even if country is more efficient in the product’s production than country from which it is buying. Look to see how much more efficient. If only comparatively efficient, than import. Makes better use of resources  Trade is a positive-sum game McGraw-Hill/Irwin  © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. International Business, 5/e
  10. 10. 4-10 Theory of comparative advantage Fig 4.2 McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. 4-11 Comparative advantage and the gains from trade McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. 4-12 Simple extensions of the Ricardian model  Immobile resources:  Resources do not always move easily from one economic activity to another  Diminishing returns:  Diminishing returns to specialization suggests that after some point, the more units of a good the country produces, the greater the additional resources required to produce an additional item  Different goods use resources in different proportions McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. 4-13 Simple extensions of the Ricardian model  Free trade (open economies):   Free trade might increase a country’s stock of resources (as labor and capital arrives from abroad) Increase the efficiency of resource utilization McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. 4-14 PPF under diminishing returns Fig 4.3 McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. 4-15 Influence of free trade on PPF Fig 4.4 McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. 4-16 Heckscher (1919)-Olin (1933) Theory  Export goods that intensively use factor endowments which are locally abundant  Corollary: import goods made from locally scarce factors    Note: Factor endowments can be impacted by government policy - minimum wage Patterns of trade are determined by differences in factor endowments - not productivity Remember, focus on relative advantage, not absolute advantage McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. 4-17 Product life-cycle Theory- R. Vernon,(1966)    As products mature, both location of sales and optimal production changes Affects the direction and flow of imports and exports Globalization and integration of the economy makes this theory less valid McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  18. 18. 4-18 Product life cycle theory Fig 4.5 McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19. 4-19 New trade theory   In industries with high fixed costs: Specialization increases output, and the ability to enhance economies of scale increases learning effects are high. These are cost savings that come from “learning by doing” McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  20. 20. 4-20 New trade theory-applications  Typically, requires industries with high, fixed costs   Competitors may emerge because of “ Firstmover advantage”    World demand will support few competitors Economies of scale may preclude new entrants Role of the government becomes significant Some argue that it generates government intervention and strategic trade policy McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  21. 21. 4-21 Theory of national competitive advantage   The theory attempts to analyze the reasons for a nations success in a particular industry Porter studied 100 industries in 10 nations  postulated determinants of competitive advantage of a nation were based on four major attributes  Factor endowments  Demand conditions  Related and supporting industries  Firm strategy, structure and rivalry McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  22. 22. 4-22 Porter’s diamond    Success occurs where these attributes exist. More/greater the attribute, the higher chance of success The diamond is mutually reinforcing Fig 4.6 McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  23. 23. 4-23 Factor endowments    Factor endowments:- A nation’s position in factors of production such as skilled labor or infrastructure necessary to compete in a given industry Basic factor endowments Advanced factor endowments McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  24. 24. 4-24 Basic factor endowments  Basic factors: Factors present in a country      Natural resources Climate Geographic location Demographics While basic factors can provide an initial advantage they must be supported by advanced factors to maintain success McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  25. 25. 4-25 Advanced factor endowments Advanced factors: Are the result of investment by people, companies, government and are more likely to lead to competitive advantage  If a country has no basic factors, it must invest in advanced factors  McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  26. 26. 4-26 Advanced factor endowments      communications skilled labor research Technology education McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  27. 27. 4-27 Demand conditions  Demand:  creates capabilities  creates sophisticated and demanding consumers  Demand impacts quality and innovation McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  28. 28. 4-28 Related and supporting industries  Creates clusters of supporting industries that are internationally competitive  Must also meet requirements of other parts of the Diamond McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  29. 29. 4-29 Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry    Long term corporate vision is a determinant of success Management ‘ideology’ and structure of the firm can either help or hurt you Presence of domestic rivalry improves a company’s competitiveness McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  30. 30. 4-30 Determinants of Competitive Advantage in nations Company Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry Factor Conditions Government McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e Demand Conditions Related and Supporting Industries © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  31. 31. 4-31 Porter’s Theory-predictions  Porter’s theory should predict the pattern of international trade that we observe in the real world  Countries should be exporting products from those industries where all four components of the diamond are favorable, while importing in those areas where the components are not favorable McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  32. 32. 4-32 Implications for business  Location implications:   First-mover implications:   Disperse production activities to countries where they can be performed most efficiently Invest substantial financial resources in building a first-mover, or early-mover advantage Policy implications:  Promoting free trade is in the best interests of the home-country, not always in the best interests of the firm, even though, many firms promote open markets McGraw-Hill/Irwin International Business, 5/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.

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