08 mughals

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08 mughals

  1. 1. THE MUGHAL EMPIRE (1526-1707)THE MUGHAL EMPIRE (1526-1707)  The Mughal emperors (first six rulers).The Mughal emperors (first six rulers).  BABUR (1526-30)BABUR (1526-30)  HUMAYUN (1530-56)HUMAYUN (1530-56)  AKBAR (1556-1605)AKBAR (1556-1605)  JAHANGIR (1605-28)JAHANGIR (1605-28)  SHAHJAHAN (1628-58)SHAHJAHAN (1628-58)  AURANGZEB (1658-1707AURANGZEB (1658-1707))
  2. 2. PRIMARY SOURCESPRIMARY SOURCES  MAJOR HISTORIANSMAJOR HISTORIANS::  ABUL FAZLABUL FAZL  ABDUL QADIR BADAONIABDUL QADIR BADAONI  GULBADAN BEGUMGULBADAN BEGUM  ABDUL HAMID LAHORIABDUL HAMID LAHORI  SAQI MUSTAID KHANSAQI MUSTAID KHAN  BHIMSENBHIMSEN
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION  What were the factors behind the success ofWhat were the factors behind the success of the Mughals?the Mughals?  How they were able to establish andHow they were able to establish and maintained their sovereignty over the Indianmaintained their sovereignty over the Indian sub-continent and legitimize their rule?sub-continent and legitimize their rule?  Was it because they had better militaryWas it because they had better military technology and skills? Or had charismatictechnology and skills? Or had charismatic
  4. 4. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION  rulers? Or were the centralizing institutionsrulers? Or were the centralizing institutions and broad base and culturally diverseand broad base and culturally diverse bureaucracy responsible for their success?bureaucracy responsible for their success?  How did the descendents of Babur who ruledHow did the descendents of Babur who ruled over a small principality in Farghanaover a small principality in Farghana (Afghanistan) created one of the most(Afghanistan) created one of the most powerful gunpowder empires (other two: thepowerful gunpowder empires (other two: the Ottoman Turks and Safavids of Persia)Ottoman Turks and Safavids of Persia)
  5. 5. THE LARGEST ARMYTHE LARGEST ARMY  The Mughals maintained the largest standingThe Mughals maintained the largest standing army of that time. Just one estimate: In 1628army of that time. Just one estimate: In 1628 there 200,000 salaried cavalrymen, 8000there 200,000 salaried cavalrymen, 8000 mansabdarsmansabdars, 7000, 7000 ahadisahadis and mountedand mounted musketeers were stationed at the imperialmusketeers were stationed at the imperial capital, besides the armies of the nobles,capital, besides the armies of the nobles, mansabdarsmansabdars and the princes. In manyand the princes. In many instances they had the fastest moving army asinstances they had the fastest moving army as well. Akbar was able to cover a distance ofwell. Akbar was able to cover a distance of 500500
  6. 6. THE LARGEST ARMY…THE LARGEST ARMY…  miles (normally it took twenty-one days), inmiles (normally it took twenty-one days), in nine days to crush a rebellion (this feat wasnine days to crush a rebellion (this feat was never repeated).never repeated).  Mughal dynamism depended on its militaryMughal dynamism depended on its military conquest, so much that some historians call itconquest, so much that some historians call it “a war state (J F Richards). Mughal emperors“a war state (J F Richards). Mughal emperors made little apology for attacking themade little apology for attacking the neighbouring rulers and they regarded theneighbouring rulers and they regarded the
  7. 7. CHARISMATIC RULERSCHARISMATIC RULERS  adjoining territories either as tributaries oradjoining territories either as tributaries or enemies.enemies.  The Mughal emperors, especially Akbar,The Mughal emperors, especially Akbar, created a special image of himself, and somecreated a special image of himself, and some of his personal qualities and virtues laterof his personal qualities and virtues later served as a model for his successors (moreserved as a model for his successors (more details when legitimization process will bedetails when legitimization process will be discussed).discussed).
  8. 8. CENTRALIZING INSTITUTIONSCENTRALIZING INSTITUTIONS  Most of the administrative institutions wereMost of the administrative institutions were initiated and established during the reign ofinitiated and established during the reign of Akbar. He was able to build a centralizedAkbar. He was able to build a centralized administration which was capable of steadyadministration which was capable of steady expansion as new territories were added to theexpansion as new territories were added to the empire. At the apex of this system was theempire. At the apex of this system was the emperor who acted as a chief executive.emperor who acted as a chief executive.  At the central level there were four mainAt the central level there were four main
  9. 9. THE MINISTERS…THE MINISTERS…  officials and their ministries namely:officials and their ministries namely: DiwanDiwan in charge of finance and revenue,in charge of finance and revenue, Mir BakshiMir Bakshi in charge of army and intelligence,in charge of army and intelligence, QaziQazi inin charge of judiciary and patronage andcharge of judiciary and patronage and Mir-i-Mir-i- SamaSaman in charge of the royal household, andn in charge of the royal household, and its central workshops, buildings, roads andits central workshops, buildings, roads and canals throughout the empire.canals throughout the empire.  All other functions such as diplomacy andAll other functions such as diplomacy and
  10. 10. THE MINISTERS..THE MINISTERS..  external affairs remained under emperor’sexternal affairs remained under emperor’s control.control.  The Mughal civil and administrative officialsThe Mughal civil and administrative officials were regulated and organized under thewere regulated and organized under the mansabdarimansabdari system.system.  Each of these officials were supported andEach of these officials were supported and helped by a large staff of clerks, accountants,helped by a large staff of clerks, accountants, auditors, messengers, and other functionaries.auditors, messengers, and other functionaries.
  11. 11. THE PROVINCIAL OFFICIALSTHE PROVINCIAL OFFICIALS  The division of functions established at the centre was duplicated in the provinces. At each provincial capital a subahdar (governor) responsible directly to the emperor, shared power with a diwan (finance official) reported to the imperial diwan, bakshi (military and intelligence official) reported to the mir-bakshi and a sadr reported to the imperial qazi.
  12. 12. THETHE MANSABDARIMANSABDARI SYSTEMSYSTEM  Every official in the Mughal empire, high orEvery official in the Mughal empire, high or low, had a rank or alow, had a rank or a mansab.mansab. Their status,Their status, duties, pay and importance were gradedduties, pay and importance were graded accordingly. Technically, all mansabdars hadaccordingly. Technically, all mansabdars had to maintain a military contingent for whichto maintain a military contingent for which they were paid. All other officials were paid inthey were paid. All other officials were paid in cash. During Akbar’s time the official bearingcash. During Akbar’s time the official bearing a decimal rank of 500 were ranked as a noblea decimal rank of 500 were ranked as a noble
  13. 13. THETHE MANSABDARIMANSABDARI ….….  oror umara.umara. But by the end of the seventeenthBut by the end of the seventeenth century thecentury the mansabdarsmansabdars with 1000 rank werewith 1000 rank were accorded the status of aaccorded the status of a umara.umara.  All mansabdars had dual ranks and they were remunerated on that basis. The successful regulation of the mansabs and the salary assignment (jagirdari system) can be truly termed as a Mughal phenomenon.
  14. 14. THETHE MANSABDARI…MANSABDARI…  All Mughal officials received a dual rankAll Mughal officials received a dual rank when they joined the Mughal imperial service.when they joined the Mughal imperial service. That wasThat was zatzat (personal salary) and(personal salary) and sawarsawar (payment for the military contingent). For(payment for the military contingent). For example theexample the mansabmansab of Prince Salimof Prince Salim (Jahangir) was 5000(Jahangir) was 5000 zat/zat/50005000 sawar.sawar. WhatWhat does it mean: Prince Salim’s personal salarydoes it mean: Prince Salim’s personal salary was based on hiswas based on his mansabmansab of 5000of 5000 zatzat and forand for 50005000 sawarsawar, he had to maintain a military, he had to maintain a military contingent.contingent.
  15. 15. THETHE MANSABDARI…MANSABDARI…  During Akbar’s reign the ratio was oneDuring Akbar’s reign the ratio was one horsemen and two horses and ahorsemen and two horses and a mansabdarmansabdar ofof 5000 sawar had to maintain a contingent of5000 sawar had to maintain a contingent of 5000 horsemen. The5000 horsemen. The mansabdars zatmansabdars zat rankrank never exceeded hisnever exceeded his sawarsawar rank (either it usedrank (either it used to be equal 5000/5000 or 3000/ 4000 or lessto be equal 5000/5000 or 3000/ 4000 or less than thethan the sawarsawar rank). Therank). The zatzat numerals werenumerals were always used to be stated first.always used to be stated first.  The highest rank (The highest rank (mansabmansab) was 7000/7000) was 7000/7000 which was awarded to the officials/royalty.which was awarded to the officials/royalty.
  16. 16. CHANGES IN THECHANGES IN THE MANSABDARIMANSABDARI  After the reign of Akbar when the highestAfter the reign of Akbar when the highest ranking mansabdars who had reached theranking mansabdars who had reached the maximum limit in their mansab had nothing tomaximum limit in their mansab had nothing to aspire for. For this reason there were someaspire for. For this reason there were some changes in thechanges in the mansabdarimansabdari system.system.  The quota of the contingent which eachThe quota of the contingent which each mansabdarmansabdar had to maintain was lowered andhad to maintain was lowered and there were further reductions in the contingentthere were further reductions in the contingent if theif the mansabdarsmansabdars were posted on the frontierswere posted on the frontiers or far away places.or far away places.
  17. 17. THE CHANGES…THE CHANGES…  Changes in theChanges in the mansabdarimansabdari system:system:  Du-aspaDu-aspa andand sih-aspasih-aspa categories: For examplecategories: For example thethe mansabmansab of Ali Mardan Khan (1628) wasof Ali Mardan Khan (1628) was 7000/70007000/7000 du-aspa (du-aspa (His personal rank wasHis personal rank was 7000 but for his 7000 contingent he had to7000 but for his 7000 contingent he had to maintain only 66% of troops)maintain only 66% of troops)  If theIf the sih-aspasih-aspa category was added then thecategory was added then the mansabdarmansabdar had to maintain 33% of hishad to maintain 33% of his contingent.contingent.
  18. 18. THE CHANGES…THE CHANGES…  The crisis in theThe crisis in the mansabdarimansabdari system wassystem was becoming obvious by the time of Shahjahan.becoming obvious by the time of Shahjahan. TheThe zatzat rank of the mansabdars startingrank of the mansabdars starting exceeding theirexceeding their sawarsawar rank and had crossedrank and had crossed the maximum limit of 7000. Athe maximum limit of 7000. A mansabdarmansabdar could have acould have a mansabmansab of 20,000/ 5000. (will beof 20,000/ 5000. (will be elaborated).elaborated).
  19. 19. THETHE JAGIRDARIJAGIRDARI SYSTEMSYSTEM  All the Mughal mansabdars were paid through an assignment of jagirs.  These jagirs can be linked to the Delhi Sultan’s Iqta system where the Sultans parcelled out their territories to be administered by their nobles and the state officials. These officials were responsible for maintaining law and order and collection of land revenue. After meeting
  20. 20. THETHE JAGIRDARIJAGIRDARI……  the necessary expenses thethe necessary expenses the iqtadarsiqtadars used toused to send the surplus revenue to the centralsend the surplus revenue to the central treasury.treasury.  The jagir assignments initiated by Akbar,The jagir assignments initiated by Akbar, however, only gave the right to collecthowever, only gave the right to collect revenues to therevenues to the mansabdarsmansabdars. They were not. They were not responsible to maintain law and order or anyresponsible to maintain law and order or any other responsibilities. It was a purely fiscalother responsibilities. It was a purely fiscal
  21. 21. THETHE JAGIRDARIJAGIRDARI……  arrangement and only Rajputarrangement and only Rajput mansabdarsmansabdars were given more extensive rights of residencewere given more extensive rights of residence within their own homeland (Rajputana). Theywithin their own homeland (Rajputana). They received patrimonial (Mughal term:received patrimonial (Mughal term: watanwatan)) lands as a part of thelands as a part of the jagirsjagirs assigned to them.assigned to them.  The most important element of theThe most important element of the jagirjagir assignments was that they were transferable.assignments was that they were transferable. Abul Fazl compared the transfer ofAbul Fazl compared the transfer of jagirsjagirs toto
  22. 22. THETHE JAGIRDARIJAGIRDARI……  re-sowing of the seeds in the garden. Inre-sowing of the seeds in the garden. In practice, however, the higherpractice, however, the higher mansabdarsmansabdars preferred to retain theirpreferred to retain their jagirsjagirs (if they were(if they were good) and bribed the imperial officials lavishlygood) and bribed the imperial officials lavishly for that.for that.  Deaths, transfers, promotions, and demotionsDeaths, transfers, promotions, and demotions of the imperial cadres necessitated continuingof the imperial cadres necessitated continuing transfer oftransfer of jagirsjagirs..
  23. 23. THETHE ZAMINDARIZAMINDARI SYSTEMSYSTEM  The local level administration was carried onThe local level administration was carried on the local elites or hereditary landowners and inthe local elites or hereditary landowners and in Mughal parlance known asMughal parlance known as zamindarszamindars. They. They claimed a hereditary right to collect a share inclaimed a hereditary right to collect a share in the revenue collection.the revenue collection.  For administrative purposes they could beFor administrative purposes they could be categorized into three broad groups.categorized into three broad groups.
  24. 24. THETHE ZAMINDARI…ZAMINDARI…  AUTONOMOUSAUTONOMOUS ZAMINDARSZAMINDARS:: the hereditary landowners who enjoyed sovereign powers. Rajput rulers, Jats (large peasant landowners) belonged to this category.  INTERMEDIARYINTERMEDIARY ZAMINDARSZAMINDARS:: thethe zamindarszamindars who collected the land revenue andwho collected the land revenue and paid to the imperial treasury or thepaid to the imperial treasury or the jagirdars.jagirdars.
  25. 25. THETHE ZAMINDARIZAMINDARI……  PRIMARYPRIMARY ZAMINDARSZAMINDARS: the proprietary: the proprietary rights over agricultural as well as habitationalrights over agricultural as well as habitational lands. Mughal emperors conferred suchlands. Mughal emperors conferred such zamindarizamindari rights on people who cleared therights on people who cleared the forests or brought waste lands underforests or brought waste lands under cultivation.cultivation.
  26. 26. THE LAND REVENUE SYSTEM…THE LAND REVENUE SYSTEM…  The land revenue (The land revenue (malmal) was levied on the) was levied on the actual crop and not on the land. In itsactual crop and not on the land. In its primitive form this was known as shareprimitive form this was known as share cropping. This simple form of revenuecropping. This simple form of revenue collection led to the system ofcollection led to the system of kankut,kankut, herehere instead of dividing the crops physically, theinstead of dividing the crops physically, the share were deduced based on previous harvestsshare were deduced based on previous harvests (in place by the fourteenth century).(in place by the fourteenth century).
  27. 27. THE LAND REVENUE…THE LAND REVENUE…  TheThe zabtzabt system introduced by Akbarsystem introduced by Akbar simplified the process, when on the basis ofsimplified the process, when on the basis of ten years of harvest, a standard cash rate wasten years of harvest, a standard cash rate was fixed for each locality. The land revenue wasfixed for each locality. The land revenue was collected in cash from all parts of the Mughalcollected in cash from all parts of the Mughal empire.empire.  In addition to the land revenue there were aIn addition to the land revenue there were a number of other rural taxes such as grazingnumber of other rural taxes such as grazing tax, levies of the officials, taxes on animals,tax, levies of the officials, taxes on animals, waste lands, forests, etc.waste lands, forests, etc.
  28. 28. THE MUGHAL NOBILITYTHE MUGHAL NOBILITY  Mughal nobility was unique in two ways: a)Mughal nobility was unique in two ways: a) Mughal empire was the only Muslim stateMughal empire was the only Muslim state where thewhere the shiashia and theand the sunnisunni nobles co-existednobles co-existed peacefully. B) Empire provided opportunitiespeacefully. B) Empire provided opportunities for service irrespective of ethnic, religious orfor service irrespective of ethnic, religious or familial ties and thus created a “new individualfamilial ties and thus created a “new individual and group identity”. For instance, theand group identity”. For instance, the successful expansion of the empire broughtsuccessful expansion of the empire brought
  29. 29. THE NOBILITY…THE NOBILITY…  chances of promotion according to thechances of promotion according to the performance of the individual noble. Theperformance of the individual noble. The consolidation of the empire depended on itsconsolidation of the empire depended on its capacity, firstly, to politically integrate thecapacity, firstly, to politically integrate the most important social groups and secondly, tomost important social groups and secondly, to secure the financial resources that weresecure the financial resources that were necessary for its survival.necessary for its survival.  In order to achieve a certain unity within theIn order to achieve a certain unity within the
  30. 30. THE NOBILITYTHE NOBILITY……  nobility and to gain the nobles undiminishednobility and to gain the nobles undiminished dedication to the concerns of the imperialdedication to the concerns of the imperial centre, the Mughal empire had to providecentre, the Mughal empire had to provide opportunities to satisfy the interests of theopportunities to satisfy the interests of the imperial elites and in this way build the noblesimperial elites and in this way build the nobles identification with the imperial idea.identification with the imperial idea.  The Mughal nobility became and remained aThe Mughal nobility became and remained a heterogeneous body of free men, not slavesheterogeneous body of free men, not slaves
  31. 31. THE NOBILITY…THE NOBILITY…  (like the Turkish nobility), who rose to(like the Turkish nobility), who rose to eminence as their talents and the emperor’seminence as their talents and the emperor’s favours permitted. But no single ethnic orfavours permitted. But no single ethnic or sectarian group was ever large enough tosectarian group was ever large enough to challenge the authority of the emperor.challenge the authority of the emperor. Rewards and incentives rather than force andRewards and incentives rather than force and coercion were the Mughal’s preferredcoercion were the Mughal’s preferred approach. The system offered generous moneyapproach. The system offered generous money
  32. 32. THE NOBILITY…THE NOBILITY…  rewards as well as lavish honours andrewards as well as lavish honours and preferment to those who performed well at allpreferment to those who performed well at all levels.levels.  Possessing great wealth and power, thesePossessing great wealth and power, these nobles ornobles or umaraumara were highly visible publicwere highly visible public figures. Their personalities, habits, andfigures. Their personalities, habits, and movements were the topic of endless rumoursmovements were the topic of endless rumours and speculations. The greatest nobles used toand speculations. The greatest nobles used to
  33. 33. THE NOBILITYTHE NOBILITY……  be the objects of empire wide- attention. Newsbe the objects of empire wide- attention. News of royal favour or disfavour, of illnesses,of royal favour or disfavour, of illnesses, marriages, postings, and other informationmarriages, postings, and other information formed the stuff of countless reports thatformed the stuff of countless reports that flashed across the empire. Wherever, theyflashed across the empire. Wherever, they were posted, whether in court or in thewere posted, whether in court or in the provinces, the patrimonial households of theprovinces, the patrimonial households of the nobles were a focal point of aristocratic lifenobles were a focal point of aristocratic life
  34. 34. THE NOBILITY…THE NOBILITY…  and culture. To the extent his resourcesand culture. To the extent his resources permitted each noblemen emulated the style,permitted each noblemen emulated the style, etiquette, and opulence of the emperor.etiquette, and opulence of the emperor.  These nobles patronized artists, and craftsmenThese nobles patronized artists, and craftsmen who produced the products exclusively fromwho produced the products exclusively from them. In the Mughal cities of Agra, Delhi,them. In the Mughal cities of Agra, Delhi, Burhanpur and Lahore, the morphology ofBurhanpur and Lahore, the morphology of urban life was determined by the settlementurban life was determined by the settlement
  35. 35. THE NOBILITY…THE NOBILITY…  patterns of the Mughal nobility. Architects,patterns of the Mughal nobility. Architects, artisans, builders, poets, found permanentartisans, builders, poets, found permanent employment in the noble entourages. Mughalemployment in the noble entourages. Mughal officials and frequently, their women spentofficials and frequently, their women spent large sums of money for the construction oflarge sums of money for the construction of public buildings i.e. mosques, inns, stonepublic buildings i.e. mosques, inns, stone bridges, gardens and markets. The origin ofbridges, gardens and markets. The origin of dozen of new towns and villagesdozen of new towns and villages throughoutthe Mughal India can be traced tothroughoutthe Mughal India can be traced to the investment by these nobles.the investment by these nobles.
  36. 36. LEGITIMACY: AKBAR AND HISLEGITIMACY: AKBAR AND HIS POLICIESPOLICIES  How did the Mughals legitimize their ruleHow did the Mughals legitimize their rule beyond the religiously sanctioned status, theybeyond the religiously sanctioned status, they were not above the Swere not above the Sharia,haria, or, in case of Non-or, in case of Non- Muslims,Muslims, dharmadharma. What sort of alliances did. What sort of alliances did they build? How did they secure support andthey build? How did they secure support and delegate authority. And how did theydelegate authority. And how did they transformed their power into authority, andtransformed their power into authority, and what kind of authority they possessed?what kind of authority they possessed?
  37. 37. THE LEGITIMACYTHE LEGITIMACY……  First of all, the Muslim rulers in India, likeFirst of all, the Muslim rulers in India, like their early Muslim predecessors, neither broketheir early Muslim predecessors, neither broke away the established kingship system noraway the established kingship system nor interfered with customs, the social order, orinterfered with customs, the social order, or indigenous structure of the villageindigenous structure of the village administration. The Muslim kings did notadministration. The Muslim kings did not present themselves as lawmakers for non-present themselves as lawmakers for non- Muslim subjects, but as their protectors andMuslim subjects, but as their protectors and guaranteed the continuityguaranteed the continuity
  38. 38. THE LEGITIMACY…THE LEGITIMACY…  of the traditional social and economicof the traditional social and economic institutions. The Mughals adopted a generalinstitutions. The Mughals adopted a general policy of tolerance vis-à-vis the largely non-policy of tolerance vis-à-vis the largely non- Muslim population and elaborated an entirelyMuslim population and elaborated an entirely new system of cultural ethnic integration,new system of cultural ethnic integration, which, in fact, introduced a new quality ofwhich, in fact, introduced a new quality of imperial rule in India. They claimed to beimperial rule in India. They claimed to be responsible for the welfare of all their subjectsresponsible for the welfare of all their subjects
  39. 39. INTEGRATION PROCESSES  The historians, scholars and literary writersThe historians, scholars and literary writers depicted the Mughal emperors as shadows ofdepicted the Mughal emperors as shadows of God on earth, whose authority to rule was aGod on earth, whose authority to rule was a divine right. While Islamic religious thinkingdivine right. While Islamic religious thinking had generally restricted the religious functionhad generally restricted the religious function of the ruler to mere protection of law, Abulof the ruler to mere protection of law, Abul Fazl invested the Mughal emperor, Akbar,Fazl invested the Mughal emperor, Akbar, with a paramount spiritual authority. Thewith a paramount spiritual authority. The
  40. 40. INTEGRATION PROCESSES  moral authority, which he gained by hismoral authority, which he gained by his reputation as a mystic and spiritual guide, didreputation as a mystic and spiritual guide, did not derive from any particular religion, andnot derive from any particular religion, and therefore, legitimized his position as a ruler fortherefore, legitimized his position as a ruler for Muslims and Hindus alike. This idea ofMuslims and Hindus alike. This idea of spiritual leader corresponded with the Hinduspiritual leader corresponded with the Hindu and Muslim ideals of a universal monarch.and Muslim ideals of a universal monarch. There was a juxtaposition of Hindu/MuslimThere was a juxtaposition of Hindu/Muslim
  41. 41. INTEGRATION PROCESSESINTEGRATION PROCESSES  traditions in formulation of Mughal ideologytraditions in formulation of Mughal ideology to legitimize their rule.to legitimize their rule.  Akbar’s contribution to the establishment ofAkbar’s contribution to the establishment of Mughal authority on religious tolerance wasMughal authority on religious tolerance was based on the principles ofbased on the principles of sul-i-kulsul-i-kul oror “absolute peace”. As a divinely inspired“absolute peace”. As a divinely inspired guardian of law and justice, Akbar introducedguardian of law and justice, Akbar introduced certain elements, which fostered confidencecertain elements, which fostered confidence
  42. 42. INTEGRATON PROCESSESINTEGRATON PROCESSES  and acceptance of Mughal authority among hisand acceptance of Mughal authority among his subjects. From his childhood he wassubjects. From his childhood he was inquisitive by nature and was interested ininquisitive by nature and was interested in learning about other cultures and faiths. In thelearning about other cultures and faiths. In the beginning of his reign, he was a devoutbeginning of his reign, he was a devout Muslim i. e expeditions against the RajputsMuslim i. e expeditions against the Rajputs were coined as campaigns against the infidels,were coined as campaigns against the infidels, and his intolerance towards other Muslimand his intolerance towards other Muslim sects.sects.
  43. 43. INTEGRATION PROCESSESINTEGRATION PROCESSES  Gradually a shift started appearing in hisGradually a shift started appearing in his attitude towards his own faith. Many reasonsattitude towards his own faith. Many reasons are given behind the change by historians, but,are given behind the change by historians, but, it all started with his tutors, guardians, closeit all started with his tutors, guardians, close companions, and most importantly, from thecompanions, and most importantly, from the outcome of the discussions that took place inoutcome of the discussions that took place in his court between the Ulema. Although, he hadhis court between the Ulema. Although, he had initiated these talks, but as time went on, heinitiated these talks, but as time went on, he
  44. 44. INTEGRATION PROCESSESINTEGRATION PROCESSES  became more dissatisfied with the legalbecame more dissatisfied with the legal complications and traditional approach of hiscomplications and traditional approach of his clerics. He started inviting experts of otherclerics. He started inviting experts of other faiths to come for discussion in his capital city,faiths to come for discussion in his capital city, Fatehpur Sikri (1578 onwards). In theFatehpur Sikri (1578 onwards). In the meantime he made the leading theologiansmeantime he made the leading theologians recognize him as the supreme arbitrator in therecognize him as the supreme arbitrator in the religious affairs(1579). The leadingreligious affairs(1579). The leading theologians signed the document known intheologians signed the document known in history ashistory as MahzarMahzar..
  45. 45. INTEGRATION PROCESSESINTEGRATION PROCESSES  The most sweeping change, which had a directThe most sweeping change, which had a direct impact on nearly all Hindus, occurred in 1579,impact on nearly all Hindus, occurred in 1579, when he abolished thewhen he abolished the jiziyajiziya. The termination. The termination of this tax implied that the unequal compactof this tax implied that the unequal compact between the Muslims and non-Muslims wasbetween the Muslims and non-Muslims was also abolished. Hence, Akbar’s action wasalso abolished. Hence, Akbar’s action was bitterly resented by orthodox Muslims.bitterly resented by orthodox Muslims.  Akbar also started celebrating Hindu festivalsAkbar also started celebrating Hindu festivals
  46. 46. INTEGRATION PROCESSESINTEGRATION PROCESSES  and customs and openly worshipping sun withand customs and openly worshipping sun with sets of rituals of his own inventions. Hesets of rituals of his own inventions. He engaged in abstinence from excessive meatengaged in abstinence from excessive meat eating, sexual intercourse and alcoholeating, sexual intercourse and alcohol consumption. Akbar also came to enlistconsumption. Akbar also came to enlist selected members of the nobility as hisselected members of the nobility as his disciples (misconstrued as a religion by somedisciples (misconstrued as a religion by some historians).historians).
  47. 47. INTEGRATION PROCESSESINTEGRATION PROCESSES  He married Rajput princesses and inductedHe married Rajput princesses and inducted large number of non-Muslims in his nobility.large number of non-Muslims in his nobility.  Akbar’s successors, more or less, continuedAkbar’s successors, more or less, continued his tradition of pluralism and tolerance to otherhis tradition of pluralism and tolerance to other faiths. Usually Aurangzeb had been blamedfaiths. Usually Aurangzeb had been blamed for undoing the cultural pluralism and alwaysfor undoing the cultural pluralism and always compared to his elder brother, Dara Shikoh,compared to his elder brother, Dara Shikoh, and two have come down in history asand two have come down in history as ideologicalideological
  48. 48. INTEGRATION PROCESSESINTEGRATION PROCESSES  opponents. Dara as liberal, and Aurangzeb asopponents. Dara as liberal, and Aurangzeb as rigid conservative. Dara, was indeed, anrigid conservative. Dara, was indeed, an intellectual in tradition of Akbar who soughtintellectual in tradition of Akbar who sought philosophical truths in all religious traditions.philosophical truths in all religious traditions. But there were other contradictions. It is also aBut there were other contradictions. It is also a fact, that Dara was a poor leader and a badfact, that Dara was a poor leader and a bad general, therefore, not an ideal choice of beinggeneral, therefore, not an ideal choice of being the heir of Shahjahan. Whereasthe heir of Shahjahan. Whereas
  49. 49. INTEGRATION PROCESSESINTEGRATION PROCESSES  Aurangzeb, was a great general and militaryAurangzeb, was a great general and military commander, a devout Muslim, yet the majorcommander, a devout Muslim, yet the major focus of Aurangzeb’s reign was warfarefocus of Aurangzeb’s reign was warfare against the Muslims (Deccan states of Bijapur,against the Muslims (Deccan states of Bijapur, Golconda, etc.).Golconda, etc.).  But to blame Aurangzeb for the decline andBut to blame Aurangzeb for the decline and collapse of the imperial structure will becollapse of the imperial structure will be coming to an easy conclusion/solution.coming to an easy conclusion/solution.
  50. 50. INTEGRATION PROCESSESINTEGRATION PROCESSES  Aurangzeb shifted but did not alter the fundamentalAurangzeb shifted but did not alter the fundamental policies of the Mughal empire. He preferred strictpolicies of the Mughal empire. He preferred strict Islamic orIslamic or ShariaSharia application in administrativeapplication in administrative matters. No doubt, he ordered the destruction of thematters. No doubt, he ordered the destruction of the temples in Banaras, Mathura and Rajasthan, but ittemples in Banaras, Mathura and Rajasthan, but it was less to do with religiosity than the presumedwas less to do with religiosity than the presumed disloyalty of nobles associated withthese sites. Hisdisloyalty of nobles associated withthese sites. His accusation against he tenth Sikh guru was also,accusation against he tenth Sikh guru was also, politically motivated since the guru had openlypolitically motivated since the guru had openly supported his opponent, Dara.supported his opponent, Dara.
  51. 51. DEFINING MUGHAL CULTUREDEFINING MUGHAL CULTURE  In Indian languages adjectives derived fromIn Indian languages adjectives derived from the word Mughal connote the ultimate inthe word Mughal connote the ultimate in luxury and display, it also came to beluxury and display, it also came to be associated with grandeur and extravagance onassociated with grandeur and extravagance on a large scale. Mughals came to be known fora large scale. Mughals came to be known for their lavish life styles. Few examples: Akbartheir lavish life styles. Few examples: Akbar only drank water from river Ganges andonly drank water from river Ganges and wherever, he went the water was delivered towherever, he went the water was delivered to him fresh.him fresh.
  52. 52. THE MUGHAL CULTURE…THE MUGHAL CULTURE…  The imperial kitchens prepared 1000 dishes aThe imperial kitchens prepared 1000 dishes a day and the imperial tents could accommodateday and the imperial tents could accommodate 1500 people.1500 people.  Shahjahan was able to immortalize MughalShahjahan was able to immortalize Mughal grandeur in monumental buildings like the Tajgrandeur in monumental buildings like the Taj Mahal, new capital city in Delhi, large scaleMahal, new capital city in Delhi, large scale renovations in Agra and Lahore and luxuriousrenovations in Agra and Lahore and luxurious court adorned with a peacock throne (made incourt adorned with a peacock throne (made in
  53. 53. THE MUGHAL CULTURE…THE MUGHAL CULTURE…  ten million rupees). Shahjahan spent more thanten million rupees). Shahjahan spent more than 28 million on his buildings. Despite the large28 million on his buildings. Despite the large investments on war and imperial structures,investments on war and imperial structures, Shahjahan was able to amass wealth worthShahjahan was able to amass wealth worth ninety one million rupees (half in cash and halfninety one million rupees (half in cash and half in jewels, gold and silver).in jewels, gold and silver).
  54. 54. HUMAYUN’S TOMB, DELHIHUMAYUN’S TOMB, DELHI
  55. 55. THE TAJ MAHALTHE TAJ MAHAL
  56. 56. ANOTHER VIEW OF TAJANOTHER VIEW OF TAJ
  57. 57. DIWAN-I-KHAS, DELHIDIWAN-I-KHAS, DELHI
  58. 58. LAL QILA, DELHILAL QILA, DELHI
  59. 59. FATEHPUR SIKRIFATEHPUR SIKRI
  60. 60. SHALIMAR BAGH, KASHMIRSHALIMAR BAGH, KASHMIR
  61. 61. MUGHAL PAINTINGSMUGHAL PAINTINGS
  62. 62. MUGHAL PAINTINGSMUGHAL PAINTINGS
  63. 63. MUGHAL PAINTINGSMUGHAL PAINTINGS
  64. 64. MUGHAL ARTMUGHAL ART
  65. 65. MUGHAL JEWELLRYMUGHAL JEWELLRY

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