PAEDIATRICS
ENDOCRINE  DISORDERDIABETESMELLITUS
INTRODUCTIONDIABETES IS A DISORDER OFGLUCOSE INTOLERANCE DUE TODEFICIENCY IN INSULINPRODUCTION AND ITS ACTIONLEADING TO HY...
INCIDENCEAPPROXIMATELY 5% OF ALLDIABETICS ARE CHILDREN.PEAK INCIDENCE INCHILDREN IS FOUNDAROUND 5YRS. AND ABOUT10 TO 12 YR...
1) GENETIC PREDISPOSITON2) AUTO- IMMUNE PROCESS            MECHANISMSOF BETA CELL DAMAGE ISBELIEVED TO BE AN AUTO-IMMUNE P...
CLASSIFICATION1. TYPE- 1 INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS.2. TYPE-2 NON- INSULIN DIABETES MELLITUS.
TYPE-1 INSULIN    DEPENDENTDIABETES MELLITUSIT RESULTS FROM AUTO-IMMUNE DESTRUCTION OF BETACELLS. IT IS CHARACTERISEDBY GR...
NO AGE BAR . MAJORITY OFTYPE-1 CASES AS IDIOPATHIC.TYPE-2 NON- INBSULINDEPENDENT DIABETESMELLITUSIT IS RARE IN CHILDHOODAN...
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY  DUE TO ETIOLOGICAL        FACTOR             ↓  DEFICIENCY OF INSULIN              ↓GLUCOSE IS UNABLE TOE...
↓PROTEIN AND FAT ISBREAKDOWN ANDCONVERTED TO GLUCOSEFOR ENERGY.                ↓AS THE BODY ATTEMPTS TOMEET ITS ENERGY NEE...
CLINICALMANIFESTATION                   a) HYPERGLYCEMIA GLYCOSURIA POLYURIA POLYDEPSIA   POLYPHAGIA   WEIGHT LOSS ...
   OVERLY TIRED   DRY SKIN   BLURRED VISION   SLOW- HEALING PROCESS   FREQUENT INFECTION   FAINTING ATTACKS   NAUSE...
DIAGNOSTIC     EVALUATIONa)                HI                  ST                  OR                   Y                 ...
M     NT     N.c)   LA      B     IN     VE     ST     IG     AT     IO      Nd)    U     RI     NE     EX      A     MI  ...
IO                      N  MANAGEMENTa) INSULIN THERAPYb) EXERCISE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITYc) DIET THERAPYd) FOLLOW- UP
e) EMOTIONAL SUPPORT  AND DIABETIC EDUCATIONNURSING DIAGNOSIS  ALTERED NUTRITION  INTKE DUE TO INSULIN  DEFICIENCY AND  A...
 RISK FOR INFECTION r/t HYPERGLYCEMIA RISK FOR INJURY r/t HYPOGLYCEMIA KNOWLEDGE DEFICIT r/t INSULIN THERAPY FEAR AND ...
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Paediatrics.doc -- diabetic melitus

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Paediatrics.doc -- diabetic melitus

  1. 1. PAEDIATRICS
  2. 2. ENDOCRINE DISORDERDIABETESMELLITUS
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONDIABETES IS A DISORDER OFGLUCOSE INTOLERANCE DUE TODEFICIENCY IN INSULINPRODUCTION AND ITS ACTIONLEADING TO HYPERGLYCEMIA ANDABNORMALITIES INCARBOHYDRATE , PROTEIN ANDFAT METABOLISM.IT IS A COMMONEST ENDOCRINEMETABOLIC DISORDER OFCHILDHOOD AND ADOLSCECNCEWITH LONG TERM EFFECT ONCHILD’S PHYSICAL ANDPSYCHOLOGICAL GROWTH ANDDEVELOPMENT .
  4. 4. INCIDENCEAPPROXIMATELY 5% OF ALLDIABETICS ARE CHILDREN.PEAK INCIDENCE INCHILDREN IS FOUNDAROUND 5YRS. AND ABOUT10 TO 12 YRS. ETIOLOGY
  5. 5. 1) GENETIC PREDISPOSITON2) AUTO- IMMUNE PROCESS MECHANISMSOF BETA CELL DAMAGE ISBELIEVED TO BE AN AUTO-IMMUNE PROCESS.3) ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS a) STERSS ( EMOTIONAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS)
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION1. TYPE- 1 INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS.2. TYPE-2 NON- INSULIN DIABETES MELLITUS.
  7. 7. TYPE-1 INSULIN DEPENDENTDIABETES MELLITUSIT RESULTS FROM AUTO-IMMUNE DESTRUCTION OF BETACELLS. IT IS CHARACTERISEDBY GROSS DEFICIENCY OFINSULIN AND DEPENDENCE ONEXOGENOUS INSULIN FORPREVENTION OF KETO-ACIDOSIS. IT OCCURS MAINLY INCHILDHOOD THOUGH THERE IS
  8. 8. NO AGE BAR . MAJORITY OFTYPE-1 CASES AS IDIOPATHIC.TYPE-2 NON- INBSULINDEPENDENT DIABETESMELLITUSIT IS RARE IN CHILDHOODAND IS NOT ASSOSCIATEDWITH AUTO- IMMUNEPROCESS. IT IS USUALLYNOT COMPLICATED BYKETO- ACIDOSIS.PREVIOUSLY IT WAS ALSOKNOWN AS ADULT-ONSETDIABETES OR MATURITYONSET DIABETES.
  9. 9. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY DUE TO ETIOLOGICAL FACTOR ↓ DEFICIENCY OF INSULIN ↓GLUCOSE IS UNABLE TOENTER THE CELL AND ITSCONCENTRATION INCREASESIN BLOOD STREAM. ↓ MOVEMENT OF BODYFLUIDS FROMINTRACELLULAR SPACES TOEXTRACELLULAR SPACE.
  10. 10. ↓PROTEIN AND FAT ISBREAKDOWN ANDCONVERTED TO GLUCOSEFOR ENERGY. ↓AS THE BODY ATTEMPTS TOMEET ITS ENERGY NEEDS,HUNGER MECHANISMS ISTRIGGERED.
  11. 11. CLINICALMANIFESTATION a) HYPERGLYCEMIA GLYCOSURIA POLYURIA POLYDEPSIA POLYPHAGIA WEIGHT LOSS IRRITABILITY
  12. 12.  OVERLY TIRED DRY SKIN BLURRED VISION SLOW- HEALING PROCESS FREQUENT INFECTION FAINTING ATTACKS NAUSEA , VOMITTING
  13. 13. DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATIONa) HI ST OR Y CO LL EC TI O Nb) PH YS IC AL EX A
  14. 14. M NT N.c) LA B IN VE ST IG AT IO Nd) U RI NE EX A MI N AT
  15. 15. IO N MANAGEMENTa) INSULIN THERAPYb) EXERCISE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITYc) DIET THERAPYd) FOLLOW- UP
  16. 16. e) EMOTIONAL SUPPORT AND DIABETIC EDUCATIONNURSING DIAGNOSIS  ALTERED NUTRITION INTKE DUE TO INSULIN DEFICIENCY AND ALTERATION OF METABOLISM.  FLUID VOLUME DEFICIT r/t DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS
  17. 17.  RISK FOR INFECTION r/t HYPERGLYCEMIA RISK FOR INJURY r/t HYPOGLYCEMIA KNOWLEDGE DEFICIT r/t INSULIN THERAPY FEAR AND ANXIETY r/t LONG- TERM ILLNESS

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