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Endocrine disruptor


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Endocrine disruptor

  1. 1. Female Sex Hormones Disruptors
  2. 2. <ul><li>Humans are exposed to thousands of chemicals used in several anthropogenic processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental factors that are under the focus of the scientific community include organic and chemical solvents, pesticides, heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs). </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Among these agents, special concerns have been raised by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which are hormonally active, synthetic or natural compounds that can interfere with the normal activity of endocrine system/tissue, most notably the reproductive endocrine axis. </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated reproductive alterations as a consequence of intrauterine and/or neonatal exposure to EDC. </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Endocrine disruptor is: </li></ul><ul><li>An exogenous agent that interferes with synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, or elimination of natural hormones in the body which are responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis, reproduction, development and/or behavior. </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Endocrine disruptors act on the endocrine system of humans and animals by mimicking, blocking and/or interfering in some manner with the natural instructions of hormones to cells. </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>Mechanism of action </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Binding of EDs to hormone receptors, with resultant alteration in the transcription of messenger RNA, followed by altered gene expression, appears to be one mechanism by which EDs can alter endocrine function. </li></ul><ul><li>Other mechanisms involve alteration in hormone synthesis, metabolism, and transport as well as effects mediated through changes in the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis . </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>Mechanism of action </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Chemicals can accumulate in fatty foods (meet, fish, eggs and dairy products) </li></ul><ul><li>Some pesticides that have endocrine-disrupting effects may be present in food and in the home. </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminants in drinking water may have endocrine-disrupting effects. </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>Routes of exposure to endocrine disruptors </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Occupational exposure to chemicals may put workers and their families at risk . </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic medical and consumer products may leach dangerous chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Some communities may suffer disproportionately from chemical contamination. </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>Routes of exposure to endocrine disruptors </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Adverse reproductive effects have been observed in male populations, wildlife, and laboratory animals as a consequence of exposure to hormonally active chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals could play a role in a number of reproductive abnormalities in females. </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine disrupting chemicals could be contributing to a population-wide decline in fertility. </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>The hazardous effects </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Exposure to dioxins, toxic byproducts of incineration and industrial processes, may be associated with fewer male births. </li></ul><ul><li>Prenatal exposure to some chemicals is associated with deficits in IQ and memory, neurobehavioral effects, and delayed neuromuscular development in children . </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>The hazardous effects </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Endocrine disruptors may be associated with the development of cancers in hormone-sensitive tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine disruptors and the obesity epidemic. </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>The hazardous effects </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><ul><ul><li>Diethylstilbosterol (DES). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chloroform. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dioxins and furans. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pesticides </li></ul></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Diethylstilbosterol (DES): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider one of the most famous endocrine disruptors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A synthetic estrogen prescribed to pregnant women in the 1950s and 1960s to prevent miscarriage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultimately, more than 300 cases of CCA have been documented in women exposed in utero to DES. </li></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>paints. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lubricants. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wood floor finishes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coatings of electrical wiring. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic water and baby bottles, food and beverage can linings and dental sealants ate the most commonly encountered uses of this chemical. </li></ul></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>Hazardous effects: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The children born to these prenatally exposed mothers have the following more than unexposed ones: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm with abnormal morphology, reduced motility, and reduced strength. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intrauterine growth retardation ( IUGR ). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal skin pigmentation . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delayed, developmental milestones . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower (IQs). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>2. women who had eaten PCB-contaminated fish from the Great Lakes before and during pregnancy documented dose-related delays in development and reductions in intellect in their infants in the absence of any overt symptoms. </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB): </li></ul><ul><li>PBBs are used as flame retardants of the brominated flame retardant group. They are added to plastics used in products such as home electrical appliances, textiles, plastic foams etc. to make them difficult to burn. </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><ul><li>perinatal PBB exposure was associated with earlier pubertal stage in breastfed girls. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible mechanisms for the action of PBBs in relation to puberty include alteration of endocrine feedback loops and alteration of circulating hormone levels (Figure 1). </li></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul>Figure 1
  21. 21. <ul><li>Chloroform: </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>production of the refrigerant. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air conditioning. </li></ul></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Hazardous effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rickets. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Induce asthma. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>incidence of PCO. </li></ul></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Dioxins and furans : </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animal feed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wood preservation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dioxins occurs when heating our food in the microwave using plastic containers. </li></ul></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><ul><li>Hazardous effects: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High heat and plastics releases dioxins into the food and ultimately into the cells of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Dioxins are carcinogens and highly toxic to the cells of our bodies. </li></ul><ul><li>Recurrent abortion. </li></ul><ul><li>IUGR. </li></ul><ul><li>IUFD. </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><ul><ul><li>Definition. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Routes of exposure. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results of exposure. </li></ul></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors <ul><li>Pesticides </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pesticides are ‘substances used to prevent, destroy, repel any pest ranging from insects, animals and weeds to microorganisms. </li></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Pesticides
  27. 27. <ul><li>In Egypt , pesticides are typically applied to cotton crops (about10000 to 60000 tons) from May to September. </li></ul><ul><li>Safety measures are generally poorly applied and workers (12000 workers) lack proper knowledge or training in safe handling of these chemicals </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Pesticides
  28. 28. <ul><li>Routes of exposure: </li></ul><ul><li>1- O ral Exposure. </li></ul><ul><li>2- D ermal Exposure. </li></ul><ul><li>3- I nhalation Exposure. </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Pesticides
  29. 29. <ul><ul><li>Hazardous effects: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive effects: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>effects on the reproductive system or on the ability to produce healthy offspring. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teratogenic: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causes birth defects if used it during their pregnancy . </li></ul></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Pesticides
  30. 30. <ul><ul><li>Hazardous effects: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carcinogenic: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>produces cancer in living animal tissues. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oncogenic effects: tumor-forming effects (not necessarily cancerous.) </li></ul></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Pesticides
  31. 31. <ul><ul><ul><li>Mutagenic effects: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is the production of changes in genetic structure. permanent effects on genetic material that can be inherited. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neurotoxicity: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>poisoning of the nervous system, including the brain. </li></ul></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Pesticides
  32. 32. <ul><ul><ul><li>Immunosuppression : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>blocking of natural responses of the immune system responsible for protecting the body. </li></ul></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Pesticides
  33. 33. <ul><ul><li>The aberrant production of ovarian steroid hormones (progesterone, E2, and androgens) can disrupt normal folliculogenesis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It follows that environmental agents and pathogens that mimic the actions of ovarian steroids via the activation of steroid hormone receptors, could disrupt follicle development and/or ovulation. </li></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Effects on the ovary and female reproductive function
  34. 34. <ul><ul><li>This is of interest because certain endocrine disruptors can function as ER agonists and/or antagonists, depending on the specific ER isoform targeted. </li></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Effects on the ovary and female reproductive function
  35. 35. <ul><li>Estrogenic endocrine disruptors: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methoxychlor and HPTE. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bisphenol A </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diethylstilbestrol (DES). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Anti-androgenic endocrine disruptors: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vinclozolin. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DDE. </li></ul></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Effects on the ovary and female reproductive function
  36. 36. <ul><li>Estrogenic endocrine disruptors: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methoxychlor and HPTE. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bisphenol A </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diethylstilbestrol (DES). </li></ul></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Effects on the ovary and female reproductive function
  37. 37. <ul><li>Methoxychlor and HPTE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methoxychlor is an organochlorine pesticide , which is currently used as a replacement for DDT. </li></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Effects on the ovary and female reproductive function
  38. 38. <ul><li>Methoxychlor and HPTE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazardous effects: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have weak estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities, and these effects are thought to be mediated through the estrogen and androgen receptors. </li></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Effects on the ovary and female reproductive function
  39. 39. <ul><ul><li>Bisphenol A: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Production of epoxy resins( مادة لاصقة للمعادن و البلاستيك ) and polycarbonate plastics in many food and drink packaging applications. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coating metal products such as food cans, bottle tops and water supply pipes. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dental treatment contain Bisphenol-A. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Optical glasses . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Effects on the ovary and female reproductive function
  40. 40. <ul><li>Diethylstilbestrol : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For the treatment of recurrent miscarriage. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In clinical trials and veterinary prescriptions for the treatment of urinary incontinence in dogs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For the treatment of advanced breast and prostate cancer. </li></ul></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Effects on the ovary and female reproductive function
  41. 41. <ul><li>Anti-androgenic endocrine disruptors : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vinclozolin. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DDE. </li></ul></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Effects on the ovary and female reproductive function
  42. 42. <ul><ul><li>Vinclozolin: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fungicide to control various types of rot caused by Botrytis spp., Sclerotinia spp, and other types of mold and blight causing organisms, raspberries ( التوت البرى ) onions, succulent beans, and turf on golf courses, commercial and industrial sites. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>on ornamental plants ( ( نباتات الزينة . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Effects on the ovary and female reproductive function
  43. 43. <ul><ul><li>DDE: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another compound possessing anti-androgen activity is the DDT metabolite 1,1- dichloro- 2, 2- bis(p- chlorophenyl) ethylene. </li></ul></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Effects on the ovary and female reproductive function
  44. 44. <ul><ul><li>Hazardous effects: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) of the vagina and cervix . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irregular uterine bleeding. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recurrent abortion. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intrauterine growth retardation. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormalities within the reproductive, cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, and immune systems. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Effects on the ovary and female reproductive function
  45. 45. <ul><li>Eat lower on the food chain. </li></ul><ul><li>Eat deep-water fish (avoid sword fish, tuna and shark and all farm raised fish) </li></ul><ul><li>In general, substitute natural products for synthetic products whenever possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Eat fresh organic products as meat and milk free from rBGH (Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone). </li></ul><ul><li>Buy products at your local Farmers' Market or join a buying club. </li></ul><ul><li>Use fewer processed , prepackaged foods whenever possible. </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Measures to lower the exposure to endocrine disruptors
  46. 46. <ul><li>Avoid smoke. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid use chemicals or any pesticides. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid use makeup, hair sprays & coloring products or nail polish (enjoy your own body and not the image that the media says) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid use strong chemicals, glues, paints, nail polish and remover, floor & carpet cleaners. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid heat food or eat hot food in plastic containers, even the ones frozen dinners now come in. </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Measures to lower the exposure to endocrine disruptors
  47. 47. <ul><li>Avoid canned foods unless absolutely a must. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid products with hydrogenated, partially hydrogenated fats and oelestra (a synthetic fat substitute). </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid stay in places that smell of chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not give young children soft plastic toys, since these leach potential endocrine disrupting chemicals. </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Measures to lower the exposure to endocrine disruptors
  48. 48. <ul><li>Endocrine disruptors (sometimes also referred to as hormonally active agents) are exogenous substances that act like hormones in the endocrine system and disrupt the physiologic function of endogenous hormones. </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Conclusions
  49. 49. <ul><li>Endocrine disrupting compounds encompass a variety of chemical classes, including hormones, plant constituents, pesticides, compounds used in the plastics industry and in consumer products, and other industrial by-products and pollutants. </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Conclusions
  50. 50. <ul><li>Human exposure to pesticides can occur directly from occupational, agricultural and household use, and indirectly through the diet. Significant diet exposure starts early in postnatal life with breastfeeding, as underscored by the evidence that high levels of organochlorine pesticides have been detected in breast milk. </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Conclusions
  51. 51. <ul><li>In epidemiological studies , exposure to pesticides has been associated with menstrual cycle disturbances, reduced fertility, prolonged time-to-pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, stillbirths, and developmental defects. </li></ul>Female Sex Hormones Disruptors Conclusions