Embryology

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Embryology

  1. 1. Introduction to Anatomy and Embryology www.freelivedoctor.com
  2. 2. Embryology Review <ul><li>Week 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilized Egg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Day 1.25: Two Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cleavage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Day 3: Morula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inner Cell Mass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trophoblasts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Day 5: Blastocyst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cavitation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hatching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Day 6: Implantation </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  3. 3. www.freelivedoctor.com
  4. 4. www.freelivedoctor.com
  5. 5. Cleavage, Compaction, and Cavitation www.freelivedoctor.com
  6. 6. www.freelivedoctor.com
  7. 7. www.freelivedoctor.com
  8. 8. www.freelivedoctor.com
  9. 9. Week 2: Rule of Twos <ul><li>Implantation: Two Cell Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryonic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraembryonic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extraembryonic Structures: Two Cell Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytotrophoblasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syncytiotrophoblasts </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  10. 10. Implantation <ul><li>Attachment to endometrium </li></ul><ul><li>Cytotrophoblasts and Synctiotrophoblast </li></ul><ul><li>Trophoblastic Lacunae </li></ul><ul><li>Extraembryonic Reticulum </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  11. 11. Implantation www.freelivedoctor.com
  12. 12. Embryonic Structures <ul><li>Two Layers at Two weeks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epiblast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypoblast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two Cavities at Two weeks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amnion becomes Amniotic Cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blastocoel becomes Primative Yolk Sac </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  13. 13. www.freelivedoctor.com
  14. 14. www.freelivedoctor.com
  15. 15. www.freelivedoctor.com
  16. 16. www.freelivedoctor.com
  17. 17. www.freelivedoctor.com
  18. 18. www.freelivedoctor.com
  19. 19. Week 3: Rule of Threes Gastrulation and Neurulation <ul><li>Gastrulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three Cell Layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ectoderm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mesoderm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endoderm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three Cavities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amnion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chorion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yolk Sac </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  20. 20. Cell Movements in Gastrulation www.freelivedoctor.com
  21. 21. www.freelivedoctor.com
  22. 22. www.freelivedoctor.com
  23. 23. www.freelivedoctor.com
  24. 24. www.freelivedoctor.com
  25. 25. www.freelivedoctor.com
  26. 26. www.freelivedoctor.com
  27. 27. www.freelivedoctor.com
  28. 28. www.freelivedoctor.com
  29. 29. www.freelivedoctor.com
  30. 30. www.freelivedoctor.com
  31. 31. www.freelivedoctor.com
  32. 32. www.freelivedoctor.com
  33. 33. www.freelivedoctor.com
  34. 34. Weeks Four to Eight <ul><li>Formation of the Body Axis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rostral - Caudal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorsal - Ventral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right - Left </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formation of the Body Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ectoderm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesoderm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endoderm </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  35. 35. Trilaminar Embryo www.freelivedoctor.com
  36. 36. Development of the Ectoderm <ul><li>Neurulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neural Crest, Neural Tube </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Somites, Brachial Arches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formation of Surface Ectoderm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epidermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epidermal Appendages </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  37. 37. Development of the Ectoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  38. 38. Development of the Ectoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  39. 39. Development of the Ectoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  40. 40. Development of the Ectoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  41. 41. Development of the Endoderm <ul><li>Head, Tail Body Folding </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral Body Folding </li></ul><ul><li>Development of the Gut </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foregut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Midgut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindgut </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of Gut Appendages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GI accessory organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory Tract </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  42. 42. Development of the Endoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  43. 43. Development of the Endoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  44. 44. Development of the Endoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  45. 45. Development of the Endoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  46. 46. Development of the Endoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  47. 47. Development of the Endoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  48. 48. Development of the Endoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  49. 49. Development of the Endoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  50. 50. Development of the Mesoderm <ul><li>Paraxial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Musculoskeletal System </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intermediate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genitourinary Ridge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lateral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood Islands / Dorsal Aorta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryonic Coelom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pericardium, Pleura, Peritoneum </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  51. 51. Development of the Mesoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  52. 52. Paraxial Mesoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  53. 53. Paraxial Mesoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  54. 54. Intermediate Mesoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  55. 55. Intermediate Mesoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  56. 56. Intermediate Mesoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  57. 57. Intermediate Mesoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  58. 58. Lateral Mesoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  59. 59. Lateral Mesoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  60. 60. Lateral Mesoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  61. 61. Lateral Mesoderm www.freelivedoctor.com
  62. 62. Muscle, Bone, and Connective Tissue www.freelivedoctor.com
  63. 63. Musculoskeletal System <ul><li>Muscle Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Bone and Cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Connective Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular Tissue </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  64. 64. Musculoskeletal Development <ul><li>But how does it get there? </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  65. 65. Musculoskeletal Development I www.freelivedoctor.com
  66. 66. Musculoskeletal Development II www.freelivedoctor.com
  67. 67. Musculoskeletal Development III www.freelivedoctor.com
  68. 68. Musculoskeletal Development IV www.freelivedoctor.com
  69. 69. Musculoskeletal Development V www.freelivedoctor.com
  70. 70. Musculoskeletal Development VI www.freelivedoctor.com
  71. 71. Axial Skeleton Development www.freelivedoctor.com
  72. 72. Axial Skeleton Development www.freelivedoctor.com
  73. 73. Axial Skeleton Development www.freelivedoctor.com
  74. 74. Axial Skeleton Development www.freelivedoctor.com
  75. 75. Axial Skeleton Development www.freelivedoctor.com
  76. 76. Axial Skeleton Development www.freelivedoctor.com
  77. 77. Axial Skeleton Development www.freelivedoctor.com
  78. 78. Vertebral Development www.freelivedoctor.com
  79. 79. Limb Development www.freelivedoctor.com
  80. 80. Embryonic Tissue <ul><li>The earliest embryonic mesenchyme is very loose connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>As it “builds,” it becomes more organized and even starts to identify areas where the skeleton will form </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  81. 81. Embryonic Tissue <ul><li>From the scleromyodermatome arise “muscles” sandwiched between </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone (sclero-) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin (derma-) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This is the “origin” of the muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>It then grows to another bone, the “insertion” </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  82. 82. Embryonic Tissue <ul><li>There are two ways to get “skeleton” </li></ul><ul><li>Intramembranous Ossification </li></ul><ul><li>Endochondral Ossification </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  83. 83. Intramembranous Ossification www.freelivedoctor.com
  84. 84. Endochondral Ossification www.freelivedoctor.com
  85. 85. Endochondral Ossification www.freelivedoctor.com
  86. 86. Endochondral Ossification www.freelivedoctor.com
  87. 87. Endochondral Ossification www.freelivedoctor.com
  88. 88. Endochondral Ossification www.freelivedoctor.com
  89. 89. Long Bone www.freelivedoctor.com
  90. 90. Endochondral Ossification www.freelivedoctor.com
  91. 91. Endochondral Ossification at the Epiphyseal Plate www.freelivedoctor.com
  92. 92. Osteoblasts and Osteocytes www.freelivedoctor.com
  93. 93. Osteoclast Function www.freelivedoctor.com
  94. 94. Anatomy Review <ul><li>Regional Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Head, Neck, Back, Thorax, Abdomen, Pelvis, Upper and Lower Extremities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cavities: Cranial, Spinal, Thoracic, Abdominal, Pelvic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systemic Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integumentary, Skeletal, Articular, Muscular, Nervous, Circulatory, Alimentary, Respiratory, Urinary, Reproductive, Endocrine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anatomic Variation </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  95. 95. Anatomic Planes and Position www.freelivedoctor.com
  96. 96. Terms of Comparison <ul><li>Posterior, Anterior </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsal, Ventral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorsum, Palm, Sole </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Superior, Inferior </li></ul><ul><li>Rostral, Caudal </li></ul><ul><li>Left, Right </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  97. 97. Terms of Comparison <ul><li>Superficial, Intermediate, Deep </li></ul><ul><li>External, Internal </li></ul><ul><li>Medial, Lateral </li></ul><ul><li>Proximal, Distal </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  98. 98. Terms of Movement <ul><li>Flexion, Extension, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperflexion, Hyperextension </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dorsiflexion, Plantarflexion </li></ul><ul><li>Abduction, Adduction </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation, Circumduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal, External, Medial, Lateral </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  99. 99. Terms of Movement <ul><li>Protrusion, Retrusion </li></ul><ul><li>Protraction, Retraction </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation, Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Eversion, Inversion </li></ul><ul><li>Pronation, Supination </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  100. 100. Thank You !! www.freelivedoctor.com

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