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The Appendicular Skeleton  Appendicular Skeleton = Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton, i.e., pelvis and limbs www.f...
Clavicle  (collarbone) Manubrium to Acromion Frequently fractured www.freelivedoctor.com
Scapula  (shoulder blade) <ul><li>Glenoid </li></ul><ul><li>Spine </li></ul><ul><li>Acromion </li></ul><ul><li>Acromioclav...
The Arm <ul><li>Synonym: Upper limb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Arm = Brachium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forearm = Antebr...
Humerus <ul><li>Head </li></ul><ul><li>Greater and Lesser Tubercles </li></ul><ul><li>Intertubercular Sulcus </li></ul><ul...
Radius  Ulna <ul><li>Head, neck, shaft </li></ul><ul><li>Insertion of biceps brachii: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radial Tuberos...
Carpus = Wrist <ul><li>Four Proximal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform </li></ul></ul><ul><li>F...
Hand = Manus <ul><li>Five metacarpal bones (1-5) </li></ul><ul><li>Five fingers  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labeled 1-5 </li></...
The Girdles <ul><li>Pectoral Girdle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports the Arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clavicle and Scapul...
Pelvis =  os coxae = hip bone <ul><li>Three bones: Ilium, Ischium, Pubis (innominate bone) </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior and ...
More Pelvis <ul><li>Articular Surface for Articulation with Sacrum </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between male and female </...
The leg <ul><li>AKA Lower Limb </li></ul><ul><li>Femur </li></ul><ul><li>Patella </li></ul><ul><li>Tibia/fibula </li></ul>...
Femur <ul><li>Head and fovea capitus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulate with pelvis  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neck (“fx pelvis...
Patella  = knee cap <ul><li>Sesamoid Bone </li></ul><ul><li>Enclosed in the tendon of the quadriceps group of muscles </li...
Tibia  = shin bone <ul><li>Lateral and medial condyles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intercondylar eminence </li></ul></ul><ul><li...
Fibula <ul><li>Head </li></ul><ul><li>Shaft </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral malleolus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(= ankle bone) </li>...
Tarsus (7 bones)  Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate   <ul><li>Navicular </li></ul><ul><li>Cuboid </li></ul><ul><li>Cuniefo...
Foot <ul><li>Metatarsals (1-5) </li></ul><ul><li>Phalanges (3 per toe except big toe) </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal Arche...
Bones of the Skull www.freelivedoctor.com
Bones of the Skull www.freelivedoctor.com
Cranial Bones, AKA calvarium  vs.  Facial Bones www.freelivedoctor.com
Bones of the Calvarium <ul><li>Frontal  (forehead) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior fossa of base of skull </li></ul></ul><u...
Bones of the Calvarium, cont’d <ul><li>Temporal (4 parts):  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squamous (very thin), </li></ul></ul><ul...
Bones of the Calvarium floor <ul><li>Sphenoid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sella turcica houses pituitary gland </li></ul></ul><u...
Facial bones <ul><li>Maxilla (2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alveolar margin for teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maxillary sinu...
Facial bones, cont’d <ul><li>Zygomatic (2)  AKA cheek bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zygomatic process of temporal bone </li>...
Facial bones, cont’d <ul><li>Mandible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandibular condyles (TMJ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandibula...
www.freelivedoctor.com
Sutures and Fontanels <ul><li>Fibrous Articulation, no movement, fused in adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lambdoidal—betw ...
Paranasal Sinuses Frontal Ethmoid Sphenoid Maxillary Narrow passageways from each sinus provide communication with nasal c...
Hyoid Bone <ul><li>Inferior to the mandible </li></ul><ul><li>Superior to the larynx </li></ul><ul><li>Supports many cervi...
The Vertebral Column <ul><li>7 Cervical </li></ul><ul><li>12 Thoracic </li></ul><ul><li>5 Lumbar </li></ul><ul><li>5 Sacra...
A “Typical” Vertebra Body and intervertebral disks Spinous Process Intervertebral Foramina Articular processes/facets Supe...
Cervical Vertebrae (C 1  – C  7 ) <ul><li>C 1  = Atlas (no body) </li></ul><ul><li>C 1 -C 2  – site of rotation </li></ul>...
Thoracic Vertebrae (T 1  - T 12 ) Large Spinous Processes Articulations for ribs, both superior and inferior www.freelived...
Lumbar Vertebrae (L 1  - L 5 ) <ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><li>Spinous Process </li></ul><ul><li>Lamina </li></ul><ul><li>A...
Intervertebral Articulation www.freelivedoctor.com
Intervertebral Disk <ul><li>Nucleus Pulposus </li></ul><ul><li>Annulus Fibrosus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrocartilage </li>...
Damage to the Intervertebral Discs www.freelivedoctor.com
The Girdles <ul><li>Pectoral Girdle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports the Arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clavicle and Scapul...
www.freelivedoctor.com
Sacrum (5 fused) Coccyx (3-5 fused) <ul><li>Sacroiliac joint </li></ul><ul><li>Sacral Foramina </li></ul>www.freelivedocto...
Thoracic (Rib) Cage <ul><li>Protection and muscle attachments </li></ul><ul><li>Ribs  – 12 pairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 -...
Thoracic (Rib) Cage, cont’d <ul><li>Sternum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manubrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clavicular Notc...
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Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

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Appendicular&Axial Skeleton

  1. 1. The Appendicular Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton = Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton, i.e., pelvis and limbs www.freelivedoctor.com
  2. 2. Clavicle (collarbone) Manubrium to Acromion Frequently fractured www.freelivedoctor.com
  3. 3. Scapula (shoulder blade) <ul><li>Glenoid </li></ul><ul><li>Spine </li></ul><ul><li>Acromion </li></ul><ul><li>Acromioclavicular joint </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior and Superior Angles </li></ul><ul><li>Origin of biceps brachii muscle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coracoid Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supraglenoid tubercle </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  4. 4. The Arm <ul><li>Synonym: Upper limb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Arm = Brachium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forearm = Antebrachium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Humerus, Radius and Ulna </li></ul><ul><li>Carpus (wrist) </li></ul><ul><li>Hand (manus) </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  5. 5. Humerus <ul><li>Head </li></ul><ul><li>Greater and Lesser Tubercles </li></ul><ul><li>Intertubercular Sulcus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biceps tendon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coronoid Fossa </li></ul><ul><li>Olecranon Fossa </li></ul><ul><li>Trochlea </li></ul><ul><li>Medial and Lateral Epicondyles </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  6. 6. Radius Ulna <ul><li>Head, neck, shaft </li></ul><ul><li>Insertion of biceps brachii: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radial Tuberosity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radial Styloid Process </li></ul><ul><li>Olecranon </li></ul><ul><li>Trochlear notch </li></ul><ul><li>Coronoid Process </li></ul><ul><li>Ulnar Styloid Process </li></ul>Interosseous Membrane (between radius and ulna) Note how the two bones can cross “ Funny bone” www.freelivedoctor.com
  7. 7. Carpus = Wrist <ul><li>Four Proximal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four Distal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate </li></ul></ul>Scaphoid is frequently fractured www.freelivedoctor.com
  8. 8. Hand = Manus <ul><li>Five metacarpal bones (1-5) </li></ul><ul><li>Five fingers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labeled 1-5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thumb = Pollex = digit 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two phalangeal bones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingers = phalanges = digits 2-5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three phalangeal bones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proximal, middle, distal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  9. 9. The Girdles <ul><li>Pectoral Girdle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports the Arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clavicle and Scapula </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pelvic Girdle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports the Legs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelvis (os coxae) </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  10. 10. Pelvis = os coxae = hip bone <ul><li>Three bones: Ilium, Ischium, Pubis (innominate bone) </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior and posterior iliac spines meet to form the iliac crest </li></ul><ul><li>Greater and Lesser Sciatic Notches </li></ul><ul><li>Ischial Tuberosity </li></ul><ul><li>Acetabulum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acetabular fossa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Obturator Foramen </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  11. 11. More Pelvis <ul><li>Articular Surface for Articulation with Sacrum </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between male and female </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic (or pubic) symphysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrocartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stretches at childbirth (Relaxin) </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  12. 12. The leg <ul><li>AKA Lower Limb </li></ul><ul><li>Femur </li></ul><ul><li>Patella </li></ul><ul><li>Tibia/fibula </li></ul><ul><li>Tarsus </li></ul><ul><li>Foot </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  13. 13. Femur <ul><li>Head and fovea capitus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulate with pelvis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neck (“fx pelvis”) </li></ul><ul><li>Greater and Lesser Trochanters </li></ul><ul><li>Shaft </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral and medial condyles and epicondyles </li></ul><ul><li>Intercondylar fossa </li></ul><ul><li>Patellar Surface </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  14. 14. Patella = knee cap <ul><li>Sesamoid Bone </li></ul><ul><li>Enclosed in the tendon of the quadriceps group of muscles </li></ul>“ Skyline” MRI of patella www.freelivedoctor.com
  15. 15. Tibia = shin bone <ul><li>Lateral and medial condyles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intercondylar eminence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tibial tuberosity </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior articular surface </li></ul><ul><li>Medial malleolus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(= ankle bone) </li></ul></ul>Interosseous Membrane www.freelivedoctor.com
  16. 16. Fibula <ul><li>Head </li></ul><ul><li>Shaft </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral malleolus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(= ankle bone) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not weight bearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent fx </li></ul></ul>Interosseous Membrane www.freelivedoctor.com
  17. 17. Tarsus (7 bones) Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate <ul><li>Navicular </li></ul><ul><li>Cuboid </li></ul><ul><li>Cunieform (3) </li></ul>Calcaneus Talus www.freelivedoctor.com
  18. 18. Foot <ul><li>Metatarsals (1-5) </li></ul><ul><li>Phalanges (3 per toe except big toe) </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal Arches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medial and lateral </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transverse Arch </li></ul>Dancer’s fx Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate www.freelivedoctor.com
  19. 19. Bones of the Skull www.freelivedoctor.com
  20. 20. Bones of the Skull www.freelivedoctor.com
  21. 21. Cranial Bones, AKA calvarium vs. Facial Bones www.freelivedoctor.com
  22. 22. Bones of the Calvarium <ul><li>Frontal (forehead) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior fossa of base of skull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal Crests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More prominent in male </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal sinuses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parietal (2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sutures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occipital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foramen Magnum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occipital Condyles articulate with C 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occipital Crest </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  23. 23. Bones of the Calvarium, cont’d <ul><li>Temporal (4 parts): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squamous (very thin), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mastoid (means breast-like) process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small sinus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petrous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Houses inner ear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acoustic meatus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jugular foramen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zygomatic process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Styloid Process </li></ul></ul>“ In one of these, the squamosal section of the temporal bone had been crushed, and another showed a jagged hole through the parietal bone.” The Bounty Trilogy, 1788 www.freelivedoctor.com
  24. 24. Bones of the Calvarium floor <ul><li>Sphenoid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sella turcica houses pituitary gland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethmoid (sieve) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cribriform plate for olfactory nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crista galli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of nasal septum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frontal </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Petrous part </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occipital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foramen magnum </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  25. 25. Facial bones <ul><li>Maxilla (2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alveolar margin for teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maxillary sinus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior portion of hard palate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Palatine (2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior aspect of hard palate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nasal (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior Nasal conchae (2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will be covered in Respiratory System </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  26. 26. Facial bones, cont’d <ul><li>Zygomatic (2) AKA cheek bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zygomatic process of temporal bone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lacrimal (2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacrimal sac </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vomer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of nasal septum </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  27. 27. Facial bones, cont’d <ul><li>Mandible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandibular condyles (TMJ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandibular notch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronoid process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ramus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angle </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  28. 28. www.freelivedoctor.com
  29. 29. Sutures and Fontanels <ul><li>Fibrous Articulation, no movement, fused in adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lambdoidal—betw occipital and parietal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(mid) Saggital --- betw parietals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronal– betw frontal and parietals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Squamous – betw parietals and temporals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anterior and Posterior Fontanels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Soft spot” of Newborn </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  30. 30. Paranasal Sinuses Frontal Ethmoid Sphenoid Maxillary Narrow passageways from each sinus provide communication with nasal cavity www.freelivedoctor.com
  31. 31. Hyoid Bone <ul><li>Inferior to the mandible </li></ul><ul><li>Superior to the larynx </li></ul><ul><li>Supports many cervical muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Supports the larynx </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  32. 32. The Vertebral Column <ul><li>7 Cervical </li></ul><ul><li>12 Thoracic </li></ul><ul><li>5 Lumbar </li></ul><ul><li>5 Sacral (fused) </li></ul><ul><li>4 Coccygeal (usually) </li></ul><ul><li>Curvatures: Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  33. 33. A “Typical” Vertebra Body and intervertebral disks Spinous Process Intervertebral Foramina Articular processes/facets Superior Inferior Vertebral (neural) Arch Pedicles and Laminae Vertebral Canal/foramen www.freelivedoctor.com
  34. 34. Cervical Vertebrae (C 1 – C 7 ) <ul><li>C 1 = Atlas (no body) </li></ul><ul><li>C 1 -C 2 – site of rotation </li></ul><ul><li>C 2 = Axis (dens) </li></ul><ul><li>C 3 - C 6 are similar </li></ul><ul><li>Note the transverse foramina in each cervical vertebra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertebral Artery/Vein </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C 7 has the vertebra prominens </li></ul>C 1 www.freelivedoctor.com
  35. 35. Thoracic Vertebrae (T 1 - T 12 ) Large Spinous Processes Articulations for ribs, both superior and inferior www.freelivedoctor.com
  36. 36. Lumbar Vertebrae (L 1 - L 5 ) <ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><li>Spinous Process </li></ul><ul><li>Lamina </li></ul><ul><li>Articular Facets </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse Process </li></ul><ul><li>Pedicle </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  37. 37. Intervertebral Articulation www.freelivedoctor.com
  38. 38. Intervertebral Disk <ul><li>Nucleus Pulposus </li></ul><ul><li>Annulus Fibrosus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrocartilage </li></ul></ul>See Fig. 8-9 www.freelivedoctor.com
  39. 39. Damage to the Intervertebral Discs www.freelivedoctor.com
  40. 40. The Girdles <ul><li>Pectoral Girdle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports the Arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clavicle and Scapula </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pelvic Girdle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports the Legs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelvis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ilium, ischium, pubic bone </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  41. 41. www.freelivedoctor.com
  42. 42. Sacrum (5 fused) Coccyx (3-5 fused) <ul><li>Sacroiliac joint </li></ul><ul><li>Sacral Foramina </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  43. 43. Thoracic (Rib) Cage <ul><li>Protection and muscle attachments </li></ul><ul><li>Ribs – 12 pairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 - 7 are “true” ribs, with attachment to the sternum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 - 12 attach indirectly to the sternum, or not at all </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Costal Cartilages </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  44. 44. Thoracic (Rib) Cage, cont’d <ul><li>Sternum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manubrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clavicular Notch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xiphoid </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com

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