Antibiotics

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Antibiotics

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Antibiotics

  1. 1. Antibiotics: Protein Synthesis, Nucleic Acid Synthesis and Metabolism www.freelivedoctor.com
  2. 2. Principles and Definitions <ul><li>Selectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selectivty   toxicity  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic index </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic dose/ Effective dose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Categories of antibiotics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteriostatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Duration of treatment sufficient for host defenses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bactericidal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually antibiotic of choice </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  3. 3. Principles and Definitions <ul><li>Selectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic index </li></ul><ul><li>Categories of antibiotics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of bacteriostatic vs bactericidal antibiotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Therapeutic index better for bacteriostatic antibiotic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance to bactericidal antibiotic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protein toxin mediates disease – use bacteriostatic protein synthesis inhibitor </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  4. 4. Principles and Definitions <ul><li>Antibiotic susceptibility testing (in vitro) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest concentration that results in inhibition of visible growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest concentration that kills 99.9% of the original inoculum </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  5. 5. Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing www.freelivedoctor.com 8 4 0 2 1 Tetracycline (  g/ml) MIC = 2  g/ml Determination of MIC Chl Amp Ery Str Tet Disk Diffusion Test
  6. 6. Zone Diameter Standards for Disk Diffusion Tests www.freelivedoctor.com
  7. 7. Principles and Definitions <ul><li>Combination therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent emergence of resistant strains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary treatment until diagnosis is made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibiotic synergism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Penicillins and aminoglycosides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CAUTION: Antibiotic antagonism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Penicillins and bacteriostatic antibiotics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics vs chemotherapeutic agents vs antimicrobials </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  8. 8. Antibiotics that Inhibit Protein Synthesis www.freelivedoctor.com
  9. 9. Review of Initiation of Protein Synthesis www.freelivedoctor.com 30S 1 3 2 GTP 1 2 3 GTP Initiation Factors mRNA 3 1 2 GTP 30S Initiation Complex f-met-tRNA Spectinomycin Aminoglycosides 1 2 GDP + Pi 50S 70S Initiation Complex A P
  10. 10. Review of Elongation of Protein Synthesis www.freelivedoctor.com GTP A P Tu GTP Tu GDP Ts Ts Tu + GDP Ts Pi P A Tetracycline A P Erythromycin Fusidic Acid Chloramphenicol G GTP G GDP + Pi G GDP A P + GTP
  11. 11. Protein Synthesis Microbe Library -American Society for Microbiology www.microbelibrary.org www.freelivedoctor.com
  12. 12. Survey of Antibiotics www.freelivedoctor.com
  13. 13. Protein Synthesis Inhibitors <ul><li>Mostly bacteriostatic </li></ul><ul><li>Selectivity due to differences in prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Some toxicity - eukaryotic 70S ribosomes </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  14. 14. Antimicrobials that Bind to the 30S Ribosomal Subunit www.freelivedoctor.com
  15. 15. Aminoglycosides (bactericidal) streptomycin , kanamycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, netilmicin, neomycin (topical) <ul><li>Mode of action - The aminoglycosides irreversibly bind to the 16S ribosomal RNA and freeze the 30S initiation complex (30S-mRNA-tRNA) so that no further initiation can occur. They also slow down protein synthesis that has already initiated and induce misreading of the mRNA. By binding to the 16 S r-RNA the aminoglycosides increase the affinity of the A site for t-RNA regardless of the anticodon specificity. May also destabilize bacterial membranes. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  16. 16. www.freelivedoctor.com Microbe Library American Society for Microbiology www.microbelibrary.org
  17. 17. Aminoglycosides (bactericidal) streptomycin , kanamycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, netilmicin, neomycin (topical) <ul><li>Spectrum of Activity -Many gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria; Not useful for anaerobic (oxygen required for uptake of antibiotic) or intracellular bacteria . </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance - Common </li></ul><ul><li>Synergy - The aminoglycosides synergize with  -lactam antibiotics. The  -lactams inhibit cell wall synthesis and thereby increase the permeability of the aminoglycosides. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  18. 18. Tetracyclines (bacteriostatic) tetracycline , minocycline and doxycycline <ul><li>Mode of action - The tetracyclines reversibly bind to the 30S ribosome and inhibit binding of aminoacyl-t-RNA to the acceptor site on the 70S ribosome. </li></ul><ul><li>Spectrum of activity - Broad spectrum; Useful against intracellular bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance - Common </li></ul><ul><li>Adverse effects - Destruction of normal intestinal flora resulting in increased secondary infections; staining and impairment of the structure of bone and teeth. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  19. 19. Spectinomycin (bacteriostatic) <ul><li>Mode of action - Spectinomycin reversibly interferes with m-RNA interaction with the 30S ribosome. It is structurally similar to the aminoglycosides but does not cause misreading of mRNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Spectrum of activity - Used in the treatment of penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance - Rare in Neisseria gonorrhoeae </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  20. 20. Antimicrobials that Bind to the 50S Ribosomal Subunit www.freelivedoctor.com
  21. 21. Chloramphenicol , Lincomycin, Clindamycin (bacteriostatic) <ul><li>Mode of action - These antimicrobials bind to the 50S ribosome and inhibit peptidyl transferase activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Spectrum of activity - Chloramphenicol - Broad range; Lincomycin and clindamycin - Restricted range </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance - Common </li></ul><ul><li>Adverse effects - Chloramphenicol is toxic (bone marrow suppression) but is used in the treatment of bacterial meningitis. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  22. 22. Macrolides (bacteriostatic) erythromycin , clarithromycin, azithromycin, spiramycin <ul><li>Mode of action - The macrolides inhibit translocation. </li></ul><ul><li>Spectrum of activity - Gram-positive bacteria, Mycoplasma, Legionella </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance - Common </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  23. 23. www.freelivedoctor.com Microbe Library American Society for Microbiology www.microbelibrary.org
  24. 24. Antimicrobials that Interfere with Elongation Factors Selectivity due to differences in prokaryotic and eukaryotic elongation factors www.freelivedoctor.com
  25. 25. Fusidic acid (bacteriostatic) <ul><li>Mode of action - Fusidic acid binds to elongation factor G (EF-G) and inhibits release of EF-G from the EF-G/GDP complex. </li></ul><ul><li>Spectrum of activity - Gram-positive cocci </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  26. 26. Inhibitors of Nucleic Acid Synthesis www.freelivedoctor.com
  27. 27. Inhibitors of RNA Synthesis Selectivity due to differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA polymerase www.freelivedoctor.com
  28. 28. Rifampin , Rifamycin, Rifampicin, Rifabutin (bactericidal) <ul><li>Mode of action - These antimicrobials bind to DNA-dependent RNA polymerase and inhibit initiation of mRNA synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Spectrum of activity - Broad spectrum but is used most commonly in the treatment of tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance - Common </li></ul><ul><li>Combination therapy - Since resistance is common, rifampin is usually used in combination therapy. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  29. 29. Inhibitors of DNA Synthesis Selectivity due to differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes www.freelivedoctor.com
  30. 30. Quinolones (bactericidal) nalidixic acid , ciprofloxacin , ofloxacin, norfloxacin, levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, sparfloxacin <ul><li>Mode of action - These antimicrobials bind to the A subunit of DNA gyrase (topoisomerase) and prevent supercoiling of DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Spectrum of activity - Gram-positive cocci and urinary tract infections </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance - Common for nalidixic acid; developing for ciprofloxacin </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  31. 31. Antimetabolite Antimicrobials www.freelivedoctor.com
  32. 32. Inhibitors of Folic Acid Synthesis <ul><li>Basis of Selectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Review of Folic Acid Metabolism </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com p-aminobenzoic acid + Pteridine Dihydropteroic acid Dihydrofolic acid Tetrahydrofolic acid Pteridine synthetase Dihydrofolate synthetase Dihydrofolate reductase Thymidine Purines Methionine Trimethoprim Sulfonamides
  33. 33. Sulfonamides , Sulfones (bacteriostatic) <ul><li>Mode of action - These antimicrobials are analogues of para-aminobenzoic acid and competitively inhibit formation of dihydropteroic acid. </li></ul><ul><li>Spectrum of activity - Broad range activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria; used primarily in urinary tract and Nocardia infections. </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance - Common </li></ul><ul><li>Combination therapy - The sulfonamides are used in combination with trimethoprim; this combination blocks two distinct steps in folic acid metabolism and prevents the emergence of resistant strains. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  34. 34. Trimethoprim , Methotrexate, Pyrimethamine (bacteriostatic) <ul><li>Mode of action - These antimicrobials binds to dihydrofolate reductase and inhibit formation of tetrahydrofolic acid. </li></ul><ul><li>Spectrum of activity - Broad range activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria; used primarily in urinary tract and Nocardia infections. </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance - Common </li></ul><ul><li>Combination therapy - These antimicrobials are used in combination with the sulfonamides; this combination blocks two distinct steps in folic acid metabolism and prevents the emergence of resistant strains. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  35. 35. Anti-Mycobacterial Antibiotics www.freelivedoctor.com
  36. 36. Para-aminosalicylic acid (PSA) (bacteriostatic) <ul><li>Mode of action - Similar to sulfonamides </li></ul><ul><li>Spectrum of activity - Specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  37. 37. Dapsone (bacteriostatic) <ul><li>Mode of action - Similar to sulfonamides </li></ul><ul><li>Spectrum of activity - Used in treatment of leprosy ( Mycobacterium leprae ) </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  38. 38. Isoniazid (INH) (bacteriostatic ) <ul><li>Mode of action - Isoniazid inhibits synthesis of mycolic acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Spectrum of activity - Used in treatment of tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance - Has developed </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  39. 39. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance Principles and Definitions <ul><li>Clinical resistance vs actual resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance can arise by mutation or by gene transfer ( e.g. acquisition of a plasmid) </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance provides a selective advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance can result from single or multiple steps </li></ul><ul><li>Cross resistance vs multiple resistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross resistance -- Single mechanism-- closely related antibiotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple resistance -- Multiple mechanisms -- unrelated antibiotics </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  40. 40. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance Mechanisms <ul><li>Altered permeability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Altered influx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gram negative bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  41. 41. www.freelivedoctor.com Microbe Library American Society for Microbiology www.microbelibrary.org
  42. 42. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance Mechanisms <ul><li>Altered permeability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Altered efflux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tetracycline </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com Microbe Library American Society for Microbiology www.microbelibrary.org
  43. 43. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance Mechanisms <ul><li>Inactivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li> -lactamase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chloramphenicol acetyl transferase </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com Microbe Library American Society for Microbiology www.microbelibrary.org
  44. 44. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance Mechanisms <ul><li>Altered target site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Penicillin binding proteins (penicillins) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RNA polymerase (rifampin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30S ribosome (streptomycin) </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com Microbe Library American Society for Microbiology www.microbelibrary.org
  45. 45. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance Mechanisms <ul><li>Replacement of a sensitive pathway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquisition of a resistant enzyme (sulfonamides, trimethoprim) </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com

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