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Epidemiology and Control of Zoonotic Infections www.freelivedoctor.com
<ul><li>1 – Zoonosis Intro & TSE </li></ul><ul><li>2 – Rabies  </li></ul><ul><li>3 – Classic Zoonoses  </li></ul><ul><li>4...
Epidemiology and Control of Zoonotic Infections   www.freelivedoctor.com
<ul><li>Part I:  Introduction to Zoonoses </li></ul><ul><li>Part II: Transmissible Spongiform    Encephalopathies </li></ul>
Intro to Zoonoses <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Importance </li></ul><ul><li>Etiologies </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Ex...
Zoonoses <ul><li>From the Greek: </li></ul><ul><li>Zoon:  Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Noson:  Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Disea...
Zoonoses <ul><li>Does  NOT  include  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish and reptile toxins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allergies to...
Zoonoses <ul><li>>  250 zoonotic diseases </li></ul><ul><li>60% of US Household have  ≥1 pet </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple pe...
Zoonoses: Common Diseases <ul><li>Frequency – (CDC, 2003) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salmonella 39,919 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Zoonoses <ul><li>Spectrum of Disease Severity  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Death = rabies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe illn...
Zoonoses: Importance <ul><li>Economics  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoonotic disease are expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><l...
Zoonoses: Importance <ul><li>Surveillance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals are sentinels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevention an...
Zoonoses: Etiologic Classification <ul><li>Viral  </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitic </li></ul><ul><l...
Zoonoses: Viral Examples * indicates covered in lectures  Colorado tick fever Japanese encephalitis Ebola Monkeypox* Equin...
Zoonoses: Bacterial Examples * indicates covered in lectures  Anthrax* Plague* Brucellosis* Psittacosis* Campylobacteriosi...
Zoonoses: Parasitic Examples * indicates covered in lectures  PROTOZOAL HELMINTHIC Trypanosomiasis Baylisascariasis* Babes...
Zoonoses: Mycotic Examples <ul><li>Aspergillosis </li></ul><ul><li>Blastomycosis </li></ul><ul><li>Cryptococcosis* </li></...
Zoonoses: Animal Species <ul><li>Dogs & Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rabies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roundworm </li></ul><...
Zoonoses: Animal Species <ul><li>Birds:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psittacosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West Nile </li></ul>...
Routes of Transmission <ul><li>Direct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Droplet or Aerosol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral  </li></ul>...
Zoonoses  - Life Cycle <ul><li>ORTHOZOONOSES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be perpetuated in nature by a single vertebrate spe...
Zoonosis: Rabies Life Cycle Virus inoculation (bite) Salivary  gland  excretion
Zoonoses  - Maintenance Cycle <ul><li>CYCLOZOONOSES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires more than one vertebrate species but no...
Life Cycle:                                                                                     www.freelivedoctor.com
Zoonoses  - Life Cycle <ul><li>METAZOONOSES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Require both vertebrates and invertebrates to complete t...
Zoonoses: Metazoonoses <ul><li>Invertebrate Host: Mosquitoes </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebrate Host: Birds  </li></ul><ul><li>I...
Risk Factors <ul><li>Companion Animal  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dogs & roundworm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rats & Rat Bite F...
Risk Factors <ul><li>Recreational Activities  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Camping & Lyme disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Farm Set...
Reportable Diseases of Animals <ul><li>By veterinarian or other individual </li></ul><ul><li>Reported to CA Department of ...
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1 Zoonoses Intro Dunne

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1 Zoonoses Intro Dunne

  1. 1. Epidemiology and Control of Zoonotic Infections www.freelivedoctor.com
  2. 2. <ul><li>1 – Zoonosis Intro & TSE </li></ul><ul><li>2 – Rabies </li></ul><ul><li>3 – Classic Zoonoses </li></ul><ul><li>4 – Bioterrorism </li></ul><ul><li>5 – Vector-borne Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>6 – Parasitic Zoonoses </li></ul><ul><li>7 – Emerging Zoonoses </li></ul><ul><li>8 – Foodborne Illnesses </li></ul>
  3. 3. Epidemiology and Control of Zoonotic Infections www.freelivedoctor.com
  4. 4. <ul><li>Part I: Introduction to Zoonoses </li></ul><ul><li>Part II: Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies </li></ul>
  5. 5. Intro to Zoonoses <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Importance </li></ul><ul><li>Etiologies </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission Routes </li></ul><ul><li>Life Cycles </li></ul>
  6. 6. Zoonoses <ul><li>From the Greek: </li></ul><ul><li>Zoon: Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Noson: Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases and infections which are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans </li></ul><ul><li>- WHO 1959 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Zoonoses <ul><li>Does NOT include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish and reptile toxins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allergies to vertebrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diseases in which animal-derived food serves as a vehicle (e.g. hepatitis A contaminated deli meat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimentally transmitted diseases </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Zoonoses <ul><li>> 250 zoonotic diseases </li></ul><ul><li>60% of US Household have ≥1 pet </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple pets in the home </li></ul><ul><li>Human-animal bond </li></ul><ul><li>Exotic species as pets </li></ul>
  9. 9. Zoonoses: Common Diseases <ul><li>Frequency – (CDC, 2003) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salmonella 39,919 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lyme disease 18,991 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West Nile (CNS) 2,862 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trichinosis 4 </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Zoonoses <ul><li>Spectrum of Disease Severity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Death = rabies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe illness = plague </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic illness = Q-fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild illness = psittacosis </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Zoonoses: Importance <ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoonotic disease are expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GI illness due to Salmonella or Campylobacter – lost productivity, medical costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Import/Export </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BSE – restriction on cattle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avian Influenza – restriction on chicken </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Travel/Globalization </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased transit time - SARS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remote area accessibility </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Zoonoses: Importance <ul><li>Surveillance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals are sentinels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevention and Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal = key component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complications (e.g. Lyme disease) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unknown reservoirs (e.g. Ebola) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Zoonoses: Etiologic Classification <ul><li>Viral </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitic </li></ul><ul><li>Mycotic </li></ul>
  14. 14. Zoonoses: Viral Examples * indicates covered in lectures Colorado tick fever Japanese encephalitis Ebola Monkeypox* Equine encephalitides (WEE, EEE, VEE) Nipah* Hantaviruses Rabies* Hendra* Rift Valley fever Herpesvirus B West Nile virus* Influenza Yellow fever
  15. 15. Zoonoses: Bacterial Examples * indicates covered in lectures Anthrax* Plague* Brucellosis* Psittacosis* Campylobacteriosis* Q fever* Cat-scratch disease* Relapsing fevers Leptospirosis* Salmonellosis* Listeriosis* Tularemia* Lyme disease* Yersiniosis
  16. 16. Zoonoses: Parasitic Examples * indicates covered in lectures PROTOZOAL HELMINTHIC Trypanosomiasis Baylisascariasis* Babesiosis Cysticercosis Cryptosporidiosis* Hydatidosis Leishmaniasis Schistosome dermatitis Giardiasis* Trichinosis* Toxoplasmosis* Visceral larva migrans and toxocariasis*
  17. 17. Zoonoses: Mycotic Examples <ul><li>Aspergillosis </li></ul><ul><li>Blastomycosis </li></ul><ul><li>Cryptococcosis* </li></ul><ul><li>Dermatophytosis* </li></ul><ul><li>Histoplasmosis </li></ul><ul><li>Sporotrichosis </li></ul>* indicates covered in lectures
  18. 18. Zoonoses: Animal Species <ul><li>Dogs & Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rabies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roundworm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ringworm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lyme Disease (dogs only) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cat Scratch Disease (cats only) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food Animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salmonella </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.coli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brucellosis </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Zoonoses: Animal Species <ul><li>Birds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psittacosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West Nile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cryptococcus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reptiles, Fish, & Amphibians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salmonella </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mycobacterium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wild Animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hantavirus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plague </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tularemia </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Routes of Transmission <ul><li>Direct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Droplet or Aerosol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indirect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foodborne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water-borne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fomite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vector-borne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Zoonoses - Life Cycle <ul><li>ORTHOZOONOSES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be perpetuated in nature by a single vertebrate species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. rabies, brucellosis, anthrax </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Zoonosis: Rabies Life Cycle Virus inoculation (bite) Salivary gland excretion
  23. 23. Zoonoses - Maintenance Cycle <ul><li>CYCLOZOONOSES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires more than one vertebrate species but no invertebrate host </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are cestodiases (tapeworm diseases) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taenia saginata and T. solium require man to be one of vertebrate hosts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others, such as hydatidosis, man is accidentally involved </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Life Cycle:                                                                                     www.freelivedoctor.com
  25. 25. Zoonoses - Life Cycle <ul><li>METAZOONOSES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Require both vertebrates and invertebrates to complete transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All arboviral infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some bacterial diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plague, many rickettsia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some parasitic diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Zoonoses: Metazoonoses <ul><li>Invertebrate Host: Mosquitoes </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebrate Host: Birds </li></ul><ul><li>Incidental Hosts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HUMANS, horses, amphibians, other mammals </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Risk Factors <ul><li>Companion Animal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dogs & roundworm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rats & Rat Bite Fever </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occupational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal control workers & rabies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wildlife biologists & hantavirus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foodborne </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw meat & E.coli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unpasteurized dairy & Listeria </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Risk Factors <ul><li>Recreational Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Camping & Lyme disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Farm Settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheep & Q-fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cattle & Cryptosporidium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Travel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maylasia & Nipha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia & Hendra </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Reportable Diseases of Animals <ul><li>By veterinarian or other individual </li></ul><ul><li>Reported to CA Department of Health Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plague </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rabies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reportable to the CA Department of Food and Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthrax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brucellosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glanders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listeriosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rabies in livestock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West Nile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And more… </li></ul></ul>

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