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The Antarctic Treaty
Presented By : -
Miss. Sayali Agine. 02
&
Mr. Rajesh Mhade. 20
Submitted To : -
Prof. Jayesh Shirke.
...
 There are currently around 10,000 people based on stations in the
Antarctic in summer, falling to about 1,000 in winter....
Antarctica is the largest and most pristine wilderness on Earth, and an unrivalled
natural laboratory for scientific resea...
Introduction
The origins of the AntarcticTreaty can be traced back to the late 1950s,
and the International Geophysical Ye...
The USA proposed that the twelve nations involved in the IGY – Argentina,
Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Ze...
The major provisions of the Antarctic Treaty are:
• Antarctica is only to be used for peaceful purposes, although
military...
•The Antarctic Treaty remains in force indefinitely and is recognized
as one of the most successful of all international a...
Country
Argentina, Australia, Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Brazil
Bulgaria, Canada,
Chile,China, Colombia, Cuba,
Czech Repub...
 Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purposes
only (Art. I)
 Freedom of scientific investigation in Antarctica
and coo...
Article IV
Nothing contained in the present Treaty shall be interpreted as:
No acts or activities taking place while the p...
Article V
1. Any nuclear explosions in Antarctica and the disposal there of
radioactive waste material shall be prohibited...
Article VII
1.Treaty shall have the right to designate observers to carry out any
inspection provided for by the present A...
Article IX
1. Representatives of the Contracting Parties named in the
preamble to the present Treaty shall meet at the Cit...
Article X
Each of the Contracting Parties undertakes to exert appropriate efforts,
consistent with the Charter of the Unit...
Article XII
The present Treaty may be modified or amended at any time by
unanimous agreement of the Contracting Parties wh...
 Protection of the Antarctic environment has been a
central theme in the cooperation among Antarctic
Treaty Parties.
 In...
 The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research
has published a thorough report on Antarctic
Climate Change. 100 scientis...
 The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the
Antarctic Treaty was signed in Madrid on October 4,
1991 and entered int...
 The primary objective in protecting the antarctic is to avoid or
minimize disturbance by human activity. The principles
...
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Environmental management

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The Antarctic Treaty was signed in Washington on 1 December 1959 by the twelve countries whose scientists had been active in and around Antarctica during the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957-58. It entered into force in 1961 and has since been acceded to by many other nations. The total number of Parties to the Treaty is now 50.

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Environmental management

  1. 1. The Antarctic Treaty Presented By : - Miss. Sayali Agine. 02 & Mr. Rajesh Mhade. 20 Submitted To : - Prof. Jayesh Shirke. VSMSIBM Khed.
  2. 2.  There are currently around 10,000 people based on stations in the Antarctic in summer, falling to about 1,000 in winter. The largest UK facility is Rothera Research Station, on Adelaide Island, which currently has a complement of up to 120 in summer and 21 in winter. 3/27/2014 16raj VSIM KHED
  3. 3. Antarctica is the largest and most pristine wilderness on Earth, and an unrivalled natural laboratory for scientific research.The continent has been protected for 50 years by a unique international agreement – the AntarcticTreaty. 3/27/2014 17raj VSIM KHED
  4. 4. Introduction The origins of the AntarcticTreaty can be traced back to the late 1950s, and the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957-58. Scientific research in Antarctica was a major focus for the IGY and the continent became the centre for a global scientific effort involving some 67 counties. The IGY was a tremendous success, as not only did it produce highly important scientific results, but it showed that nations could co- operate and work together peacefully inAntarctica. 3/27/2014 18raj VSIM KHED
  5. 5. The USA proposed that the twelve nations involved in the IGY – Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, UK, USA, and the USSR (now the Russian Federation) – should meet to discuss how international co-operation and freedom of science in Antarctica could be continued. After a year of closed discussions, the 12 nations signed the Antarctic Treaty on 1st December 1959, which came into force on 23rd June 1961. 3/27/2014 19raj VSIM KHED
  6. 6. The major provisions of the Antarctic Treaty are: • Antarctica is only to be used for peaceful purposes, although military personnel may be involved in logistical support • There is freedom of scientific investigation and co-operation • Scientific information, data and personnel can be freely exchanged • Territorial claims are ‘frozen’ and new ones cannot be made • Nuclear explosions and radioactive waste disposal are banned • All stations and equipment are open to inspection by any Treaty nation at any time • The Treaty covers all areas south of latitude 60º south.. 3/27/2014 20raj VSIM KHED
  7. 7. •The Antarctic Treaty remains in force indefinitely and is recognized as one of the most successful of all international agreements. Since 1959, the number of countries which have signed the Treaty has risen from the original 12 to a total of 49 in 2011. •As well as the original Treaty, the Treaty nations have agreed a series of other measures to conserve wildlife living on and around Antarctica, such as the conservation of seals and management of fishing activity. •Agreements are also in place to protect the environment, including a prohibition of all minerals related activity (except for science). •Together, the Treaty and its associated agreements are known as the Antarctic Treaty System. Competing 3/27/2014 21raj VSIM KHED
  8. 8. Country Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil Bulgaria, Canada, Chile,China, Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, M onaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, North Korea, Norway , Pakistan, Papua, New Guinea, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom , United States, Parties involve in ATS 3/27/2014 22raj VSIM KHED
  9. 9.  Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purposes only (Art. I)  Freedom of scientific investigation in Antarctica and cooperation toward that end … shall continue (Art. II).  Scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available (Art. III). 3/27/2014 23raj VSIM KHED
  10. 10. Article IV Nothing contained in the present Treaty shall be interpreted as: No acts or activities taking place while the present Treaty is in force shall constitute a basis for asserting, supporting or denying a claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica or create any rights of sovereignty in Antarctica. No new claim, or enlargement of an existing claim, to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica shall be asserted while the present Treaty is in force. 3/27/2014 24raj VSIM KHED
  11. 11. Article V 1. Any nuclear explosions in Antarctica and the disposal there of radioactive waste material shall be prohibited. 2. In the event of the conclusion of international agreements concerning the use of nuclear energy, including nuclear explosions and the disposal of radioactive waste material, to which all of the Contracting Parties whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings provided for under Article IX are parties, the rules established under such agreements shall apply in Antarctica. Article VI The provisions of the present Treaty shall apply to the area south of 60 deg. South Latitude, including all ice shelves, but nothing in the present Treaty shall prejudice or in any way affect the rights, or the exercise of the rights, of any State under international law with regard to the high seas within that area. 3/27/2014 25raj VSIM KHED
  12. 12. Article VII 1.Treaty shall have the right to designate observers to carry out any inspection provided for by the present Article. 2. Each observer designated in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article shall have complete freedom of access at any time to any or all areas of Antarctica. ArticleVIII 1. In order to facilitate the exercise of their functions under the present Treaty, and without prejudice to the respective positions of the Contracting Parties relating to jurisdiction over all other persons in Antarctica, observers designated under paragraph 1 of Article VII and scientific personnel exchanged under sub-paragraph 1(b) of Article III of the Treaty, and members of the staffs accompanying any such persons, shall be subject only to the jurisdiction of the Contracting Party of which they are nationals in respect of all acts or omissions occurring while they are in Antarctica for the purpose of exercising their functions.3/27/2014 26raj VSIM KHED
  13. 13. Article IX 1. Representatives of the Contracting Parties named in the preamble to the present Treaty shall meet at the City of Canberra within two months after the date of entry into force of the Treaty, and thereafter at suitable intervals and places, for the purpose of exchanging information, consulting together on matters of common interest pertaining to Antarctica, and formulating and considering, and recommending to their Governments, measures in furtherance of the principles and objectives of the Treaty, including measures regarding: a. use of Antarctica for peaceful purposes only; b. facilitation of scientific research in Antarctica; c. facilitation of international scientific cooperation in Antarctica; d. facilitation of the exercise of the rights of inspection provided for in Article VII of the Treaty; e. questions relating to the exercise of jurisdiction in Antarctica; f. preservation and conservation of living resources in Antarctica. 3/27/2014 27raj VSIM KHED
  14. 14. Article X Each of the Contracting Parties undertakes to exert appropriate efforts, consistent with the Charter of the United Nations, to the end that no one engages in any activity in Antarctica contrary to the principles or purposes of the present Treaty. Article XI 1. If any dispute arises between two or more of the Contracting Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the present Treaty, those Contracting Parties shall consult among themselves with a view to having the dispute resolved by negotiation, inquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement or other peaceful means of their own choice. 2. Any dispute of this character not so resolved shall, with the consent, in each case, of all parties to the dispute, be referred to the International Court of Justice for settlement; but failure to reach agreement on reference to the International Court shall not absolve parties to the dispute from the responsibility of continuing to seek to resolve it by any of the various peaceful means referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article. 3/27/2014 28raj VSIM KHED
  15. 15. Article XII The present Treaty may be modified or amended at any time by unanimous agreement of the Contracting Parties whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings provided for under Article IX. Any such modification or amendment shall enter into force when the depositary Government has received notice from all such Contracting Parties that they have ratified it. Article XIII The present Treaty shall be subject to ratification by the signatory States. It shall be open for accession by any State which is a Member of the United Nations, or by any other State which may be invited to accede to the Treaty with the consent of all the Contracting Parties whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings provided for under Article IX of the Treaty. Article XIV The present Treaty, done in the English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, each version being equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States of America, which shall transmit duly certified copies thereof to the Governments of the signatory3/27/2014 29raj VSIM KHED
  16. 16.  Protection of the Antarctic environment has been a central theme in the cooperation among Antarctic Treaty Parties.  In 1964, the ATCM adopted Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora. 3/27/2014 30raj VSIM KHED
  17. 17.  The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research has published a thorough report on Antarctic Climate Change. 100 scientists from 13 countries contribute 3/27/2014 31raj VSIM KHED
  18. 18.  The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed in Madrid on October 4, 1991 and entered into force in 1998.  It designates Antarctica as a “natural reserve, devoted to peace and science” (Art. 2).  Article 3 of the Environment Protocol sets forth basic principles applicable to human activities in Antarctica and Article 7 prohibits all activities relating to Antarctic mineral resources, except for scientific research. 3/27/2014 32raj VSIM KHED
  19. 19.  The primary objective in protecting the antarctic is to avoid or minimize disturbance by human activity. The principles recommended by SCAR to achieve this comprise:  The conservation of the diversity and integrity of natural phenomena and systems, both in the context of the antarctic and planet earth;  Preservation of the genetic diversity of indigenous biota by ensuring that adequate representative populations of animals and plants are maintained in situ;  Prevention of the introduction and establishment of non-indigenous species to the greatest extent possible;  Conservation of unique natural features, localities or complexes of features and sites of historical importance, which should remain undisturbed;  Protection of cultural values, such as scenic beauty and inspirational quality, wilderness status and recreational potential.3/27/2014 33raj VSIM KHED

The Antarctic Treaty was signed in Washington on 1 December 1959 by the twelve countries whose scientists had been active in and around Antarctica during the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957-58. It entered into force in 1961 and has since been acceded to by many other nations. The total number of Parties to the Treaty is now 50.

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