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Micro turbine ppt

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Micro turbine ppt

  1. 1. GUIDE BY Mr. Rahul Srivastava Mechanical Egg. Dep PRESENTED BY Rajneesh Kumar Singh Roll no:- 1252540079
  2. 2. Introduction Gas turbine Classification Turbine based on cycle Advantages Micro turbine Economics of Micro Turbines Applications Conclusion
  3. 3.  Micro turbine is one of the important components in a micro gas turbine engine  Micro gas turbine engine consists of a radial inflow turbine, a centrifugal compressor and a combustor.  Used Fule- Natural gas, hydrogen, propane, diesel  It has an energy density 10 times than existing batteries.  It can be used in power generation applications like space vehicles, electronic devices etc…
  4. 4.  A gas turbine is a rotating engine.  Gas-turbine is used in aircraft propulsion and electric power generation.  High thermal efficiencies up to 44%.  Suitable for combined cycles (with steam power plant)  High power to weight ratio, high reliability, long life  Fast start up time, about 2 min, compared to 4 hr for steam-propulsion systems  High back work ratio (ratio of compressor work to the turbine work), up to 50%, Compared to few percent in steam power plants.
  5. 5. Types of Gas Turbine:- There are different types of gas turbines. Some of them are named below: a) Aero derivatives and jet engines b) Amateur gas turbines c) Industrial gas turbines for electrical generation d) Radial gas turbines e) Scale jet engines f) Micro turbines
  6. 6.  Idealized Brayton Cycle
  7. 7. •We already know that • Thus, the efficiency is Since heat injection and rejection occur at constant pressure then, • Hence, the efficiency is 1 2W Q Q  1 2 2 1 1 1 1 Q Q QW Q Q Q       2 1 4( )pQ c T T   1 3 2( )pQ c T T  4 1 4 1 12 1 3 2 3 2 2 1 ( ) 1 1 1 ( ) 1 p p T T c T T TQ Q c T T T T T                   
  8. 8. • Between 1 and 2, and between 3 and 4, the process is adiabatic (no heat exchange) and reversible (S is constant). Hence, the temperature changes due to work related with a pressure change acting on a varying volume. • In a reversible adiabatic process: and where • Hence, • Therefore 1 constantP T    p v c c   1 1 2 2 3 2 4 1PV PV PV PV       4 2 1 3 1 2 P V P P V P     . constantPV 
  9. 9. •From the previous slide: •Also, from the previous slide • Thus, 4 1 3 2 P P P P  1 constantP T    4 1 3 2 T T T T 
  10. 10. •Since the efficiency is (see a couple of slides ago) • Then the simplified expression for the efficiency is • Usually, the efficiency is expressed in terms of the temperature ratio (TR) or the pressure ratio (PR) where and 4 1 4 1 12 1 3 2 3 2 2 1 ( ) 1 1 1 ( ) 1 p p T T c T T TQ Q c T T T T T                    1 2 1 T T    ( 1)/ 1 1 1 1 ( ) ( )TR PR         2 2 1 1 ( ) ( ) T P TR PR T P  
  11. 11.  Very high power-to-weight ratio, compared to reciprocating engines.  Smaller than most reciprocating engines of the same power rating.  Moves in one direction only, with far less vibration than a reciprocating engine.  Fewer moving parts than reciprocating engines.  Low operating pressures.  High operation speeds.  Low lubricating oil cost and consumption.
  12. 12.  Micro turbines are small combustion turbines with outputs of 25 kW to 500 kW.  Moderate cost and efficiency  High-frequency output is rectified (and inverted again in ac micro grids). Generator output frequency is in the order of a few kHz (e.g. 1600 Hz for Capstone’s 30 kW micro turbine).  Power shaft rotates at high speeds, usually on the order of 50 000 to 120 000 rpm  Very reliable technology (Essentially micro turbines are aircraft’s APU’s). Critical parts: bearings and generator.  Generator technologies: Synchronous and permanent magnet
  13. 13.  Turbo-Compressor Package  Generator  Recuperators  Air bearings  Power Electronics
  14. 14.  Distributed generation  Quality power and reliability  Stand-by power  Peak shaving  Boost power  Low-cost energy  Combined heat and power (cogeneration)
  15. 15. Small number of moving parts, Compact size Good efficiencies in cogeneration Lightweight Low emissions Can utilize waste fuels Long maintenance intervals No vibrations Less noise than reciprocating engines
  16. 16. Micro turbine Cost Capital Cost $700-$1,100/kW O&M Cost $0.005-0.016/kW Maintenance Interval 5,000-8,000 hrs.
  17. 17.  Peak shaving and base load power (grid parallel)  Combined heat and power (co-generation)  Distributed power generation  Stand-alone power  Backup/standby power  Primary power with grid as backup  Micro grid  Resource recovery  Transportation applications
  18. 18.  Micro turbine can use low grade of fuel very effectively like waste gases, sour gases etc.  Thus micro turbine gives chance of low fuel cost and less emission.  The dimensions of micro turbine comparatively small by which it can be installed at field where power is consumed.  Micro turbine is also effective in CHP operation.  In India the micro turbine is quite useful.  The power shortage effect can be solved using micro turbine, using fuels like biogas, etc.  India the technology is still underdevelopment so the present seminar is an honest attempt to introduce micro turbine technology in India for solving the problem of power generation in future.

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