Non conventional energy resources


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Non conventional energy resources

  2. 2. Fig.(a) Internal structure of sun Rajneesh Kumar
  3. 3. Use of solar energy for domestic purposes:- Fig (1) solar cooker Rajneesh Kumar
  4. 4. Solar energy as a source of power generation:- Photovoltaic Solar Power Fig (2) working of PV Cell Rajneesh Kumar
  5. 5. Electricity generation using organic photo voltaic cells:- Organic Photo voltaic cells Bulk hetero junction photovoltaic cellsSingle layer organic photovoltaic cell Eg:- C60 Bi layer organic photovoltaic cells & its derivati ves Eg:- magnesium phthalocyanine Eg:-copper phthal co cyanine as electron donor and perylene tetra carboxylic derivative as electron acceptor Rajneesh Kumar
  6. 6. Solar energy as a source for heat energy: Capacity: 125L, 250L, 375L, 500L, 750L, 1000L Collector Type: Black-chrome Coated Max. Temperature of hot water: 60°C Life of system: 15 – 20 yearssun Fig (3): Solar water heater Rajneesh Kumar
  7. 7. Advantages:• Pollution free.• Available in plenty.Disadvantages: High initial cost. It requires a large area for the system to be efficient in providing a source of electricity.Tata Power, a subsidiary of the famous Tata Group, is planning to set up India’slargest solar PV power plant with a generation capacity of 50 MW. The company willset up this plant in Mithapur, Gujarat. Rajneesh Kumar
  8. 8. Wind Energy Winds are caused because of two factors.• The absorption of solar energy on the earth’s surface and in the atmosphere.• The rotation of the earth about its axis and its motion around the sun. Because of these factors, alternate heating and cooling cycles occur, differences in pressure are obtained, and the air is caused to move. Rajneesh Kumar
  9. 9. • Wind energy has potential to be used as a source of power.• This can be judged from the fact that energy available in the wind over the earth’s surface is estimated to be 1.6x107 K.W• And the energy available is free and clean. Rajneesh Kumar
  10. 10. Electricity generation from wind energy: Fig (a) internal structure of windmill Rajneesh Kumar
  11. 11. Advantages:(1) free(2) Inexhaustible(3) No pollution Disadvantages (1)Wind power is not consistent. (2)High cost Rajneesh Kumar
  12. 12. BIO GAS ENERGY• Bio gas is generated through a process of anaerobic degradation of Bio Mass.• Bio Mass is organic matter produced by plants, both terrestrial (those grown on land) and aquatic (those grown in water) and their derivatives.• It includes forest crops and residues, crops grown especially for their energy content on “energy farms” and animal manure.• Unlike coal, oil and natural gas, which takes Millions of years to form, bio mass can be considered as a renewable energy source Rajneesh Kumar
  13. 13. Cont…• It can also be considered a form of solar energy as the latter is used indirectly to grow these plants by photosynthesis.• Hence, solar energy –>Photosynthesis –> Bio Mass->energy generation Rajneesh Kumar
  14. 14. Use of bio gas energy for domestic purposes:- Fig (a) fixed dome type bio gas plant Rajneesh Kumar
  15. 15. Advantages of bio energy:• It burns without any smoke so it is eco friendly.• It is a renewable source of energy.Disadvantages of bio energy:• Low production• Not economical for large scale use. Rajneesh Kumar
  16. 16. TIDAL ENERGY• Tide is periodic rise and fall of the water level of the sea.• This rise and fall of water level occurs due to the attraction of sea water by the moon.• When the water is above the mean sea level, it is called flood tide and when the level is below the mean level, it is called ebb tide.• These tides can be used to produce electrical power which is known as tidal power. Rajneesh Kumar
  17. 17. Tidal energy as a source of electricity generation:- Fig (a) Fig (b) Recently A Canadian Tidal Energy Technology Company has signed an Agreement with Alstom Hydro for production of electricity through tidal energy. Rajneesh Kumar
  18. 18. Advantages:• It is pollution free.• Renewable source of energy.• It can meet high demand of electricity.Disadvantages: The supply of power is not continuous as it depends upon the timing of tides. Therefore some arrangements (double basin or double basin with pump storage) must be made to supply the continuous power. High installation cost. Rajneesh Kumar
  19. 19. FUEL CELL ENERGY• Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combines hydrocarbon fuel with oxygen to produce electricity and heat.• The fuel cell consist of cathode, anode and an electrolyte. Nickel is used as a catalyst in fuel cells.• The cathode side receives oxygen from the surrounding air and hydrogen is formed by the reforming process. Rajneesh Kumar
  20. 20. Electricity generation from fuel Cell energy: Rajneesh Kumar
  21. 21. Advantages:• Better than other conventional sources of energy as it is always available.• Negligible amounts of pollutants, such as NOx and SOx are produced.Disadvantages:• Takes larger space.• The hydrogen evaporates as the insulation is not that perfect. Rajneesh Kumar