Child Lg Devt And Stratigies For Devloping Lg At Home
Child language development & Strategies for developing language at Home. EIPIC – Fei Yue 2 June 2008 Parent Training WorkshopPresenter:Mr. Rajeev RanjanSpeech Language therapist
Outline of presentation…Definition.Normal development.Pre-requisites for speech and language.Modes of communication.Conditions which lead to sp & lg delay.Autism.Sp & Lg problems in Autism.How and why child communicate.Child’s stage of communication development.Assessment.Approaches and speech and lg stimulation.General techniques and strategies.Summary, andReferences.
Speech Language And Communication Definition: “Speech is audible manifestation of language. It’s a complex motor act which involve movements of various articulators for production of speech”
Language: is a set of arbitrary symbols usedby a group of people for the purpose ofcommunication.Language is the main vehicle forcommunication
Communication is a process through whichhuman beings share ideas ,feelings, desires,emotions and for sheer pleasure.
Cont….. 1 year . First word 15 months . First 20 words 1.6 yrs . Vocabulary spurt 2 yrs . Two word/multi word utterances 2.6 – 3 yrs . Simple sentences 3– 3.6 yrs . Complex sentences
Pre-requisites for Speech and LanguageNormal development of…. Neuro-Motor Maturation Stimulating Motor abilities environment Speech & Language Intelligence & Sensory abilities Cognition Speech production mechanism
Modes of Communication Communication: Commu- nication Receptive ExpressiveHearing Touch Smell Vision Speech Gestures Drama Poetry Writing Mime
COMMU ICATIO VERBAL O VERBALVOCAL HUMA SPEECH CRIES SY THETIC SPCH. MOA S SIGHSO -VOCAL WRITI G DRAWI G SIG LA G. GESTURES BLISS SYMBOL. PICTURES
Pre verbal skills Eye contact Attention span Breath control Imitation
Conditions which lead to speech andlanguage delay AUTISM : MENTAL RETARDATION: HEARING IMPAIRMENT: CEREBRAL PALSY: MULTIPLE DISABILITIES: SENSORY PROBLEMS
Definition of autism Autism is a brain development disorder that impairs social interaction and communication, and causes restricted and repetitive behavior, all starting before a child is three years old.
Speech and language Problems inAutism: Deficits in paying attention to auditory information Delayed/ normal comprehension of language Delayed development in expression Difficulty in expressing needs, using gestures or pointing instead of words Repeating words or phrases in place of normal, responsive language
Cont… Non responsive to verbal cues; acts as if deaf, although hearing tests in normal range. Poor breath control for speech Inability in performing manual signs and other non vocal communications Speech sound production problems
Cont.. First year of life -delayed onset of babbling -unusual gestures -desynchronization of vocal patterns with the caregiver
Cont… second and third years -less frequent and less diverse babbling, - consonants, words, and word combinations -less likely to make requests or share experiences -simply repeat others words (echolalia) -reverse pronouns. -difficulty with imaginative play and with developing symbols into language
General characteristics, Cont.. Insistence on sameness; resistance to change Laughing (and/or crying) for no apparent reason showing distress for reasons not apparent to others Preference to being alone; aloof manner Tantrums Difficulty in mixing with others Not wanting to cuddle or be cuddled
Cont… Little or no eye contact Unresponsive to normal teaching methods Sustained odd play Spinning objects Obsessive attachment to objects Apparent over-sensitivity or under-sensitivity to pain No real fears of danger Noticeable physical over-activity or extreme under-activity Uneven gross/fine motor skills
How and why child communicates:HOW my child communicates: Cries or screams Smiles Moves his body Changes his facial expression Makes sounds Looks at me or what he wants Takes me by the hand to what he wants. Uses gestures, such as waving for bye-bye Uses sounds that stands for words Uses single words Combines two or more words at a time.
Why my child communicates: Because he is hungry or tired Because he is happy To respond to something interesting, such as my voice To protest or refuse something To get attention To request something To show me something he is interested in To greet or say good bye To follow directions To answer questions To tell someone about something To ask a question
Child’s stage of Communication: Discoverers- react to how they feel and to what is happening around them, but do not communicate with a specific purpose in mind.
Cont…Communicators- send specific messageswithout using words.
Cont…First word users - use single words (or signs orpictures).
Cont…Combiners- combine words into sentences oftwo or three words.
Con…My child’s stage ofcommunication development: UseAlways,Often,Rarely andRarely, ever, to understand yours child receptive and expressive language.
Con…Discoverer: Understanding* ExpressionMy child.. My child….-looks at me when I talk or sing softly to -cries or fusses when he is sleepy, hungry him or uncomfortable-smiles when I smile at him or talk to -has different cries, depending upon what him he needs-Recognizes familiar voices - Makes sounds when he is spoken to-turns his head towards sounds he hears or smiled at.-responds when I call his name by -makes vowel sounds like ‘ah’. ‘uh’ and looking at me, moving his body or eh’ holding still. -make consonants sounds like ‘buh. Guh,-recognizes a few gestures or ma’-anticipates the next step in daily -imitates some sounds he hears routines. -imitates me back when I imitate a sound that he makes -imitates simple actions(*Discoverers don’t yet understand what -babbles words mean) -Close his eye when he doesn’t want something -looks at, reaches for object or people he’s interested in.
Con…Communicator: Expression Understanding -takes me by the hand and pulls me-understands familiar words in toward objects that he wants routine situations, like bye-bye -draws my attention to objects and-understands names of familiar people by giving or showing them to me or pointing to them objects -imitates actions such as clapping-responds to simple questions like -imitates sounds wheres your teddy bear?’ by moving to the object, looking at -uses a few gestures it or pointing to it. -Looks at or point what he wants or is interested in, and then looks at-can follow simple directions me. accompanied by gestures. -makes sounds that resemble words.-understands the meaning of no. -put strings of sounds together that almost sound like speech (jargon).
Con…First words user: Understanding Expression-can point to familiar body parts and -uses at least 3 words or signs, or objects points to pictures) to-follows simple instructions even without gestures. communicate.-can answer yes or no questions -uses more gestures or sounds-responds the questions like where is than he used to. the cup? -imitates sounds like those-understands the names of many animals make and words. familiar objects, peoples and animals -uses between 10 and 25 words or signs. -points to 10 or more pictures to send messages. -uses 25-50 words or signs.
Con…Combiner: Understanding Expression-can answer questions like what -combines two words or signs together as in want juice or do you wear on your feet? no bed’-understands questions that starts - Uses at least 50 words. with who (who is at the -ask questions using a rising tone door?) -ask questions that start with-understands of the meaning of what and where? the following concepts: in, -combines three words together, as in want more juice’ on, under, big, little. -refers to himself by his name.- Can sort objects by category such as animals or toys.-listens to simple stories.
Assessment of the following aspects isimportant Pre-linguistic skills Mode of communication used by child Sensory aspect- suspected problem Speech mechanism- structure and function speech aspect- imitation skills, intelligibility of speech, intonation patterns, fluency, voice
Cont…, Linguistic aspects- vocabulary category, types of word, Number of words Semantics, Syntax MLU, types of sentences, use of grammatical morphemes, subject-verb agreement Pragmatics Initiation of conversation, turn taking, ending conversation, contextual usage on-verbal behaviors - gestures.
Cont…, Articulation Speech sounds- SODA Analysis of problems- Place, manner, voicing problems
APPROACHES FOR S&L TRAI I G COGNITIVE TRAINING SENSORY/MOTOR TRAINING ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT VERBAL COMPREHENSION EXPRESSIVE LANGUAGE
S&L Stimulation Modeling- It draws from what the child says to extend the child’scomments.-It does not correct or repeat the child’s syntactic forms or sentence structure.TWO TYPS OF MODELLING-Antecedent technique in modeling, andSub sequential technique in modeling. Prompting – Prompts are special stimuli that increase the probability ofevoking responses. Prompts are like hints of everyday life. Shaping –Complex target behaviors need to be simplified, so that the childis able to learn them easily step by step. Semantic cueing –In this technique mother or the adult givesmeaningful cues to the child, so he can easily come out with the target or therequired responses.
ContSentence completion – In this technique, an incompletesentence is presented to the child and he has to complete the sentence withan appropriate word.Expansion –This occurs when the child’s utterance is expandedinto the correct grammatical form.Questioning – It is one of the best methods to get response from aperson, Questions can be of 3 types,Questions requiring yes-no response: E.g: Did you eat in the morning?Questions requiring a naming response: E.g: What is that?Questions requiring an open-ended response: E.g: Where did you goyesterday evening?
General Techniques and strategies Let your child lead.-Get face to face. OWL to let your child lead Observe (Child’s Interest) Wait (Processing and Response time) Listen (paying close attention to all of your child’s words and sounds)
Cont Create opportunities for your -Offer a little bit.. Then wait child to lead.-Help your child make a request.-Place a favorite object out of reach.. then wait
Cont Match the length of your child’s turn Match your child’s interestUse explicit cues:Physical helpPhysical modelVerbal modelUse natural cues:Visual cuesNon-verbal cues
Cont…. Rewarding routines Use a routine to SPARK an interaction: Start the same way each time, Plan your child’s turn, Adjust the routine so your child can take his turn, Repeat the same actions, sounds and words each time, and Keep the end the same.
Cont… Add language to the Interaction -Use a variety of words,
Cont Highlight your language: Use the Four S’s: Expand your child’s message,
Cont Let’s play.-Functional Play-Constructive play, and-Pretend play
Cont.. Attention control Concept formation Symbolic understanding Verbal comprehension Expressive language Articulation training Fluency
Summary… Get to know more about your child’s:1. Normal development of communication.2. Modes of communication Set language intervention goals by knowing your child’s stage of communication. Follow your child’s lead. Create opportunities to communicate for your child. Reward routines. Highlight your language. Help your child understand what you say, and Play with your child, have fun.
References: De Feo, A.(1995). Parent Articles 2: More articles to enhance Parent Involvement. Texas: Pro-Ed. Pepper.J.& Weitzman,E.(2004), It takes Two to Talk : A practical guide for parents of children with language delays. Canada: The Beacon Herald Fine Printing Division. Schrader,M.(1988). Parent Articles1: Enhance Parent Involvement in Language Learning. Texas: Pro-Ed. Sussman,F.(1999). More than Words: A guide to helping Parent’s Promote communication and Social skills in children with Autism spectrum Disorders. Canada: The Beacon Herald Fine Printing Division.