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Conceptualizing visual data

This presentation is based on an Article written by Mr. Michael Emmison on Conceptualizing the Visual Data and its use in Qualitative Research

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Conceptualizing visual data

  1. 1. Qualitative Tools for Research Article Presentation To Dr. Riaz Hussain Soomro By Raj Kumar (15SMSMG25) 04-11-2015 SMIU
  2. 2.  Giving Meaning to Pictures
  3. 3.   What do we understand from the words “ Visual Data” ?  Photographic Images  Videos  What Else…..?  It is this theme – that the ‘visual’ is the ‘realm’ of ‘data’, not simply a domain amendable to ‘cultural’ or ‘interpretive’ modes of inquiry.  And certainly it has a vast meaning than the word itself. What is Visual Data
  4. 4.
  5. 5.   Michael Emission on Visual Data:  “In summary from the case I develop is to think of the visual in terms of not only what the camera can record but what the eye can see.”  Visual Enquiry is no longer just the study of the image, but rather the study of the seen and the observable.  “Social Researchers should rethink both the empirical and analytical possibilities which this domain accompanies.” Introduction
  6. 6.   Data Types (Variety of few examples):  Video data of interviews  Focus group Visuals  Interaction (playground situation),  CCTV footage  Ready available multi-media data (Soaps, news, advertisements, Online materials e.g. You Tube videos,... )  Archived films  Private visual data (family movies – documentation analysis)  Historic Sculptures  https://www.surrey.ac.uk/sociology/research/researchcentres/caqdas/fi les/CR%20-%20Visual%20Analysis%2030112012.pdf Visual Data Types
  7. 7.   We will definitely see some of the very different directions and aspects of Visual Data today, to which the Michael Emission calls the, “Image Based Visual Inquiry”.  Examples includes: Newspaper cartoons or comic strips can tell us about the wider political, economic and gender systems in which they are embedded.  Other forms are two-dimensional visual data such as directional signs, diagrams and maps. Visual Data in Visual Research
  8. 8.   Objects, places and locales carry meanings through visual means just like images.  Clothing and body language, are significant signs which we use to establish identity and negotiate public situations.  Eye contact, Simmel’s ‘Mutual Glance’ – plays a role in regulating the social life among strangers. Visual Data in Visual Research
  9. 9.   The material ecology of the built environment, shopping malls, museums and public spaces more generally – has been argued to exert a determining influence on the movement and mutual coordination of the people.  Tensions between surveillance, visibility and privacy regulate our uses of such spaces.  There is a rich material for visual researches in all these areas. Searching for Material for Visual Research
  10. 10.   Here the focus is not so much on the role of the commonsense reasoning by the academic analyst but rather the ways in which ordinary actors use or make sense of such visual information in the course of their everyday practical routines. The Focus
  11. 11.   Visual Researchers frequently allude to the popular maximum that their photographs ‘speak for themselves’. But it is not the photographs which generate whatever sociological insight is claimed on their behalf, but the viewer. That is, it is we who make the images speak, not the photographs themselves. Does a Picture Speak for Itself?
  12. 12.   One key component here is our commonsense understanding of the conventions of the textual layout and what they signify.  Moreover, we provide the additional narrative material locatable in the images which servers to reinforce, the interpretation of the viewer. Does a Picture Speak for Itself?
  13. 13.   Sociology by Epitome, can be detected. (Schegloff, 1988)  The photographs which provide the illustrative material of the field’s, ethnographic essays, research reports, and monographs serve a purpose only to the extent that we can supply the theoretical or conceptual point they purport to deliver.  What if the order of the images is reversed? Would this have led to confusion on the part of the viewer. Does a Picture Speak for Itself?
  14. 14.   Photo-elicitation (Schwartz, 1989) helps researcher to generate verbal commentary while interpreting the existing photographs which might not be otherwise possible through interview process.  Auto-photography has also played a great role for making researchers investigate the phenomena of how one perceives on the basis of gender. Does a Picture Speak for Itself?
  15. 15.   ‘The Visual’ and its all aspects are important.  ‘The Visual’ itself has become not only a focus of concern in its traditional homelands, anthropology, sociology and cultural studies, but in architecture and design, geography and urban studies, material culture, new technology and multimedia, and science and museum studies. The Field of Visual Research: Some Preliminary Considerations
  16. 16.   The visual material should be used critically and reflexively, by the researcher.  Some times finding rationale for including some images in the research becomes difficult.  Photographs should be considered for means of preserving, storing, or representing information.  Researchers should use code-sheets, the responses to interview schedules, ethnographic field notes, tape recordings or verbal interactions or any one of the numerous ways in which the social researchers seek to capture data for the subsequent analysis and investigations. Photographs as Data: Documentary and Representational Considerations
  17. 17.   The dimensionality is a core organizing principle for thinking about the different forms of visual information. Underpinning this argument is the point that visual is also spatial.  The objects, people and events, which constitute the raw materials for visual analysis, are not encountered in isolation but rather in specific contexts.  Spatial considerations opens up the new vistas allowing more fruitful theoretical connections to be established. Rethinking The Visual: Space, Place and Dimensionality
  18. 18.   Stimson – General Medical Council (GMC) in UK.  This is a room in which serious matters are discussed in more disciplined manner. The Hearing Room
  19. 19.   Maps  Directional Signs  Traffic Regulations  Provide us with not simply information, but information which is to be incorporated into practical routines.  Example – Signs in Medical Complex for Hospital Staff for specific interpretation for actions needing attention. Two- Dimensional Visual Data
  20. 20.   Primary advantages of objects or artefacts for visual enquiry offers greater range of possibilities than two- dimensional data.  Aesthetics  Historical Significance Three Dimensional Visual Data
  21. 21.   The possibilities in the use of three-dimensional data it is a short step to the next ‘higher’ analytical level, which is the places and settings, the actual environments or lacales – in which humans conduct their lives.  Example – Museum planners and designers (e.g. Dean, 1994) Lived and Living Visual Data
  22. 22.   Viability of Visual Research as coherent intellectual endeavour.  Confined attention of the researcher in his analysis to the pre- existing cultural and representations  Visual research stands as one of the most disorganized and theoretically inchoate in the social science academy.  Majority of the visual inquiry always remains questionable.  Researchers some times fail to create difference between the reality they investigate and the means of apprehending this reality.  Issues or representation in images generated by largely anonymous or unknown photographers. Problems
  23. 23.   Writers moves beyond a dubious illustrative use of photography to make important theoretical points about meaning and representation in their cultural and historical manifestations which are only available through visual means. Problems
  24. 24.   Photographic images – in either their representational or informational form – will no , doubt continue to figure in visual enquiry, but only when researchers come to appreciate the value of direct observation of the social world, harnessed with a powerful theoretical imagination, will visual research come to enjoy the centrality throughout the social and cultural fields which it deserves. Conclusion
  25. 25.  Thank You

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