Conflict Management


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  • Conflict Management

    1. 1. Project Management 8. Managing Project Conflict
    2. 2. <ul><li>Q </li></ul><ul><li>Why is learning about conflict management relevant? </li></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>To help develop and facilitate leadership, team building, performance management, and conflict management skills in an IT environment </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Nature of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Handling Grievances </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Stress </li></ul>4 4
    4. 4. <ul><li>Conflict is a form of relating or interacting where we find ourselves (either as individuals or groups) under some sort of perceived threat to our personal or collective goals. </li></ul><ul><li>These goals are usually to do with our interpersonal wants. These perceived threats may be either real or imagined (Condliffe, 1991, p3). </li></ul>Conflict
    5. 5. <ul><li>Sources of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>(Bisno) </li></ul><ul><li>Project Sources of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>(Thamhain & Wilemon) </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Sources of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>(Bisno) </li></ul><ul><li>Biosocial </li></ul><ul><li>Personality and interactional </li></ul><ul><li>Structural </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural and ideological </li></ul><ul><li>Convergence </li></ul>
    7. 7. Bisno’s Sources of Conflict ( Condliffe, 1991 , p6)
    8. 8. <ul><li>Sources of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>(Bisno) </li></ul><ul><li>Biosocial </li></ul><ul><li>Personality and interactional </li></ul><ul><li>Structural </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural and ideological </li></ul><ul><li>Convergence </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Sources of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>(Bisno) </li></ul><ul><li>Biosocial </li></ul><ul><li>Personality and interactional </li></ul><ul><li>Structural </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural and ideological </li></ul><ul><li>Convergence </li></ul><ul><li>Project Sources of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>(Thamhain & Wilemon) </li></ul><ul><li>Project schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Project priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Workforce </li></ul>
    10. 10. ( Nicholas, 2001 , p519)
    11. 11. ( Nicholas, 2001 , p519)
    12. 12. <ul><li>Components of Conflict </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Values: ideas and feelings about right and wrong (difficult to resolve) </li></ul>Components of Conflict
    14. 14. <ul><li>Interests: things that motivate eg. managers and workers have different interests </li></ul>Components of Conflict
    15. 15. <ul><li>Emotional: feelings that accompany human interactions eg. anger, fear, reject, and loss </li></ul>Components of Conflict
    16. 16. <ul><li>Emotional: feelings that accompany human interactions eg. anger, fear, reject, and loss </li></ul><ul><li>Interests: things that motivate eg. managers and workers have different interests </li></ul><ul><li>Values: ideas and feelings about right and wrong (difficult to resolve) </li></ul>Components of Conflict When you have to deal with conflict tackle the emotional issues first then address values and interests
    17. 17. Consequences of conflict
    18. 18. <ul><li>Good Consequences of Conflict </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>increased creativity </li></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>It forces people to clarify their views </li></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>It can produce constructive social change </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>It gives people the opportunity to test their capacities </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>development of group and organization cohesion </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>Bad Consequences of Conflict </li></ul>
    25. 25. Violence
    26. 26. breakdown of relationships
    27. 27. polarization of views into static positions
    28. 28. A breakdown of collaborative ventures
    29. 29. destruction of communication
    30. 30. Groupthink
    31. 31. <ul><li>Groupthink is a tendency for strong conformity pressures within groups to lead to the breakdown of critical thinking and encourage premature acceptance of questionable decisions </li></ul>Groupthink
    32. 32. <ul><li>Lack of conflict is a sign of over conformity. </li></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><li>It is unhealthy when there is no conflict </li></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><li>You need diversity of opinion </li></ul>
    35. 36. Consequences of conflict
    36. 37. <ul><li>Nature of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Handling Grievances </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Stress </li></ul>3 3
    37. 38. <ul><li>Conflict Handling Styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoiding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compromise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul></ul>
    38. 39. <ul><li>Which conflict handling style will you use? </li></ul>
    39. 40. <ul><li>Which conflict handling style will you use? </li></ul><ul><li>Project Managers may have a preferred style for managing conflict </li></ul>
    40. 41. <ul><li>Which conflict handling style will you use? </li></ul><ul><li>Project Managers may have a preferred style for managing conflict </li></ul><ul><li>You should use different styles depending on the problem – and get there by using your ability to read situation </li></ul>
    41. 42. avoiding accommodation competition compromise collaboration
    42. 43. <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>ignoring conflicts and hoping they’ll go away </li></ul><ul><li>putting problems under consideration or on hold </li></ul><ul><li>use of secrecy to avoid confrontation </li></ul><ul><li>appeal to bureaucratic rules </li></ul>Avoiding <ul><li>When to use </li></ul><ul><li>Trivial, small/unimportant issue </li></ul><ul><li>no perceived chance of resolution </li></ul><ul><li>To allow a cool down period </li></ul><ul><li>To allow others to resolve the situation </li></ul>
    43. 44. <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>looking for deals and trade-offs </li></ul><ul><li>finding satisfactory or acceptable solutions </li></ul><ul><li>When to use </li></ul><ul><li>goals are important, but not worth effort </li></ul><ul><li>opponents with equal power are committed to mutually exclusive goals </li></ul><ul><li>achieve temporary settlements to issues </li></ul><ul><li>arrive at solutions under time pressure </li></ul><ul><li>back-up to collaboration or competition </li></ul>Compromise
    44. 45. <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>create win-lose situations </li></ul><ul><li>use of power plays </li></ul><ul><li>forcing submission </li></ul><ul><li>When to use </li></ul><ul><li>quick, decisive action is vital, very important </li></ul><ul><li>unpopular actions eg. cost cutting </li></ul><ul><li>issues are vital to company welfare </li></ul><ul><li>against people who take advantage of non-competitive behavior </li></ul>Competition
    45. 46. <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>giving way </li></ul><ul><li>submission and fulfillment </li></ul><ul><li>When to use </li></ul><ul><li>find you are wrong </li></ul><ul><li>issues more important to others than yourself </li></ul><ul><li>maintain cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>build social credits for later on </li></ul><ul><li>minimize loss </li></ul><ul><li>harmony and stability are important </li></ul><ul><li>allow team members to learn from their mistakes </li></ul>Accommodation
    46. 47. <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>problem-solving carriage </li></ul><ul><li>tackle differences </li></ul><ul><li>sharing ideas and information </li></ul><ul><li>seeing problems and conflicts as challenges </li></ul><ul><li>When to use </li></ul><ul><li>find an integrative solution when both sets of concerns are important </li></ul><ul><li>objective is to learn </li></ul>Collaboration
    47. 48. <ul><li>2 Methods for Resolving Conflict in a team </li></ul><ul><li>Role Clarification Technique (RAT) </li></ul><ul><li>Intergroup Conflict Resolution </li></ul>
    48. 49. <ul><li>Role Clarification Technique (RAT) </li></ul><ul><li>This is a systematic procedure which involves all team members understanding the requirements of their of own and everyone else's position, duties and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>You’ll need to clarify roles for team and individuals; for example via questionnaires (or for project teams - RAM matrices!) </li></ul>
    49. 50. <ul><li>Intergroup Conflict Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Each group should prepare list of what they would like the other groups to start doing, stop doing, and continue to do. </li></ul><ul><li>This list narrows he scope of the dispute and makes it easier to work on the core problems. </li></ul>
    50. 51. <ul><li>Nature of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Handling Grievances </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Stress </li></ul>2 2
    51. 52. <ul><li>What is a Grievance? </li></ul>
    52. 53. <ul><li>A grievance is any behaviour or action of another member or members of a team, which has or is likely to have an unreasonable negative impact on the ability of a team member to undertake their duties </li></ul>
    53. 54. <ul><li>Most grievances are never raised with management </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
    54. 55. Lack of trust Our complaints are trivialized No action gets taken! They only take defensive action
    55. 56. <ul><li>What you should do? </li></ul>
    56. 57. <ul><li>Listen </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss </li></ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul>
    57. 58. <ul><li>Nature of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Handling Grievances </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Stress </li></ul>1 1
    58. 59. <ul><li>Stress </li></ul>
    59. 60. <ul><li>What is Stress? </li></ul><ul><li>A pattern of emotional states and physiological reactions occurring in situations where individuals perceive threats to their important goals that they feel unable to meet </li></ul><ul><li>(Greenberg & Baron, 1993, p257). </li></ul>
    60. 62. <ul><li>Effects of Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Physical illness </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in task performance </li></ul><ul><li>Poor quality decision making </li></ul>
    61. 63. <ul><li>Causes of Stress in Projects </li></ul>Long hours Tight schedules Transient work force High risks Work overload Role uncertainty Social relations
    62. 64. A Stress Survey <ul><li>How many of these for you </li></ul><ul><li>in the last year? </li></ul>
    63. 65. ( Greenberg & Baron, 1993, p238 )
    64. 66. <ul><li>Stress Management </li></ul>1. Organizational Level 2. Individual Level
    65. 67. <ul><li>Stress Management at the Organizational Level </li></ul><ul><li>setting reasonable work plans and schedules </li></ul><ul><li>delegating responsibility and increasing independence </li></ul><ul><li>clarifying responsibilities, authority, and performance criteria </li></ul><ul><li>clarifying goals, procedures, and decision criteria </li></ul><ul><li>giving consideration and support in leadership </li></ul>
    66. 68. <ul><li>Stress Management for the Individual </li></ul><ul><li>stress management program </li></ul><ul><li>relaxation training </li></ul><ul><li>diversions from work-related problems </li></ul>
    67. 69. Review <ul><li>Conflict is the opposition of people or forces that develops into an aggressive state or action. </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of IT project conflict includes; schedules, priorities and workforce issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict can be good and bad. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict handling styles include; avoiding, compromise, competition, accommodation, and collaboration. </li></ul><ul><li>Grievance handling strategies include; listen, discuss, and plan. Not dealing with grievances can be harmful to projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Work environment improvements and reducing stress is essential to a team’s health and the success of the project. </li></ul>
    68. 70. References <ul><li>Condliffe, P. (1991). Conflict management – A practical guide . Collingwood, Vic.: RMIT. </li></ul><ul><li>Greenberg, J. & Baron, R. (1993). Behavior in organizations (4 th ed.). Syd., NSW: Allyn and Bacon. </li></ul><ul><li>Nicholas, J. (2001). Project management for business technology – Principles and practice (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. </li></ul>