Definition of Conjunction A conjunction is a word (or group of words) which joins or connects words, sentences or parts of sentences
Why Conjunctions?Reason 1. They join two sentences together andserve the purpose of making them morecompactFor example, instead of saying “ Sachin is agood batsman” and “ Laxman is a goodBatsman”, there is a shorter way of putting itas “Sachin and Laxman are good batsmen”
Why Conjunctions? ContinuedReason 2: They bring about the relationshipbetween the elements that are thus joined.For example, since he is hardworking , he islikely to succeed.
2 Types of Conjunctions1. Co-ordinate Conjunction which joins two clauses or sentences of equal rank , and2. Subordinate Conjunction which joins two parts, one of which is subordinate or dependent on the other
First of the 4 types of Coordinating ConjunctionsCumulative Conjunction : Adds one statement orfact to another.Example: India batted well and bowled withintensity to win the series against Australia
Second of the 4 types of Coordinating ConjunctionsAdversative Conjunction : Expresses contrastbetween the two parts. Examples:1. He is slow but sincere2. At the end of the exam season, I was tired but happy3. He is alright; only a little fatigued
Third of the 4 types of Coordinating ConjunctionsAlternative Conjunction : Expresses a choicebetween 2 alternatives.Examples:1. You must either leave immediately or take a taxi to reach the airport in time.2. Either Joseph or Sharif will pick you up from the railway station
Fourth of the 4 types of Coordinating ConjunctionsIllative Conjunction : Shows that a statementor fact is inferred from another.Examples:1. He will reach the station on time since he started on time.2. The pitch must have been bad for a formidable batting side like SA collapsed
First of the 7 types of Subordinating ConjunctionsBased on timeUsage:1. Nobody can leave the room till he gives permission2. I returned after he had left3. Many things have happened since I last saw you
Second of the 7 types of Subordinating ConjunctionsBased on cause or reasonUsage:1. Since you wish, it shall be done2. He may come in for he is your friend3. As there were no train tickets available, I rushed by air
Third of the 7 types of Subordinating ConjunctionsBased on purposeUsage:1. We work hard so that we may succeed2. Please talk softly lest you should disturb the neighbours
Fourth of the 7 types of Subordinating ConjunctionsBased on consequence or resultUsage:1. He was so tired that he could barely stand2. He bowls so fast that he is virtually unplayable
Fifth of the 7 types of Subordinating ConjunctionsBased on conditionUsage:1. I will allow you to play if you agree to come back in good time2. My parents will be happy if I succeed3. The doctor will not be able to cure us unless we tell him what the problem is
Sixth of the 7 types of Subordinating ConjunctionsBased on concessionUsage:1. Though she dislikes me, I simply love her2. Although he is late, let us allow him in3. Though he is slow, he will certainly succeed.
Seventh of the 7 types of Subordinating ConjunctionsBased on comparisonUsage:SA is stronger than Australia (is)
Usage of Subordinate Conjunctions1. After taking a shower , he left for office2. Although there was nothing in Ra.One , it did succeed3. As he was late in paying fees, he was asked to pay the penalty4. He is worried because he is to take the exam tomorrow5. Answer me first before you step inside6. You will reach on time if you leave early enough
Usage of Subordinate Conjunctions- continued7. Please walk carefully lest you should slip and fall8. Since you say so, I must believe it9. He finished first though he began last10. Please do not leave till I return11. He will not leave unless he is compelled.12.We shall not leave until we complete the handout
Usage of Subordinate Conjunctions14. When I was younger, I could easily run 15 km15. He found his wallet where he had left it16. I am still trying to figure out how it all happened17. Make hay while the sun shines18. I do not know why the stock markets are not doing well
Simple and Compound Conjunctions Simple Conjunction: Words like but and and are simple conjunctions. Compound Conjunction: Expressions like “ in order that”, “as soon as” and “even if” are compound conjunctions
Usage of Compound Conjunctions1. The notice was released in order that all might know the facts2. I will lend you this book on condition that you will return it tomorrow3. Even if I were given a chance, I would never cheat4. He started saving up right from the first month so that he could buy a house at the earliest
Usage of Compound Conjunctions- continued5.You may leave for your friends house provided that you come back home before nightfall6. He speaks as though ( or, as if ) he is inebriated7. Kumar , as well as Sheikh, was present there8. As soon as you reach Kolkata , please give me a call confirming that you have reached safe
Correlative ConjunctionsConjunctions that are used in pairs are calledcorrelative conjunctions.Examples:1. Either- or2. Neither – nor3. Both – and4. Whether – or5. Not only-but also
Usage of Correlative Conjunctions1. Either the security was lax or the burglar was an expert.2. Neither Paul nor Peter contributed to the success of this project3. Both Sachin and Dravid are great batsmen4. It does not matter whether you go or stay5. He is not only foolish, but also obstinate
The same Conjunction “since” used differently1. “Since” can mean “from and after the time”Usage: Many things have happened since I leftSchool2. “Since” can also mean “seeing that”Usage: Since you have given me a valid reasonfor being late, I am allowing you in.
The same Conjunction “or” used differently1. “Or” is used to introduce an alternativeUsage: You can travel by bus or by car2. “Or” can also be used to introduce asynonymUsage: Amitabh Bachchan or Big B is regardedas the biggest Indian movie star ever .
The same Conjunction “or” used differently- continued3. “Or” can also mean otherwiseUsage: We must leave now or we will be late4. “Or” can even mean nearly equivalent toUsage: The troops were not lacking in strengthor courage, but they were badly fed
The same Conjunction “if” used differently1. “If” is used to mean on condition thatUsage: If he is there, I shall see him.2. “If” could mean admitting thatUsage: If Jayalalithaa is corrupt, at least she isefficient
The same Conjunction “if” used differently- continued3. “If” is nearly equivalent to “ whether”Usage: I asked him if it was okay if I am lateby 5 minutes4. “If” could mean wheneverUsage: If I walk in rain, I catch a cold5. “If” could also be used to express a wish or a wistful thoughtUsage: If only I knew!
The same Conjunction “that” used differently1. “That” is used to express a reason or causeUsage: He was annoyed that he was contradicted2. “That” is also used to express a purposeUsage: We work hard that we may succeed3. “That “ is used too to express a consequence oreffectUsage: He works so sincerely that he has no difficulty insleeping well
The same Conjunction “while” used differently1. “While” is used to mean during the time thatUsage: A. While he was sleeping , the thief crept in B. While there is life, there is hope2. “While” can also mean at the same time thatUsage: While I was studying, my brother was playing3. “While” is also used to mean whereasUsage: While I do have the money, I do not have leisure
Interesting usage of the Conjunction “only”“Only” can mean except that.Usage:1. He does well, only he is nervous at the start2. I would love to go with you, only I have no money