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# Foundation of computing history final

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Considers various pioneers and their contribution to the Computing history.
Their Concepts and Theories.
How they became the basis of Computing

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### Foundation of computing history final

1. 1. K. P de Silva R.V Premabandu1
2. 2. Introduction  Considers various pioneers and their contribution to the Computing history.  Their Concepts and Theories.  How they became the basis of Computing. 2
3. 3. Content  George Boole  Boolean Algebra  Charles Babbage  Difference Engine  Analytic Engine  Formalism  Alan Turing  Turing Machines  Enigma Codes  Turing Test in AI  Claude Shannon  Boolean Algebra and Switching Circuits  Information Theory  Cryptography  Von Neumann  Von Neumann Architecture.  Konrad Zuse 3
4. 4. George Boole  Nineteenth century mathematician,  His calculus of logic is known as Boolean Algebra.  Introduced two quantities “0” and “1”.  He then employed symbols such as x, y, z, etc., to represent collections or Classes.  Introduced three operators (+ , - , x).  These symbols obeyed a rich collection of algebraic laws such as Additive Identity, Associativity, Commutativity and etc. (1815–1864) 4
5. 5. Boolean Algebra  Foundation of all modern computers.  Consists of propositions that are either true or false.  Variables (e.g., A, B, etc.) are used to stand for propositions.  Propositions must be either true or false. E.g. 2 + 2 = 4 is true. 2 ∗ 5 = 11 is false.  Propositions may be combined using logical connectives to form new propositions. 5
6. 6. Logical Connectives  The standard logical connectives are… AND - ∧ OR - ∨ NOT - ￢  These connectives may be expressed using the other logical connectives Implication (⇒) Equivalence (⇔) E.g. A ⇒ B is equivalent to ￢A∨B E.g. A ⇔ B is equivalent to (A ⇒ B) ∧ (B ⇒ A) 6
7. 7. AND, OR and NOT Gates  Boolean logical operations are implemented by electronic AND, OR and NOT gates.  Fundamental building blocks for more complex circuits. 7
8. 8. Charles Babbage  Charles Babbage is considered to be one of the fathers of computing.  He was interested in a method that calculation could be done mechanically.  Introduced a design concept for Difference Engine and Analytic Engine. (1791) 8
9. 9. Difference Engine  Built in 1853.  Compute polynomials of degree 4 on 15-digit numbers.  Compute and print mathematical tables mechanically.  The only operation that the Difference Engine can perform is the addition.  Finite differences was the concept of calculating the answers.  A key weakness is that it requires the intervention of humans to perform the calculation. 9
10. 10. Difference Engine Difference Engine is on display in the Science Museum in London. 10
11. 11. Analytic Engine  Babbage proposed a revolutionary idea for analytic engine to resolve weaknesses of difference engine.  Built in 1978.  Included a processor, memory.  Way to input information and output results.  Capable of executing all possible tasks that may be expressed in algebraic notation.  Used punched cards to store programs to perform the analysis and computation in the Analytic Engine. 11
12. 12. Analytic Engine  Punched cards in the design was extremely powerful.  Two types  Operation Cards  Variable Cards  Operation cards are used to define the operations.  Variable cards define the variables.  Ada Lovelace suggested to a method write a program in Analytic Engine.  Over 100 years before Von Neumann’s architecture. 12
13. 13. Analytic Engine 13
14. 14. Formalism  Formalism was proposed by David Hilbert.  This formal system is the basis of modern predicate logic.  A formal system consists of a formal language.  Included axioms, definitions, universal and existential quantification, and formalization of proof.  Determines the truth or falsity of any mathematical statement based on a Algorithm with set of rules. 14
15. 15. Formalism  E.g.1 x = y; this returns true if x is the same as y, and false otherwise.  E.g.2 More complex expression such as f (x, y, z) = w is true if f (x, y, z) is identical with w, and false otherwise.  E.g.3 P(x) returns true if x is prime. where P() is termed a concept. “P(5) = true” 15
16. 16. Alan Turing  Was a British mathematician who was highly influential in the development of Computer Science.  Engaged in the Design work in the development of first stored program computer.(ACE)  Introduced the concept of Turing machine.  Designed a electromechanical machine known has bombe to break in to Enigma Codes. (1912-1954)16
17. 17. Turing Machine  Turing machine is very simple machine.  Equivalent to an actual physical Computer.  The machine may read from and write to the tape.  Has an associated set of rules that defines its behavior.  Programmed to solve any problem for which there is an algorithm.  It was used to determine the solvability of certain problem. 17
18. 18. Concept of Turing Machine 18
19. 19. Enigma Machine & Enigma Codes The Enigma machine 19
20. 20. Bombe Machine  Turing was able brake Enigma codes by his Bombe machine. Cardboard replica of bombe. 20
21. 21. Automated Computer Engine(ACE) Pilot ACE 21
22. 22. Turing Test  Turing devised a famous experiment that would allow a computer to be judged as a conscious and thinking machine.  The concept of this Turing test was the foundation of Artificial Intelligence. 22
23. 23. Claude Shannon  Shannon found that Boolean algebra could be employed to simplify the design of circuits and telephone routing switches.  He laid the foundation of modern Information Theory.  Shannon proposed the idea of converting any kind of data to binary digits. 23
24. 24. Boolean Algebra & Switching Circuits  Switching circuit “Xab” between two terminals a and b Xab = 0 if open Xab = 1 if closed 24
25. 25. Information Theory  Sending information rapidly and reliably from the source point to the destination point without any distraction. 25
26. 26. Cryptography  Secure way of communication between two parties.  Messages are encrypted according to a Mathematical function. 26
27. 27. John von Neumann  Hungarian mathematician.  Made fundamental contributions to a vast number of fields including computer science.  His work on Quantum Mechanics was very influential.  He introduced an Architecture during his work on ENIAC & EDVAC. 27
28. 28. Von Neumann Architecture  The early machines could perform only a particular task.  This architecture uses a single store for both machine instructions and programs.  Much simpler to reconfigure the computer for a different task. 28
29. 29. Von Neumann Architecture 29
30. 30.  Manchester Mark I was the first computer with Von Neumann architecture.  Ferranti produced the world’s first commercial computer in 1951. Von Neumann Architecture 30
31. 31. Manchester Mark I 31
32. 32. Konrad Zuse  Was a German Engineer.  Pioneered in building first functional tape stored, program-controlled computer.( Z3)  He designed the first high-level programming language Plankalkül. 32
33. 33. Summary  Considered the contributions of important people in the history of computing including Boole, Babbage, Shannon, Turing and von Neumann.  Boole was an English mathematician who developed Boolean Algebra which is the foundation of all modern computers.  Charles Babbage did pioneering work on the Difference Engine and Analytic Engine.  Turing is famous for his work on a theoretical mathematical machine termed the “Turing Machine”. 33
34. 34. Summary  He also made contributions to the cryptography and to Artificial Intelligence.  Claude Shannon was the first person to see the applicability of Boolean Algebra to simplify the design of circuits and telephone routing switches.  Von Neumann was a mathematician gave his name to the Von Neumann architecture that is used in almost all computers.  Zuse was a German engineer who developed the Z3 machine in 1941. He also developed the Plankalkul high-level programming language in 1946. 34
35. 35. References  A Brief History of Computing by Gerard O’Regan.  www.wikipedia.com 35
36. 36. Any Questions.. ?? 36
37. 37. 37