Hotel housekeeping

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HOTEL HOUSE KEEPING BOOK

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Hotel housekeeping

  1. 1. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second Hotel House Keeping Diploma In Hotel & Hospitality Management First Semester Subject Code-HM-23 School of Distance Education Karnataka State Open University, Karnataka Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 1
  2. 2. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second Copyright 2012, Karnataka State Open University All Rights Reserved Compiled and Printed By ECDL Institute of Management Studies For, School of Distance Education Karnataka State Open University Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 2
  3. 3. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second Preface “Cleanliness is next to godliness” is considered as the most important aspect of hospitality Industry. Housekeeping in a hotel plays one of the most significant part in not just keeping the surrounding clean & tidy but also in giving the room and other important areas the aesthetic appearance. This artistic or visual appearance is the reason for a guest to attract to the property again & again. There are other many more key works in a housekeeping department which helps a hospitality industry to run the operations smoothly. We have penned the most important and updated information in the field of Housekeeping which would help the Hospitality students to know & be aware of this department. ECDL….. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 3
  4. 4. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second CONTENTS BLOCK-I UNIT 1 2 3 4. UNIT 5 6 7 8 UNIT 9 Topic Role of housekeeping Contents 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Importance of Housekeeping 1.3 Amenities provided by Housekeeping 1.4 Housekeeping role in a hotel industry Functions of 2.1 Cleaning, Maintenance housekeeping 2.2 Aesthetic upkeep, Linen Management dept. 2.3 Manual Cleaning, Mechanical Cleaning 2.4 Care of equipment, Different cleaning agents Types of rooms 3.1 Single room, Double room 3.2 Suite- Single, Double, Duplex 3.3 Cabana 3.4 Penthouse Organizational 4.1 Duties & Responsibilities structure of 4.2 Executive housekeeper, Asst. Housekeeper H.K. dept. 4.3 Linen room supervisor, uniform room sup. 4.4 Desk control supervisors, BLOCK –II Topic Contents Emergency 5.1 Fire Procedures 5.2 Death or accidents 5.3 Theft 5.4 Vandalism Hygiene & 6.1 Hygiene & Sanitation. Sanitation 6.2 Hygiene and safe methods of cleaning 6.3 Sewage disposal. 6.4 Importance of Hygiene in Hospitality Industry Inter 7.1 Front office- Housekeeping departmental co- 7.2 Engineering Maintenance & HK operation 7.3 Food & Beverage & HK 7.4 Cooperation- Security & Personnel Linen / Uniform 8.1 Linen room, Linen room work, storage, stock taking Room & 8.2 Uniform Room, staff uniforms Laundry 8.3 Laundry in-house, contract, 8.4 Valet Service, equipment, method BLOCK –III Topic Contents Stain Removal 9.1 Stain removal agents Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page No. 09 10 10 11 13 14 14 15 17 18 18 19 21 22-23 24 25 Page No. 29 30 31 32 34 35 36 37 39 40 40 41 43 44 45 46-47 Page No. 51 Page 4
  5. 5. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second 10 Pest Control 11. Interior Decoration & Flower arrangements Safety Procedure and precautions 12. UNIT 13 Topic Textiles and types of fibers 14 Bed-making 15 Types of Budgets 16 Maintenance 9.2 Acids, alkalis, Bleaches 9.3 stain removal from diff. surfaces 9.4 Points to remember 10.1 Moths, carpet beetles 10.2 Wood boring beetles, 10.3 Rats & Mice 10.4 Wood rot, Waste disposal 11.1 Principles. proportion 11.2 Balance, Rhythm, general rules, Themes 11.3 Interior Decoration and landscaping, ) The design team 11.4 Elements of interior design, Design Components 52 53 54 56 57 58 59 61 62 63 64-65 12.1 Health & Safety 12.2 Fire & Personal Injury 12.3 Cuts & Burns 12.4 Accidents, fire emergency BLOCK –IV Contents 13.1 Types of textiles 13.2 Types of fibers 13.3 Carpets 13.4 Carpet problems 14.1 Bed making procedure 14.2 Types of service. 14.3 Types of Bed 14.4 standard sizes of bed 15.1 What is Budget 15.2 Capital budget 15.3 Operational budget 16.1 Mason: Painter: Tailor: Plumber: Gardener: Carpenter: 16.2 Air-conditioning. Electrician 16.3 Staff Organization : Inventory 16.4 Storage Techniques and Skills. : Stocking Procedures Bin Cards. Storage Temperatures, 67 68 69 70 Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page No. 75 76 77-78 79 81 82-83 84-85 86 88 89 90 92 93 93 94 Page 5
  6. 6. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 6
  7. 7. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 7
  8. 8. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 8
  9. 9. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second UNIT-1 ROLE OF HOUSEKEEPING CONTENTS 1.0 Objectives 1.1 Introduction 1.2. Importance of Housekeeping 1.2.1 Comfort 1.2.2 Cleanliness and Hygiene 1.2.3 Privacy 1.2.4 Safety and Security 1.2.5 Decor 1.3 Amenities provided by housekeeping 1.4 Housekeeping role in a hotel Industry 1.5 Lesson Summary 1.6 Key Words 1.7Questions to Solve 1.8 References 1.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘ Housekeeping and its importance ◘ Functions of housekeeping ◘ Relationship of housekeeping with other departments ◘ Types of guest rooms and the amenities supplied. 1.1 INTRODUCTION Housekeeping is an important and integral part of the guest experience and satisfaction. Other things such as security are important, but what guests really want is to feel at home, to feel comfortable. Although the staff providing this service do not necessarily interact directly with the public, the quality of their work is critical in shaping guests‟ pleasant memories of their stay. 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF HOUSEKEEPING 1.2.1. Comfort: Achieve the maximum efficiency possible in the care and comfort of the guests and in providing support services for the smooth running of the hotel. Every hotel spends a lot of effort in ensuring the quality of beds, mattresses, channel music, TV, air conditioner if applicable, attached bar etc. The comforts must be regularly maintained and should be properly functioning. It is the duty of the Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 9
  10. 10. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second housekeeping department to ensure comfort and a welcoming atmosphere to the guests as well as strive to extend courteous, reliable and satisfactory service from staffs of all departments. 1.2.2. Cleanliness and Hygiene: Ensure a high standard of cleanliness and general upkeep in all areas. Clean and well maintained areas and equipments create a favorable impression on the guest. Hygiene is maintained especially in the wash rooms, toilets, pool changing room, health club, etc. 1.2.3. Privacy: The prime concern of any guest, irrespective of whether rich or poor, common man or celebrity, is privacy. Room windows are provided with curtains. Windows could normally overlook good scenic view, away from the prying eyes of others in the hotel or outside public. Housekeeping staffs ensure the privacy of the guests and they should be trained with proper procedures to enter the room. 1.2.4. Safety and Security: Security is one of the prime concerns of a hotel guest. The housekeeping department staffs should ensure the safety and security of the guests with the help of security services. They should also make sure that fire fighting equipments and emergency alarms are functional at all times. They should also ensure peace, quiet and noise free atmosphere in the area. 1.2.5. Décor: Creating a pleasant and classy ambience is also one of the major concerns for a guest. This is not easy and requires a good eye for detail. This work is an art and the housekeeping staff is mainly responsible for creating a pleasant atmosphere. 1.3 AMENITIES PROVIDED BY HOUSEKEEPING Amenities are complimentary items that would be delivered to regular, VIP, returning and complaint guests. Amenities include items such as: ● Fruit basket ● Cheese board ● Bottle of wine or champagne ● Chocolates ● Fresh flowers Amenities are normally commissioned by the guest relations or sales executive and delivered to the room by the Room Service department. Amenities include items such as: ● Closes curtains or drapes ● Dims lights ● Folds down bed top sheet ● Replenishes towels, toiletries and stationary ● Places room service breakfast menu on guests' pillow ● Places complimentary mint or chocolate on the pillow or bottled water at the bedside ● Places disposable slippers beside the bed ● Empties rubbish bins Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 10
  11. 11. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second 1.4 HOUSEKEEPING ROLE IN A HOTEL INDUSTRY House Keeping department in a hotel is responsible for the cleanliness; maintenance and aesthetic up keep of the hotel. The role of house keeping is to keep a clean, comfortable and safe house. Just as we enjoy keeping a “Sparkling” home for guests and ourselves who visit us at home, the housekeeping department takes pride in keeping the hotel clean and comfortable so as to create a “Home away from home”. A hotel survives on the sale of rooms, food and beverage and other minor operating services such as laundry, health clubs etc. Of these, the sale of room constitutes a minimum of 50 percent. In other words, a hotels largest margin of profit comes from room sales because a room once made can be sold over and over again. A good hotel operation ensures optimal room sales to being in the maximum profit. The room sale is dependent on, apart from several other things the quality of room décor, room facilities, cleanliness of the room and how safe it is. The criteria by which each guest decided whether a room is good or bad are strictly personal. To make a room appealing to a guest is the task of house keeping which has to ensure the basic human needs of comfort and security. Thus the personal effort the housekeeping department makes in giving a guest a desirable room has a direct bearing on the guests experience in a hotel Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 11
  12. 12. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second 1.5 LESSON SUMMARY The housekeeping is the department of a hotel charged with cleaning and maintaining rooms and public spaces. The housekeeping department is responsible for the daily cleaning of public rooms (lobbies, corridors, meeting rooms), private bedrooms and public washrooms. In addition, it handles the laundering of linens and in some instances, guest laundry as well. 1.6 KEY WORDS Strive- struggle, try hard, attempt Courteous – polite, well-mannered, considerate Reliable – dependable, trustworthy, consistent Celebrity - famous person, personality, icon Hygiene- cleanliness, sanitation Optimal – best, most favorable, finest 1.7 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What is the importance of Housekeeping in hotel Industry? 2. What are the amenities provided by Housekeeping? 3. What is the role of Housekeeping in Hotel Industry? 1.8 REFERENCES 1. Martin Robert J, Professional Management of Housekeeping Operations, John Wiley & Sons New York. 2. Andrews Sudhir, Hotel Housekeeping Training Manual, Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. 3. Rosemary Hurst, Housekeeping Management for Hotels & residential Establishments, William Heinemann. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 12
  13. 13. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second UNIT- 2 FUNCTIONS OF HOUSEKEEPING DEPARTMENT CONTENTS 2.0 Objectives 2.1 Introduction 2.2. Functions of Housekeeping 2.2.1 Cleaning Rooms and Public Areas 2.2.2 Bed Making 2.2.3 Linen Management 2.2.4 Laundry Services 2.2.5 Pest Control 2.2.6 Key Control 2.2.7 Safety & Security 2.2.8 Interior Decoration 2.2.9 Room Maintenance 2.3 Lesson Summary 2.4 Key Words 2.5Questions to Solve 2.6 References 2.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘ Functions of housekeeping ◘ Basic functions like cleaning, bed making, linen management ◘ Laundry, pest control, key control, & other main functions 2.1 INTRODUCTION The impact of the housekeeping function on the success of a hotel‟s operations cannot be underestimated, since large revenue for hotel industry is generated mainly from the sale of rooms. Good housekeeping is the foundation of good infection prevention. The general cleanliness and hygiene of a facility are vital to the health and safety of guests, staff, and visitors. Pleasant work environment contributes to staff members' satisfaction, making them to be more productive. A more pleasant environment improves guest satisfaction and can increase guest‟s use of services and frequent visits. 2.2 FUNCTIONS OF HOUSEKEEPING Housekeeping department holds the responsibility of cleaning, maintenance and admirable upkeep of the hotel. The main functions of housekeeping are overall cleanliness, bed making, ensuring maintenance of the building and its infrastructure, Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 13
  14. 14. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second laundry, linen management, key control, pest control, safety and security of the guests as well as the infrastructure and interior decoration. All this ensure the ambience and promotes a congenial environment. The basic function of the housekeeping is explained briefly: 2.2.1. Cleaning Rooms and Public Areas Housekeeping department cleans the rooms and toilets and wash basins in the room. Apart from cleaning the guest rooms, housekeeping department is also responsible for cleaning floor, terraces, elevators, elevator lobbies, corridors of guest floors, floor linen closets, mop and janitor‟s closets, service lobbies and service stairways, function rooms, shopping arcade, cabanas, bars, dining rooms, offices, uniform rooms, tailor rooms, upholstery, shops, store rooms and swimming pools. To be concise, the housekeeping department is responsible for the total cleanliness of a hotel. 2.2.2. Bed Making A guest requires a comfortable bed to take rest, relax and enjoy. A bed that is well- made will provide the required comfort. Bed making is a skill that requires to be developed by the housekeeper, as it not only provides comfort to the guest, but also adds to the pleasant ambience of a guest‟s room. Guests should not be able to tell if anyone has slept in the room, so a clean environment and perfect bed making is major consideration of this department. 2.2.3. Linen Management One of the important jobs of the Housekeeping Department is clothes and linen management. This involves all functions from purchase of linen to laundering, storage, supplies and to condemnation. In a hotel different types of clothes and linen are used such as the bed sheets, pillow covers, napkins, towels, hand towels, table covers, curtains, cushion covers etc. All of these require regular maintenance. 2.2.4. Laundry Services It is the job of the Housekeeping Department to ensure clean and hygienic washing of all the linen items, and then distributing them to different areas of the hotel. The relationship between the housekeeping and laundry is significant for the smooth functioning of housekeeping services. One of the supporting roles of the laundry is to provide valet services to house guests. 2.2.5. Pest Control Pest Control is another major job of the Housekeeping Department. No matter how clean one keeps the surroundings, one cannot avoid the “uninvited guests” – the pests. It is not only embarrassing but also speaks badly of a hotel where one sees rats, cockroaches, and lizards running around. Therefore, pest control is one of the primary responsibilities of the housekeeping department. 2.2.6. Key Control Key control is one of the major jobs of the housekeeping department. The room keys have to be handled efficiently and safely before and after letting the room. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 14
  15. 15. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second 2.2.7. Safety and Security The Housekeeping Department is responsible for maintaining a peaceful atmosphere in the hotel. If the guests and staff always fear for their safety and the safety of their belongings, the atmosphere will be very tense. Hence the housekeeping department staff should be aware of ways to protect himself and others, especially the guests around him and the property of the hotel from accidents and theft. Several accidents could occur at the place of work. These include fire accidents, falls, wounds, injuries, negligence in handling electrical equipment etc. It is important for all housekeeping personnel to know about first aid as they could be the first ones on the spot to give immediate attention to a guest and also an employee in trouble. 2.2.8. Interior Decoration Interior decoration is the art of creating a pleasant atmosphere in the living room with the addition of a complex of furnishings, art, and crafts, appropriately combined to achieve a planned result or design. These arts and crafts have to be well maintained by the housekeeping department. Decorating flowers is a creative and stimulating art which often carries a message or theme. Flowers and indoor plants add color and beauty to a room. 2.2.9. Room Maintenance Good housekeeping department is just as responsible for the hotel's maintenance as an engineering department. In an ideal environment, t h e housekeeping staff and managers should act as the eyes and ears of the engineering department. If damaged or broken items are not reported, they can't be fixed. Proper maintenance will make the perception of cleanliness easier to maintain and reduce guest complaints. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 15
  16. 16. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second 2.3 LESSON SUMMARY For a pleasant stay, guest expects Comfort, Cleanliness and Hygiene, Privacy, Safety and Security and Décor. Housekeeping department holds the responsibility of cleaning, maintenance and efficient upkeep of the hotel. The main functions of housekeeping is overall cleanliness, bed making, ensuring maintenance of the building and its infrastructure, laundry, linen management, key control, pest control, safety and security of the guests as well as the infrastructure and interior decoration. 2.4 KEY WORDS Underestimated – undervalue, underrate, miscalculate Foundation – base, basis, groundwork Admirable – excellent, worthy, marvelous Congenial – friendly, pleasant, agreeable Condemnation – disapproval, blame, criticism Embarrassing – uncomfortable, uneasy, upsetting Negligence – carelessness, neglect, disregard 2.5 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Write in short about cleaning of Rooms & Public areas? 2. Write in short about Bed Making? 3. Write in short about Linen Management? 4. Write in short about Laundry Services? 5. Write in short about Pest Control? 6. Write in short about Key Control? 7. Write in short about Safety & Security? 8. Write in short about Interior Decoration? 9. Write in short about Room Maintenance? 2.6 REFERENCES 1. Martin Robert J, Professional Management of Housekeeping Operations, John Wiley & Sons New York. 2. Andrews Sudhir, Hotel Housekeeping Training Manual, Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. 3. Rosemary Hurst, Housekeeping Management for Hotels & residential Establishments, William Heinemann. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 16
  17. 17. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second UNIT- 3 TYPES OF ROOMS CONTENTS 3.0 Objectives 3.1 Introduction 3.2. Types of rooms 3.2.1 Single Room 3.2.2 Double Room 3.2.3 Deluxe Room 3.2.4 Twin Room 3.2.5 Hollywood Twin 3.2.6 Studio 3.2.7 Suite 3.2.8 Penthouse Suite 3.2.9 Parlor 3.2.10 Executive Room 3.2.11 Duplex room 3.2.12 Interconnected room 3.2.13 Efficiency room 3.2.14 Cabana 3.2.15 Sico 3.3 Lesson Summary 3.4 Key Words 3.5Questions to Solve 3.6 References 3.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘ Types of Rooms ◘ The facilities available in different rooms 3.1 INTRODUCTION In this unit we will discuss about the various types of rooms available as per the need and comfort they would like to have. These rooms are made as per the number of persons to be accommodated and also in view of the luxury and sophistication they are looking for. There are other rooms too which are for various other purposes in a hotel. 3.2 TYPES OF ROOMS The size and furnishing of a room solely depends on the type of the hotel and the classification of rooms. 3.2.1 Single Room Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 17
  18. 18. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second A single room has a single bed for single occupancy. It is a standard room having a dressing-cum-writing table. 3.2.2 Double Room It is a room with one double bed meant for two people. It is a standard room having a dressing-cum-writing table. 3.2.3 Deluxe Room This room is well furnished, carpeted and more suitable for single persons and small families. Deluxe Rooms are available with Single and Double beds. 3.2.4 Twin Room A room with two single beds meant for two people having only one bedside table between the two beds. 3.2.5 Hollywood Twin It is a room with two single beds and one single headboard meant for two people. When need arises, the two beds can be bridged together to make it appear as a double room. 3.2.6 Studio The studio room is the room for the guest with option of self catering. It has a queen size bed, air conditioning, fan and screens. There is also a dining area and a seating area. 3.2.7 Suite A suite in a hotel mostly denotes a class of luxury rooms. Suites offer more space and furniture than a basic hotel room. In addition to the standard bed and bedroom fixtures, a suite will typically add a living room, usually with a couch that folds into a bed. Dining, office and kitchen facilities are also added in some suites. Many large hotels have one or more "honeymoon suites", and sometimes the best room is called the "presidential suite". Some hotels now offer only regular suites. Regular suites are particularly aimed at business travelers who would both appreciate additional space and may use it to host small meetings or entertain guests. 3.2.8 Penthouse Suite A penthouse suite is mostly on the highest floors of hotel building. Penthouses are typically differentiated from other rooms by luxury features. A penthouse suite may also provide occupants with private access to the roof space above the suit, instead of or in addition to terrace space created by an adjacent sit back. 3.2.9 Parlor A parlor is a room equipped and furnished for a special function or business. It is generally a lavishly decorated room with more facilities like bar, pantry, massage. Usually the room is sold on hourly basis. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 18
  19. 19. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second 3.2.10 Executive Room It is larger bedroom with a sitting area provided with chairs and usually sofa. There is a dressing table as well as a writing table. 3.2.11 Duplex Room A set of rooms not on the same level but it is connected by an internal staircase. Generally, the parlor is at the lower level and the bedrooms are at the upper level. 3.2.12 Interconnected Rooms Two rooms adjacent to each other having an interconnecting door, allowing entry from one room to another, without having to go through the corridor. The interconnecting doors can be opened or locked as per the guest‟s choice. 3.2.13 Efficiency Room It is a room with some kitchen facilities found in motels and residential hotels. 3.2.14 Cabana Cabana is generally a shelter on a beach or at a swimming pool used for bathing. But now some hotels provide cabana with contemporary beauty, comfort, protection and privacy with all basic facilities alongside the swimming pool, on the beach, in the garden and in any lounging area to individual guests for occupation. The rent for cabana is usually less as they would not have luxurious décor. 3.2.15 Sico Sico room is a smart solution to space efficiency. Sico rooms usually have special beds which can be folded according to the guest‟s need. Guests get a meeting room by day and a sleeping room by night, with the comfort of a real mattress. With most meetings today consisting of ten people or less, Sico rooms offer the flexibility to accommodate small meetings without tying up large meeting rooms. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 19
  20. 20. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second 3.3 LESSON SUMMARY As per the present scenario in Hospitality, clients are provided the facilities and luxury; Present day hotels do provide best possible facilities a guest needs when they visit their hotel to make them feel a home away from home. There are rooms as per the number persons and as per the level of sophistication. Various rooms are single, double, deluxe, twin, Hollywood twin, parlor, studio, suite, penthouse suite, executive, interconnected, efficiency, cabana & Sico rooms 3.4 KEY WORDS Sophistication – classiness, style, superiority Couch – sofa, divan, settee Terrace – patio, veranda Lavishly – plentifully, abundantly, generously Luxurious – comfortable, lavish, lush Décor – decoration, furnishings, interior decoration 3.5 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Write in short about Single & Double room? 2. Write in short about Twin & Hollywood twin room? 3. Write in short about Suite & Penthouse suite? 4. Write in short about Deluxe & Studio room? 5. What is the difference between Parlor, Duplex & Executive room? 6. Write in short about Interconnected & Efficiency room? 7. What is a Cabana & Sico rooms? 3.6 REFERENCES 1. Martin Robert J, Professional Management of Housekeeping Operations, John Wiley & Sons New York. 2. Andrews Sudhir, Hotel Housekeeping Training Manual, Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. 3. Rosemary Hurst, Housekeeping Management for Hotels & residential Establishments, William Heinemann. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 20
  21. 21. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second UNIT-4 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF H.K. DEPARTMENT CONTENTS 4.0 Objectives 4.1 Introduction 4.2. Organizational structure of HK Department 4.3 Duties & responsibilities of HK Staff 4.3.1 Executive Housekeeper 4.3.2 Floor Supervisor 4.3.3 Uniform / Linen Room Supervisor 4.3.4 Cloak room attendant 4.4 Lesson Summary 4.5 Key Words 4.6 Questions to Solve 4.7 References 4.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘ Organizational structure of housekeeping department ◘ Duties and responsibilities, of housekeeping staff. 4.1 INTRODUCTION The success and credibility of the hotels depends solely on their in-house professionally skilled team. Top quality service, with dedicated, trained, intelligent, sincere, honest and motivated staff is what is important for a hotel housekeeping department. This team succeeds in building and maintaining the image and reputation of the hotel and creating and sustaining regular and privileged guest visits. For providing excellent and satisfying quality service, lot of effort has to be made towards organizing and training the housekeeping staffs continuously. Additionally, the trained staff must be retained ensuring the consistency and staff dedication remains focused through various methods of training and motivation. The largest work force of the hotel is in the housekeeping department. It would be appropriate at this stage to understand the hierarchy, duties and responsibilities of all the housekeeping staffs for effective communication and coordination. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 21
  22. 22. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second 4.2ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF HOUSEKEEPING DEPARTMENT The organizational structure of the housekeeping department mainly depends on the activities and the size of the hotel. The charts above show the organizational of structure of the large sized hotels. In the small hotels one or more jobs are integrated and handled by the few housekeeping personnel‟s. 1. Executive Housekeeper He is responsible and accountable for the total cleanliness, maintenance and aesthetic upkeep of the hotel. This is achieved with the resources of manpower, materials, machines, money, space and time available to him. 2. Assistant Housekeeper May be one for each shift of a large hotel, He may be the housekeeper of a small hotel or the only deputy to the Executive Housekeeper of a medium-sized hotel. He manages the resources given by the Executive Housekeeper to achieve the common objectives of cleanliness, maintenance and attractiveness in a given shift. His accountability normally ends on the completion of his shift. 3. Uniform Room Supervisor A non-management person, solely responsible for providing clean serviceable uniforms to the staff of the hotel. As the hotel staff is all practically in uniforms his / her task is enormous and demanding as he / she has to keep an inventory control on various stages of use, such as, when sorted ones are handed over, or those which are being washed or dry-cleaned in the laundry. 4. Uniform Room Attendants The uniform supervisor is assisted by attendants who actually do the issue of uniforms in exchange for soiled ones for onward transmission to the laundry. These attendants are in actual contact with the staff. 5. Linen Room Supervisors A non-management person solely responsible for the acquisition, storage, issue and cleanliness of linen in its various forms. His job is a mammoth task because he keeps track of all linen as they would number in thousands. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 22
  23. 23. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second 6. Linen Room Attendant He assists the supervisor by actually issuing linen and filling such records as necessary. 7. Tailor /Seamstress Tailor or seamstress personnel are responsible for stitching and mending the linen and upholstery‟s. 8. Helpers They are to be found both in Uniforms and linen Rooms and do the physical work of transporting, counting and bundling of uniforms and linen. 9. Floor Supervisor Responsible for the cleanliness, maintenance and present ability of the guest floors attached to him in a shift. His scope encompasses guest rooms, corridors, staircases and floor pantries of the allotted floor. 10. Public Area Supervisor Responsible for the cleanliness, maintenance and present ability of all public areas which include restaurants, bars, banquet halls, garden, administrative offices, shopping arcade, health club, swimming pool, main entrances and car park areas. 11. Room Attendants They are known also as chamber maids or room boys. They do the actual cleaning of guest rooms and bathrooms allotted to them. They are not responsible for the cleanliness of corridors, guest elevators or floor pantries. 12. Head Houseman Supervises the work allotted to Houseman, especially those in public areas. In medium sized hotels he could be the person in charge of housekeeping on night shifts. 13. Housemen Usually handy men that do the heavy physical cleaning required in guest rooms and public areas. Their job would include vacuuming, shifting of furniture, cleaning of windows panes, mopping, braising, sweeping, etc. 14. Desk Control Supervisor Is the hub of information dissemination in housekeeping and is thus the critical person in housekeeping operations. The Housekeeping Desk must be manned 24 hours as guests and staff will contact this desk to transmit or receive information. It is the Desk Control Supervisor who co-ordinates with the front office for information on departure rooms and handing over cleared rooms. The Desk also receives complaints on maintenance from Housekeeping supervisors spread all over the hotel. 4.3 DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF HOUSEKEEPING STAFFS 4.3.1 Executive Housekeeper 1. Supervise and be responsible for cleanliness, order and appearance of the hotel rooms and public areas, annexes, cottages, facilities, service corridors, linen and uniform rooms, shopping arcades and employees. 2. Schedule, recruit, train, and recommend hiring, discharging and discipline of all department employees through management and in accordance with labor regulations. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 23
  24. 24. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second 3. Prepare reports as required. 4. Participate in all department head meetings. Supervise preparation of maintenance requisitions and maintain follow-up file to ensure that all public areas and guest accommodations do not deteriorate from standard. 5. Train all employees to perform their best in the standard procedures as applicable to their job positions. 6. Develop and recommend standard procedures for new tasks or changed conditions. 7. Inspect personally, and supervise inspections by Assistants of all areas in a frequent and unvarying schedule. 8. Pay particular attention on inspection to the presence, of odors and pests and appropriate control measures. 9. Work closely with the General Manager on day-to-day Housekeeping requirements. 10. Supervise linen stock and recommend the maintenance of adequate quantities of cleaning equipments and cleaning supplies with due regard to delivery requirements and import restrictions on cleaning equipments. Develop and supervise the maintenance of the lost and found procedure including the disbursement of unclaimed articles to employees. 11. Prepare the annual housekeeping budget for submission to the General Manager. Identify reliable suppliers of housekeeping materials including carpets, linen, etc, and recommend them to the Purchase Department. Develop Housekeeping Systems and Procedures and see that they are followed diligently. Plan, control and supervise horticultural requirements and commitments. 4.3.2 Floor Supervisor 1. Assign duties to the floor housemen and room attendants. 2. Inspect each room completed by Room Attendants according to specified room checklist and ensure that they meet the standards of the establishment in terms of cleaning, functional and aesthetic value. 3. Check par stocks of linen and guest supplies and cleaning supplies on floors and ensure timely delivery of soiled linen to laundry and requisition for fresh linen from linen room and guest supplies / cleaning supplies from the stores. 4. Train Room Attendants and Housemen for maximum productivity and standards of efficiency. 5. Submit performance appraisals periodically for each staff under his / her control. 6. Check all safety systems on the allotted floors. 7. Liaise with security on security aspects on guest floors. 8. Account for movement of linen from his / her floors. 9. Prepare housekeeping occupancy lists for front Office. 10. Check all maids‟ carts to ensure it is well stocked with linen and supplies and as per standards stipulated. 11. Follow upon maintenance orders sent to Engineering. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 24
  25. 25. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second 4.3.3 Uniform / Linen Room Supervisor 1. Schedule linen / uniform room staff. 2. Check periodically the condition of uniform and hotel linen. 3. Assign daily work to tailors. 4. Devise and maintain an effective control system to issue clean linen and uniforms. 5. Co-ordinate closely with the laundry department to ensure timely supply of fresh uniforms and linen. 6. Conduct periodic inventories of linen and uniforms. 7. Ensure that all linen, uniforms needing stitching, mending is immediately attended to before being sent to the Laundry Department. 8. Ensure that the Linen Room is kept neat and clean. 9. Ensure that all linen, uniforms and materials are neatly and systematically stacked and arranged and properly labeled. 10. Train the staff to perform their duties effectively and, efficiently. 11. Maintain all relevant records in respect of material, uniforms / linen-storage and movement. 4.3.4 Cloak Room Attendant 1. Take soiled hand towels to the linen room for replacement. 2. Maintain adequate stocks of soap, detergents and hand towels to meet demands at peak level. 3. Maintain shoe-shine kit and clean guest shoes, if required. 4. Maintain all cupboards and fixtures installed in the cloak room. 5. Maintain a polite, dignified and helpful attitude to guests. 6. Report any plumbing deficiencies to Public Area Supervisor. 7. See that clack rooms are immaculately clean. Faucets should be sparkling, wash basins dry and environment free of unpleasant odor. 8. Supply the guest with towels, soap, comb, brush and powder. 9. Sweep, wash and scrub the floors. 10. Clear the soiled linen periodically from the baskets. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 25
  26. 26. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second 4.4 LESSON SUMMARY The success of the hotels depends solely on their staffs. For providing excellent and quality service, lot of effort has to be made towards organizing and training the housekeeping staffs. The largest work force of the hotel is in the housekeeping department. The organizational structure of the housekeeping department mainly depends on the activities and the size of the hotel. Generally, the housekeeping department shall have staffs like Executive Housekeeper, Assistant Housekeeper, Uniform Room Supervisor, Uniform Room Attendants, Linen Room Supervisors, Linen Room Attendants, Tailor / Seamstress, Helpers, Floor Supervisor, Public Area Supervisor, Room Attendants, Head Houseman, Desk Control Supervisor, Runner, Cloak Room Attendants, Hat-Checkers, Night Supervisor, Horticulturist, Head Gardener, Gardeners. 4.5 KEY WORDS Credibility – trustworthiness, reliability, sincerity Hierarchy - pecking order, chain of command Privileged- fortunate, honored, advantaged Mammoth – enormous, huge, massive Encompasses – include, cover, take in 4.6 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Mention the duties & responsibilities of Executive Housekeeper? 2. Mention the duties & responsibilities of Floor Supervisor? 3. Mention the duties & responsibilities of Uniform / Linen room Supervisor? 4. Mention the duties & responsibilities of cloak room attendant? 5. Write in short about Executive Housekeeper and Assistant housekeeper? 6. Write in short about Uniform room supervisors & Uniform room attendant? 7. Write in short about Linen room supervisor & Linen room attendant? 8. Write in short about Tailors & Helpers 9. Write in short about Desk control, Public area & Floor Supervisor? 10. Write in short about Head Houseman, Housemen, & room attendant? 4.7 REFERENCES 1. Andrews Sudhir, Hotel Housekeeping Training Manual,Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. 2. W. Winter, Doris Hatfield, H. Hatfield, The Professional Housekeeping, Hyperion Books. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 26
  27. 27. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 27
  28. 28. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 28
  29. 29. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second UNIT – 5 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES CONTENTS 5.0 Objectives 5.1 Introduction 5.2. Lost & Found 5.3 Theft 5.4 Bomb Threat 5.5 Fire in the Hotel 5.6 Death 5.7 Accidents 5.8 Vandalism 5.9 Drunken Guest 5.10 Lesson Summary 5.11 Key Words 5.12 Questions to Solve 5.13 References 5.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘ Various Emergencies which arises in a hotel Industry. ◘ Procedures to handle such situation. 5.1 INTRODUCTION In a hotel the front office department has to face so many emergencies such as lost and found, fire in the hotel, death, accidents, vandalism damage to property by resident guest drink guest and theft. The front office should be able to handle such critical cases and so they should have knowledge and skill, otherwise it causes a great loss to the hotel. 5.2 LOST AND FOUND This is a term used in hotel 'parlance' to refer any item temporarily misplaced or lost by a guest, traced later by hotel staff. Such articles are handed over to the house keeping department, who maintains a special locker for the same. If the items belong to guest who has checked out, then a letter is sent out to the forwarding address furnished on the registration card. If no reply is received within a specified time period, the article may be given away to the staff members who found the article. If last guest belongings are found in public areas and the guest is still residing in the hotel, then the housekeeping keeps such articles such time when specific enquiry is made at the front office or lobby. In this case the guest should be required to give a Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 29
  30. 30. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second description of the article before it is shown to him, because it make possible to relate the lost articles to the right person. 5.3 THEFT In most hotels there is the possibility that dishonest staff will remove all hotel property, be it food, bed, linen, towel, etc. for their own use. The security of these hotel properties has the responsibility of each departmental head. A frequent stock taking and spot checks are essential not only to establish quantities of items in stock, but also to monitor unusual loses which might point to staff theft. In most hotels there is a staff entrance to the premises and a clock in system were by each staff is required to punch a card upon arrival and departure from his or her work showing the time of duty. The timekeeper will also act as a watchman to see that nothing expect the staffs personal property is removed. From the hotel and may have the right to check workers bag and basket to open parcels carried out of the hotel and to call the manager or security officer if necessary. Where it is possible to minimize theft from the hotel by the staff 'souvenir hunting' by when guest recognize to practice most hotel budget for the lose of such items as cloth hangers, ashtrays, bed sheets, towels, toothpick stand, flower vase, etc. But loss of the towel, bed sheet, table lamp, pictures, flowers and any other movable objects become costly to the hotel. It is not possible to institute a search of each department guest luggage. But upon entering a vacated room a chambermaid will know immediately that such items are missing and security staff or the management can be alerted, often before guest leaves the hotels. Some hotels may accept the loss of less expensive items of good will especially in their hotels where such theft is minimal. When most guests challenged will usually relinquish those objects, which have been packed in their luggage, often claiming it was a careless use on their behalf. Police action is not advisable. The hotel staff approaches the situation with tact and firmness the matter can be resolved. 5.4 BOMB THREATS It is an unfortunate fact that no hotel regarding of its size and situation emerge from the frightening advent of the 'Bomb scare'. Most bomb threats are made by telephone and it is generally the telephone operator or receptionist who receives them. The operator should be trained how to bear with such situation. He should write down the exact words, spoken by the caller and rate the sense and any accent, which by notice, able. Any background noises to the call might assist the police in training its place of origin. The operator should calmly tell the calls that the hotel is occupied and detonation of a bomb would cause death or injury to innocent people. A fellow member of staff should be alerted to listen in to the call, in case the operator might miss something or important. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 30
  31. 31. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second The general manager or the duty manager and the security officer should be notified immediately. Under expert guidance or search for the device will commence. It must be left for experts to move and defuse. In case of serious bomb it is necessary to evacuate all guest and staff from hotels. Once the building has been cleared of all staff, guest and visitors no one should be allowed to re-enter until the all clear signs is given by the authorities. 5.5 FIRE IN THE HOTEL As soon as the fire is detected and intimated to the front desk, the first thing to do is to inform the telephone department. In most hotels the telephone department plays the vital role of alarming the hotel. In, smaller hotels, which have the telephone function, merged with the front office operations the procedure would be to call the fire department in the city for help. The front office should alert all guest and inform them to use the staircase and not the elevator. The telephone exchange should always be manned during the fire to felicitate communications from one point to another. If the front office staff has to get actively involved in the fire procedures then they should search each room thoroughly, especially under beds or in closets or bathrooms to ensure that no guests are left behind. They must guide the guest through the staircase, and help in extinguishing the fire by the use of appropriate fire extinguishers (foam for electrical fires and oil fires, water for general fires, and so on). 5.6 DEATH In case of death, the front office should inform the general manager, the security officer and call for the hotel doctor of that locality. The general manager may decide to call the police, the body must be removed by the staff entrance and the room scaled till all police formalities are ones. People known to the discard are contacted through address entered on the registration card. 5.7 ACCIDENTS The house doctor should call immediately on phone and informed to the nature of the accident and the condition of the guest. The doctor‟s instruction must be followed immediately. Swabbing wounds with cotton wool and applying a coagulant such as iodine, alcohol, spirit or just plain mates or after-shave lotion must stop bleeding. If a fracture is suspected the guest is not moved till the doctor arrives. Burns are to be treated with creams meant for the purpose. 5.8 VANDALISM The front office staff must call the hotel security and order the main door to be locked. If the things get out of hand the police must be called. Damage to property by resident guest Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 31
  32. 32. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second The front office cashier is instructed to raise charge for the value of damages to property. A responsible guest will never argue but if the object he must be referred to the general manager. 5.9 DRUNKEN GUEST It is time that a drunken guest should never be argued with. He must be politely led away from the public areas either in to an office or his room. If he is boisterous or behave unusually the hotel security must be called. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 32
  33. 33. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second 5.10 LESSON SUMMARY As usual there are many emergencies which arise in a hospitality Industry, and it is necessary to handle these emergencies in a tactful way with laid down procedures as per the Industry. Emergencies which arise are, Lost & found articles of Guest, this has to be handled as per the procedure of the Industry, another important emergency situation is Theft which also needs a tactful handling. Some of the other emergencies which arise are bomb threat, Fire, Accident, Death, Vandalism, & Drunken guest. 5.11 KEY WORDS Critical – serious, vital, significant Parlance – idiom, manner of speaking, phrasing Souvenir – memento, reminder, keepsake Relinquish - give up, hand over, turn down Advent - coming on, start, beginning Emerge - come out, materialize, surface Swabbing – clean, scrub, wipe down Boisterous – rowdy, unruly, noisy 5.12 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Mention the procedures for Lost & Found? 2. What are the procedures for theft in the hotel? 3. What are the procedures for Bomb threat? 4. Mention the emergency procedures for fire in the hotel? 5. Write in short the procedures for Death & Accidents? 6. Write in short the procedures for Vandalism & drunken guest? 5.13 REFERENCES 1. W. Winter, Doris Hatfield, H. Hatfield, The Professional Housekeeping, Hyperion Books. 2. Martin Robert J, Professional Management of Housekeeping Operations, John Wiley & Sons New York. 3. Andrews Sudhir, Hotel Housekeeping Training Manual,Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. 4. Joan C. & Lennox, Margaret Branson, Hotel Housekeeping Principles and Practice, Edward Arnold,London. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 33
  34. 34. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second UNIT-6 HYGIENE & SANITATION CONTENTS 6.0 Objectives 6.1 Introduction 6.2. Hygiene & Sanitation 6.3 Hygiene & safe methods of cleaning 6.4 Sewage disposal 6.5 Importance of Hygiene in Hospitality Industry 6.6 Lesson Summary 6.7 Key Words 6.8 Questions to Solve 6.9 References 6.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘ Regarding Hygiene & Sanitation and also safe methods of cleaning. ◘ Regarding Sewage disposal & Importance of hygiene in hospitality Industry. 6.1 INTRODUCTION The term "hygiene" is derived from the name Hygeia, the Greek goddess of health, cleanliness and sanitation. The hygiene movement began in the 1830s by dedicated practitioners who rejected orthodox medicines and believed that with hygiene the spread of infectious disease could be prevented. The earliest evidence of urban sanitation was seen in Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and the recently discovered Rakhigarhi of Indus Valley civilization. This urban plan included the world's first urban sanitation systems. Within the city, individual homes or groups of homes obtained water from wells. From a room that appears to have been set aside for bathing, waste water was directed to covered drains, which lined the major streets. Roman cities and Roman villas had elements of sanitation systems, delivering water in the streets of towns such as Pompeii, and building stone and wooden drains to collect and remove wastewater from populated areas - see for instance the Cloaca Maxima into the River Tiber in Rome. But there is little record of other sanitation in most of Europe until the High Middle Ages. Unsanitary conditions and overcrowding were widespread throughout Europe and Asia during the Middle Ages, resulting periodically in cataclysmic pandemics such as the Plague of Justinian (541-42) and the Black Death (1347–1351), which killed tens of millions of people and radically altered societies. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 34
  35. 35. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second 6.2 HYGIENE & SANITATION Hygiene refers to the set of practices perceived by a community to be associated with the preservation of health and healthy living. While in modern medical sciences there is a set of standards of hygiene recommended for different situations, what is considered hygienic or not can vary between different cultures, genders and groups. Some regular hygienic practices may be considered good habits by a society while the neglect of hygiene can be considered disgusting, disrespectful or even threatening. Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes. Hazards can be physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. Wastes that can cause health problems are human and animal feces, solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage, slurry, and grey water), industrial wastes and agricultural wastes. Hygienic means of prevention can be by using engineering solutions (e.g. sewerage and wastewater treatment), simple technologies (e.g. latrines, septic tanks), or even by personal hygiene practices (e.g. simple hand washing with soap). The World Health Organization states that: "Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and feces. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities. The word 'sanitation' also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal. 6.3 HYGIENE AND SAFE METHODS OF CLEANING Hygiene procedures are essential in kitchen operations and cookery, housekeeping, laundry and food and beverage service. Procedural guidelines have been set down by relevant government bodies to ensure an industry-wide benchmark is maintained. Hygiene procedures include regular hand washing, wearing of appropriate and clean clothing, as well as ensuring personal hygiene is of an excellent standard. These procedures assist the safe and hygienic handling of food and beverages and avoid cross- contamination in food preparation areas and storage. Other hospitality tasks, including waste disposal, sanitation and cleaning procedures and the safe handling and disposal of linen and laundry, must follow correct procedures. Always use cleaning materials, clothes and equipment to avoid transferring microorganisms. Safe storage of food and beverages are essential and specific guidelines are set down for temperature control and storage of all foods in the preparation and storage areas in the hospitality industry. Frozen, dry storage and fresh ingredients have their individual requirements. Safe garbage disposal is also very important in maintaining good hygiene. Garbage clearing procedures vary in different hospitality areas, however, every sector of the Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 35
  36. 36. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second industry must ensure waste is disposed of thoroughly, and stored away from the premises so that kitchen and food storage areas do not smell or foster a breeding ground for vermin and flies. Garbage bins should always be washed out and disinfected after being emptied. Cleaning and sanitizing of bins and lids, regular emptying of rubbish, and lining bins with plastic liners helps to ensure garbage is managed hygienically. The waste storage and disposal area is typically separated into cartons, glass and plastic and nonrecyclable sections. This area needs to be cleaned and hosed daily. It is important when handling linen that dirty and clean products never come into contact with each other. Linen includes bed linen, serviettes, tablecloths and kitchen cloths. Disposable gloves should be used when handling linen and dirty linen should be placed in separate bags. Each hospitality sector & establishment will have their own specific guidelines to follow. Correctly following hygiene procedures requires a good understanding of the correct methods of cleaning and sanitizing. It is important to provide employees with a regular cleaning routine and make them aware of the standards to which the property needs to be cleaned. Cleaning involves scraping, rinsing, washing and rinsing again to removes all traces of soap. Sanitizing involves sterilizing an area using antibacterial spray/wipes or sanitizing product after cleaning. Sanitizers are available from chemical suppliers. Bleach is the basis of most sanitizing products. Heat is also a sanitizer when water or oven temperatures exceed 75°C. In commercial situations, dishwashers are set at specific temperatures to ensure utensils are free from bacteria. The mechanical dishwashing process pre-rinses and washes at between 66°C and 71°C for 60 seconds. Then items are rinsed at 82°C for 10 seconds to complete the process. 6.4 SEWAGE DISPOSAL Sewage collection and disposal systems transport sewage through cities and other inhabited areas to sewage treatment plants to protect public health and prevent disease. Sewage is treated to control water pollution before discharge to surface waters A sewage system may convey the wastewater by gravity to a sewage treatment plant. Where pipeline excavation is difficult because of rock or there is limited topographic relief (i.e., due to flat terrain), gravity collection systems may not be practical and the sewage must be pumped through a pipeline to the treatment plant. In low-lying communities, wastewater may be conveyed by vacuum. Pipelines range in size from pipes of six inches (150 mm) in diameter to concrete-lined tunnels of up to thirty feet (10 m) in diameter. Community sewage can also be collected by an effluent sewer system, also known as a STEP system (Septic Tank Effluent Pumping). At each home, a buried collection tank is used to separate solids from the liquid effluent portion. Only the liquid portion is then pumped through small diameter pipe (typically 1.5" to 4") to downstream treatment. Because the waste stream is pressurized, the pipes can be laid just below the ground surface along the land's contour. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 36
  37. 37. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second Sewage can also be collected by low pressure pumps and vacuum systems. A low pressure system uses a small grinder pump located at each point of connection, typically a house or business. Vacuum sewer systems use differential atmospheric pressure to move the liquid to a central vacuum station. Typically a vacuum sewer station can service approximately 1,200 homes before it becomes more cost-effective to build another station. 6.5 IMPORTANCE OF HYGIENE IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY Hygiene for specific areas Hygiene procedures are required for all areas of the hospitality industry. These procedures vary according to the tasks required and the business policy standards. Some examples of specific practices for specific areas include: • Accommodation – dirty linen should be removed using gloves; clean and dirty linen should be kept separate • Kitchen/food preparation areas – correct hand washing and food safety procedures should always be followed • Food service areas – gloves should be used for handling food and for food preparation • Storage areas – cooked and uncooked foods should be stored at the correct temperatures • Laundry – dirty linen should be washed using the correct temperature and method • Public areas – toilets and restrooms should be kept clean using suitable chemicals and cleaning equipment • Garbage storage and disposal – correct handling and hand-washing procedures should be observed when disposing of kitchen and accommodation garbage. Understanding of the importance of hygienic work practices is essential within every facet of the hospitality industry. All staff must ensure their procedures are safe and hygienic when in their work environment. Personal hygiene is the first step in the prevention of hygiene risks. Personal hygiene is about being clean as a person – you, the employee or employer, paying extra attention to your physical cleanliness and appearance to ensure that no harmful microorganisms (e.g. bacteria) or objects (e.g. hair), can be transferred from you to your customers. Before starting work, it is essential to follow some golden rules of cleanliness and personal hygiene. These guidelines are essential to prevent potential hygiene risks. Risks include poor personal grooming, oral and personal hygiene, and working with open cuts and sores when handling food. One of the most common risks is not washing hands after eating, smoking, handling garbage or going to the toilet. Environmental hygiene risks come about through poor work practices, inappropriate handling and storage of foods, as well as inadequate and/or irregular cleaning practices. Unsafe and environmentally unsound garbage storage and inappropriate handling of contaminated kitchen linen can also pose hygiene risks. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 37
  38. 38. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second 6.6 LESSON SUMMARY Hygiene is an old concept related to medicine, as well as to personal and professional care practices related to most aspects of living. In medicine and in home (domestic) and everyday life settings, hygiene practices are employed as preventative measures to reduce the incidence and spreading of disease. In the manufacture of food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and other products, good hygiene is a key part of quality assurance i.e. ensuring that the product complies with microbial specifications appropriate to its use. Sanitation within the food industry means the adequate treatment of food-contact surfaces by a process that is effective in destroying vegetative cells of microorganisms of public health significance, and in substantially reducing numbers of other undesirable microorganisms, but without adversely affecting the food or its safety for the consumer 6.7 KEY WORDS Unsanitary- unhygienic, insanitary, contaminated, unhealthy Cataclysmic – catastrophic, disastrous, dreadful, tragic Pandemics - is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread through human populations across a large Radically – fundamentally, thoroughly, drastically Microorganisms – bacteria, microbes, germs Foster – promote, further, cultivate Vermin – rats, pests, parasites Antibacterial – sterile, antiseptic, uncontaminated Topographic- the features on the surface of an area of land Effluent - waste matter, seepage, overflow 6.8 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What is Hygiene and sanitation? 2. What are safe methods of cleaning? 3. What do you mean by Sewage disposal? 4. What is the importance of Hygiene in Hospitality Industry? 6.9 REFERENCES 1. Martin Robert J, Professional Management of Housekeeping Operations, John Wiley & Sons New York. 2. Andrews Sudhir, Hotel Housekeeping Training Manual, Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. 3. Rosemary Hurst, Housekeeping Management for Hotels and Residential Establishments, William Heinemann. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 38
  39. 39. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second UNIT- 7 INTER DEPARTMENTAL CO-OPERATION CONTENTS 7.0 Objectives 7.1 Introduction 7.2. Front Office 7.3 Personnel 7.4 Purchase 7.5 Engineering 7.6 Laundry 7.7 Food & Beverage 7.8 Security 7.9 Stores 7.10 Lesson Summary 7.11 Key Words 7.12 Questions to Solve 7.13 References 7.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘ Various Departments with whom housekeeping coordinates with. ◘ The aspects & procedures of coordination. 7.1 INTRODUCTION In a hospitality Industry, each and every department needs coordination with the Housekeeping Department as it should co-ordinate and ensure maximum co-operation with other departments to provide high quality service. To be successful, a well planned work schedule should be prepared so as to ensure minimum disruption to the guests and work flow of other departments. The senior housekeeper is responsible for ensuring this by supervising a group of staff or working closely with staff from other departments. Engineering Front Office Personnel Purchase House Keeping Food & Beverage Security Stores Laundry Following department co-ordinates with house keeping: Front Office Personnel Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 39
  40. 40. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second Purchase Engineering Laundry Food and beverage Security Stores 7.2 FRONT OFFICE Co-ordination with front office is one of the critical features of house keeping operations. As soon as there are guest departures the front office rings the house keeping desk and reports the room numbers of room vacated so that house keeping can take them over to clean and prepare for sale. Once the room is clean, the house keeping floor supervisor rings the front office directly or through house desk and hand over the room to front office for sale. Rooms received by house keeping for cleaning are called “Departure Room” while cleaned rooms handed over to front office is “Clear rooms”. 7.3 PERSONNEL House keeping co –ordinates with personnel department for the recruitment of house keeping staff, salary, administration, indiscipline, grievance procedures, identity cards for staff, locker facilities, promotions and exit formalities. 7.4 PURCHASES The purchase department procures out of stock items for house keeping such as guest supplies kept in rooms, stationery, linen for various types, detergents etc. 7.5 ENGINEERING One of the most important functions of house keeping is the maintenance aspect of the hotel for the purpose of keeping furniture, fixtures and facilities in working order, contemporary and safe for guest. 7.6 LAUNDRY This is a department that can either enhance the quality of house keeping services. The responsibility of laundry to house keeping is two fold: To wash and dry clean linen and staff uniforms to a very high standard of cleanliness. To supply clean uniforms and linen to house keeping on time Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 40
  41. 41. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second 7.7 FOOD AND BEVERAGE The restaurant and banquets constantly require clean tablecloths, napkins etc. Their staff as well as those in the kitchen requires clean uniforms. 7.8 SECURITY The guest room is the most private place and a hotel goes to great lengths to ensure guest privacy and security. A guest can take advantage of this privacy by gambling, smuggling etc. House keeping has to be alert to these goings-on and seek the security department‟s intervention if necessary. 7.9 STORES Larger hotels have house keeping store that stocks house keeping linen and supplies independently. Small hotels may store them in general stores except for linen which should be issued to the house keeping department. The co-ordination with the stores would ensure the availability of day-to-day requirements of house keeping. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 41
  42. 42. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second 7.10 LESSON SUMMARY The housekeeping department should co-ordinate and ensure maximum co-operation with other departments to provide high quality service, and also to run the day to day work smoothly and efficiently. The various departments who coordinate with Housekeeping are Front office, Engineering, Food & beverage, Security & Personnel. These departments do support in many aspects which makes it possible to provide high quality service to guests. 7.11 KEY WORDS Critical – significant, decisive, vital, important Indiscipline- unruliness, rowdiness, disorderliness Grievance – complaint, objection, accusation Gambling - betting, gaming, gamble Intervention- interference, involvement, intrusion 7.12 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. In what aspects does Front Office coordinates with Housekeeping? 2. In what aspects does Personnel & purchases coordinates with Housekeeping? 3. In what aspects does Engineering & F&B coordinates with Housekeeping? 4. In what aspects does Laundry coordinates with Housekeeping? 5. In what aspects does Stores & Security coordinates with Housekeeping? 7.13 REFERENCES 1. Andrews Sudhir, Hotel Housekeeping Training Manual, Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. 2. W. Winter, Doris Hatfield, H. Hatfield, The Professional Housekeeping, Hyperion Books. 3. Martin Robert J, Professional Management of Housekeeping Operations, John Wiley & Sons New York. 4. Rosemary Hurst, Housekeeping Management for Hotels and Residential Establishments, William Heinemann. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 42
  43. 43. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second UNIT- 8 LINEN / UNIFORM ROOM CONTENTS 8.0 Objectives 8.1 Introduction 8.2. Linen Room 8.3 Linen Room work 8.4 Uniform Room 8.5 Staff Uniform 8.6 Laundry In- house 8.7 Contract 8.7.1 Advantages of contract 8.7.2 Dissatisfaction of contract 8.8 Valet Service 8.9 Equipment 8.9.1 Flatwork Ironer / Roller Iron / Calendar 8.9.2 Press 8.9.3 Puffer or Suzie 8.9.4 Tunnel Dryer 8.9.5 Cabinet Dryer or Drying Room 8.10 Lesson Summary 8.11 Key Words 8.12Questions to Solve 8.13 References 8.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘Linen room, activities of linen room, hours of operation, ◘ Selection criteria for linen room, ◘Purchase of linen, linen cycle, control of linen, linen hire ◘ Uniform and types of uniform used. 8.1 INTRODUCTION In a commercial sense, the present day usage of the term linen includes all fabrics that are used in the hospitality industry. Well laid out and stocked up linen room satisfies the needs of the guests with comfortable and pleasing room furnishing. In this lesson, we will be looking into various aspects of the linen room layout, inventory maintenance and its functioning. Supply of various linen items to the guest rooms, their retrieval after use, their laundering and their recycling will be presented in detail. Detailed information relating to selection criteria for linen, various linen items that go into bed spreads, blankets, pillow cases, upholstery, curtains, bath room accessories Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 43
  44. 44. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second including towels of various kinds and sizes will be presented, covering their purchase, stock-up, supply and cleaning. In this regard, involvement of the linen room in the operational logistics relating to the management decision whether to invest to buy linen material or to rent it from outside hiring agencies and the relative merits of these two systems have also been discussed. Another responsibility of the linen room will be selection, procurement, stock-up, distribution and laundering of uniforms of appropriate sizes and styles befitting the employees of the establishment, details of operating procedures for uniforms are also discussed in this lesson. 8.2 LINEN ROOM The linen room is the centre stage for the supporting role that the housekeeping department plays in the hotel. Most linen rooms are centralized and act as a storage point and distribution centre for clean linen. 8.3 LINEN ROOM WORK 1. Collection and Transportation It is an essential activity when laundry services are on outside contract and is facilitated through chutes, canvas bags, trolleys, collapsible wire carts, skips etc. Guest laundry are also collected and appropriately marked for sending off premises for cleaning. 2. Sorting and Counting Sorting is carried out primarily to make counting easy as well as for streamlining Laundry procedures and to tally the exchange of linen between the linen room and the laundry. 3. Packaging Linen is packed in canvas bags to prevent damage on transit to the linen articles. Those articles that need mending and those, which are heavily stained, may be segregated and put into separate canvas bags. 4. Dispatch The time for off-premises laundry dispatch is usually anytime between 13:00 hrs and 16:00 hrs so that servicing of rooms is over by then and guest laundry will have been collected. 5. Deliveries Clean linen is delivered back in the morning hours and evening deliveries are usually for guest laundry. 6. Checking and Inspection Checking the quantity to ensure that the amount of laundered linen tallies with the amount of soiled linen articles sent and as well as inspection of the quality of wash. 7. Storage Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 44
  45. 45. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second The amount of space to be allocated for storage depends on the size and type of operation and the quantum of linen supplies. When designing the storage space for linen it is necessary to consider the type of shelves required, the method of storage as well as hygiene and safety factors. 8. Repairs and Alteration Damaged items are mended by stitching or darning. Alteration of uniforms for correct fit is usual. Condemned linen is converted into useful items called cut-downs / makeovers. 9. Distribution to Various Departments This is generally done on a clean-for-dirty basis. Some hotels use other systems of exchange such as topping up or a fixed issue based on expected occupancy. In some hotels specific timings are fixed for issue of linen. 10. Stock-taking and Records Many records are entered on a day-to-day basis for the exchange of linen between the linen room, laundry and floors / departments. Purchase records are essential and records of condemned linen and makeovers are usually maintained. Periodical stocktaking is carried out and the annual stocktaking is recorded in the stock register, thereby providing the value of linen as an asset. Stock records also help generate purchase orders for replacement of lost or condemned articles. 11. Security It is important that the access to the linen room is restricted so as to prevent misuse and pilferage and to guard against fire breakouts. Linen room is strictly a nonsmoking area. 8.4 UNIFORM ROOM The usual system for exchange is clean-for-dirty and the timings. Some hotels have specific days for different departments to facilitate streamlining laundry and uniform room operations. When planning the layout of the Uniform Room, it must be borne in mind that some uniforms will be kept on hangers while others will be folded. Consequently the storage space must include hanging space as well as shelves. The uniforms must be segregated according to the department. The Uniform Room usually incorporates the sewing section and in some organizations both these areas are sections in the Linen Room due to their inter-related functions. It is advisable to have a trial room that may double up as an emergency changing room if the need arises. For operational convenience, space must be allocated for uniform attendants to be positioned at the exchange counter, where they can enter the necessary records. Adequate hampers into which soiled uniforms can be segregated and deposited, as well as trolleys for hanging and folded uniforms are also an operational necessity 8.5 STAFF UNIFORMS Articles such as waiters‟ jackets, aprons and cleaners‟ overalls, are treated as normal linen room stock, and exchanged over the counter, but where the staff is provided with Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 45
  46. 46. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second individual uniforms, this is treated as personal laundry, and may be sent as individual bundles to the laundry and returned a week later. 8.6 LAUNDRY IN-HOUSE There is a growing tendency for establishment to have their own laundry on the premises. The reasons for this may be that: With the advent of polyester/cotton materials the use of a large expensive calendar is no longer required, so laundry premises can be smaller and the initial outlay on equipment less; There is greater variety in size of laundry equipment available, resulting in full use of the equipment chosen; Articles in demand can be dealt with out of turn and under normal circumstances there is a quicker turn round and so less stock is required; It may be possible to rely on staff to inspect the linen, so saving work in the linen room; There is more freedom in laundering methods used and he possibility of a greater life expectancy of the linen or other article; There is internal supervision and security, which may result in fewer losses; there are no transport difficulties and costs. 8.7 CONTRACT - CONTRACT CLEANING Complete cleaning programmes with all work and responsibility undertaken by the contractor; Regular, selected types of cleaning within an establishment to assist the existing housekeeping organization, e.g. night cleaning of entrance halls, washroom cleaning etc; Periodic services to assist the existing housekeeping organization, e.g. window cleaning, wall washing, decaling and disinfecting of sanitary fittings, carpet and upholstery cleaning etc. It has been suggested that a contractor must be 20-30 per cent more productive than direct labor in order to provide an equal service at an equal cost and still get a fair profit. 8.7.1 The main advantages of contract labor to the client are: There is no capital outlay for equipment so money is available for investment or other purposes; There is no equipments lying idle (particularly specialized equipment); There is no buying or hiring of specialized equipment; The difficulty of finding, training, organizing and supervising the cleaning staff is passed to the contractor; Extra work may be carried out at certain times without increasing the basic staff; The exact cost of cleaning is known for a given period. 8.7.2 Causes of dissatisfaction may include: Loss of flexibility to effect changes; the housekeeper no longer controls the operation; Loss of proprietary interest. The cleaners do not belong to, i.e. do not work for, the establishment and may not have the same pride in their work or job satisfaction; Problems regarding security; Problems regarding liaison and co-operation between departments; Deterioration in the quality of the work. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 46
  47. 47. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second 8.8 VALET SERVICE In a hotel it is usual to put a laundry list and sometimes a container, such as a large paper bag, as well as a dry cleaning list in all bedrooms for the guests‟ personal laundry. The guest is asked to complete the list and to fill in the service required, e.g. Normal or „express‟, and the room maid or valet takes the parcel to the linen room. The linen keeper enters the particulars into a guest laundry or dry cleaning book and the van driver collects the parcels. 8.9 EQUIPMENT Baskets or bags in which to pack soiled linen A table as a working surface, of a color to contrast with the white linen A trolley or floor basket on wheels to save labor Steps to reach high shelves Sewing machines for repairing and marking the linen An electric iron and ironing board or table A suitable table or desk, with drawers for the keeping of record books A telephone Chairs for those who may work seated A brush and dustpan or mop sweeper or suction cleaner. It will be seen that the principles of work study have been followed as far as possible. For those articles that require a pressed finish there are many finishing equipment. Some of the more frequently used equipment is listed below: 8.9.1 Flatwork Ironer / Roller Iron / Calendar: Is used for flatwork i.e. items like sheets, pillowcases, tablecloths, serviettes, aprons, saris, etc. The items are passed through heated rollers for ironing. 8.9.2 Press: Press is used for fine pressing of Flat Linen like Table covers, Pillow covers, Napkins, Kitchen linen, Staff uniforms. They are special presses to perform specific functions and operation can be on electricity or steam. 8.9.3 Puffer or Suzie For coats and articles that do not crease heavily. The articles are put onto a dummy that is inflated with steam to remove creases and then with hot air to remove the moisture created by the steam. 8.9.4 Tunnel Dryer Clothes are hung on conveyor belts that pass through a tunnel. Hot air blowing in the tunnel renders the articles completely dry by the time they exit. It is a fully automated process that also transfers the linen to the next area of activity. 8.9.5 Cabinet Dryer or Drying Room Is a chamber where low-crease garments are suspended on hangers and steam or hot air is circulated through the cabinet. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 47
  48. 48. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second 8.10 LESSON SUMMARY It is essential to ensure a continuous supply of linen, which is well laundered, so that hotel operations can be carried out smoothly and efficiently. The principles of laundering are: removal of dirt and stains from the linen articles and restoring linen articles to their original appearance as far as possible. A commercial or off-premises laundry refers to laundering activities performed outside the establishment. An on-s i t e o r on-premises laundry refers to laundering activities carried on within the hotel by staff employed. The various processes in laundering includes: collection & transportation, marking, sorting, weighing, loading, washing, unloading, finishing, folding, airing, storage and distribution. A washing machine is a machine designed to clean laundry, such as clothing, towels and sheets. Other machines used in washing are, puffer or Suzie, tunnel dryer and cabinet dryer or drying room. The responsibility of the linen room with respect to selection, procurement, stock-up and distribution of uniforms of appropriate sizes and styles befitting the employees of the establishment, details of operating procedures for uniforms were also discussed in this lesson. 8.11 KEY WORDS Inventory – list, record, stock Streamlining – reform, reorganization, reshuffle Mended – repair, fix, restore, patch up Darning- restoration, healing, renovation Deterioration- worsening, wear and tear Inflated – exaggerated, puffed up, overblown 8.12 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Write in brief about Linen room & its activity? 2. Write in brief about Uniform room & staff uniform? 3. What is in- house Laundry & Contract? 4. What is Valet service & equipment used in laundry? 8.13 REFERENCES 1. Schneider Madelin, Tucker Georgina and Scoviak Mary, The Professional Housekeeper, John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York. 2. Martin Robert J, Professional Management of Housekeeping Operations, John Wiley & Sons New York. 3. Rosemary Hurst, Housekeeping Management for Hotels and Residential Establishments, William Heinemann. 4. W. Winter, Doris Hatfield, H. Hatfield, The Professional Housekeeping, Hyperion Books. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 48
  49. 49. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 49
  50. 50. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 50
  51. 51. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second UNIT- 9 STAIN REMOVAL CONTENTS 9.0 Objectives 9.1 Introduction 9.2. Stain Removal 9.3. Stain Removal Agents 9.3.1 Acids 9.3.2 Alkalis 9.3.3 Bleaches 9.4 Stain removal from different surfaces 9.4.1 Polished wood 9.5 Points to remember 9.6 Lesson Summary 9.7 Key Words 9.8 Questions to Solve 9.9 References 9.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘Agents used for stain removal, ◘Different Acids, alkalis used ◘ stain removal from various surface. 9.1 INTRODUCTION A stain is defined as a discoloration brought about by contact with a foreign substance which is difficult to remove. Like first-aid in an accident, the treatment of stains requires immediate action which includes blotting, grease absorbent, salt absorbent and often a cold water rinse. There are two major factors which are responsible for ensuring correct stain removal. One is the stain removal agent and the other is the method of stain removal. It is important to select the right stain removal agents which are friendly. 9.2 STAIN REMOVAL Many fresh stains, e.g. tea, coffee, grease etc. will be removed from cotton and linen articles during the normal washing process. Protein stains, e.g. egg, blood, glue, perspiration etc. are more easily removed by pre-soaking in lukewarm water with a detergent containing enzymes which digest the protein. (Note Enzymes are inactive in hot water above 400-500 C). All stains should be dealt with as soon as they occur or as soon after as possible Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 51
  52. 52. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second 9.3 STAIN REMOVAL AGENTS If old or heavy, stains require special treatment with stain removal agents. The use of these stain removal agents requires care as they can cause weakening of the fibers, bleeding of dyes, damage to special fabric finishes and some are inflammable while others are poisonous. There are five main stain removal agents: organic solvents, acids, alkalis, bleaches and enzymes. Organic solvents For example: a. Benzene b. Carbon tetrachloride acetone perchlorethylene amyl acetate trichlorethylene methylated spirit white spirit (Turpentine substitute) 9.3.1 Acids Acids include oxalic acid, potassium and oxalate (salts of lemon), and various rust removers sold under trade names. (All these are poisonous). Fibers vary in their susceptibility to damage by acids. Dilute acids can be used on most white fabrics but many colored are affected by acids. It is always better to use a weak solution several times than use a stronger solution at first. 9.3.2 Alkalis Alkalis such as soda and borax, remove old and heavy vegetable stains, e.g. tea, coffee, wine etc. from white linen or cotton fabrics. Animal fibers and dyes may be adversely affected. 9.3.3 Bleaches The process of changing a colored substance in to a colorless one is known as bleaching, i.e. Bleaches whiten. Bleaches also weaken fibers so extreme care is needed in their use. Bleaches are of two types: Oxidizing reducing E.g. sodium hypochlorite e.g. sodium hydrosulphite Hydrogen peroxide, Sodium perborate Specific stains For the more usual stains on white and fast-colored fabrics; the following stain-removal agents are suggested: Ball-point ink: methylated spirit or carbon tetrachloride. Blood- new: soak in cool or warm detergent solution, old: treat as iron mould. Chewing gum: rub with ice-cube and scrape. Dyes: bleach (not chlorine bleaches on animal fibers). Grass: eucalyptus oil or glycerin, follow with spirit or washing. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 52
  53. 53. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second Ink: if not removed by washing treat as for iron mould. Ink (red): often not removable, except when very fresh, but some may respond to washing or sodium or sodium hydrosulphite. Iron mould: rust remover, oxalic acid, potassium acid oxalate (salts of lemon), sodium hydrosulphite or Rustasol. Lacquer and nail varnish: amyl acetate, acetone (not on rayon acetate) or a cellulose thinner. Lipstick: carbon tetrachloride and /or sodium hydrosulphite. Mildew: hot weak potassium permanganate solution followed by a weak acid or hydrogen peroxide. Paint (oil): if fresh, white spirit, or a proprietary pant remover followed by a solvent Paint (Cellulose): amyl acetate, acetone (not on rayon acetate) or commercial cellulose thinner. Paint emulsion): wash immediately, as once dried it is almost irremovable. Perspiration: treat as for mildew or protein stains. Protein stains, e.g. egg, meat, perspiration: protein digesting enzyme contained in biological detergents or as powdered pepsin. Tar: carbon tetrachloride or white spirit, scraping first. Vegetable stains, e.g. tea, coffee, etc: alkali or bleach (not chlorine bleaches on animal fibers). Vomit: scrape, soak and wash. If not washable, sponge with ward water containing a few drops of ammonia. Blot dry. 9.4 STAIN REMOVAL FROM DIFF. SURFACES Carpets and upholstery (care must be taken not to wet the backing or padding) Candle grease: scrape, use hot iron and absorbent paper. Follow if necessary with a grease solvent. Ink: mop up as quickly as possible to prevent spreading. Wash with warm water and synthetic detergent or use a weak acid, and rinse. Mud: leave to dry, then brush off. Shoe polish: scrape off if possible and then apply a grease solvent. Urine: sponge with salt water, followed by a weak solution of ammonia and rinse well or a squirt from a soda water siphon. 9.4.1 Polished wood Ink: mop up as quickly as possible. Rub with fine dry steel wool or glass paper, or dab with a hot solution of weak acid and rinse. In both cases color and polish will be removed, so rub with linseed oil or shoe polish to darken and later apply polish, and buff well. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 53
  54. 54. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second Spills, slight heat and burn marks: rub with a rag moistened with a drop or two of liquid metal polish or methylated spirit and then re-polish, or rub with a very fine abrasive, e.g. cigarette ash or very fine steel wool and re-polish. Scratch marks: if newly scratched cover with iodine, potassium permanganate solution or shoe polish according to the color of the wood. If necessary remove polish first with a mild abrasive. Alcohol: (a) wipe up, rub with finger dipped in silver polish, linseed oil or cigarette ash. Re-polish. (b) Wipe up, put few drops of ammonia on damp cloth and rub. Immediately re-polish. Wood with oil finish Small burns and heat marks: rub with emery cloth or fine sandpaper, followed by boiled linseed oil. Marble, terrazzo Ink: apply a poultice of sodium perborate, precipitated whiting and water. Leave it to dry. Rust: apply a poultice of sodium citrate crystals, glycerin, precipitated whiting and water. 9.5 POINTS TO REMEMBER When removing stains, it is worth remembering the following: 1. Treat stains as soon as possible. 2. Consider the fibers of which the fabric is made. 3. If a colored articles, check effect of remover on an unimportant part if possible. 4. Use the weakest methods first. 5. Use a weak solution several times, rather than one strong one. 6. When using a chemical always place the stained area over an absorbent pad of clean cloth. 7. To avoid a „ring‟ always treat from an area round the stain and work towards the centre. 8. After using a chemical, neutralize or rinse well. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 54
  55. 55. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second 9.6 LESSON SUMMARY A stain is defined as a discoloration brought about by contact with a foreign substance which is difficult to remove. If old or heavy, stains require special treatment with stain removal agents. The use of these stain removal agents requires care as they can cause weakening of the fibers, bleeding of dyes, damage to special fabric finishes and some are inflammable while others are poisonous. All stains should be dealt with as soon as they occur or as soon after as possible When removing stains, it is worth remembering the following, Treat stains as soon as possible, Use a weak solution several times, rather than one strong one, When using a chemical always place the stained area over an absorbent pad of clean cloth, After using a chemical, neutralize or rinse well. 9.7 KEY WORDS Blotting – spot, mark, stain Susceptibility – inclination, vulnerability, weakness Adversely – unfavorably, harmfully, negatively Rust- corrosion, oxidize, tarnish Neutralize – counteract, defuse, reduce the effect Absorbent – spongy, leaky, porous 9.8 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Write in short about Stain & Stain removal agent? 2. What are acids, alkalis, & Bleaches? 3. Write in brief about, stain removal from different surfaces? 4. What are the points to remember, when removing stain? 9.9 REFERENCES 1. Schneider Madelin, Tucker Georgina and Scoviak Mary, The Professional Housekeeper, John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York. 2. Martin Robert J, Professional Management of Housekeeping Operations, John Wiley & Sons New York. 3. Rosemary Hurst, Housekeeping Management for Hotels and Residential Establishments, William Heinemann. 4. W. Winter, Doris Hatfield, H. Hatfield, The Professional Housekeeping, Hyperion Books. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 55
  56. 56. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second UNIT-10 PEST CONTROL CONTENTS 10.0 Objectives 10.1 Introduction 10.2. Pest control 10.3 Moths 10.4 Carpet beetles 10.5 Wood boring beetles 10.6 Rats & Mice 10.7 Wood Rot 10.7.1 Dry rot 10.7.2 Wet rot 10.8 Waste Disposal 10.9 Lesson Summary 10.10 Key Words 10.11 Questions to Solve 10.12 References 10.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘ The various pests and ◘ The controlling methods of pests. 10.1 INTRODUCTION Pest is an organism which has characteristics that are regarded by human beings as injurious or unwanted. It is so most often because pests cause serious damages and substantial economic loss to the hotel properties and human health by carrying, spreading and transmitting contagious and often fatal diseases. No matter how clean one keeps one‟s surroundings, you cannot avoid the “uninvited guests” – the pests. It is not only embarrassing but also speaks badly of a hotel where one sees rats, cockroaches, and lizards running around. An animal such as rats and fleas can also be a dangerous pest when it carries germs within human habitats and spreads it. Pest Control is another major job of the Housekeeping Department. 10.2 PEST CONTROL Insect pests enter buildings seeking food, shelter or surroundings having the right temperature and humidity. The key to successful pest control is eliminating one or more of these conducive factors. Sanitation is an important part of control. Successful pest Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 56
  57. 57. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second control should begin with good housekeeping. It is important to know something about the habits of the pests in order to take proper preventative measures and to select and apply appropriate pest control products correctly. Using the wrong control product or using the right product but in the wrong manner may result in unsatisfactory control. Keep in mind that different pests may be found in different parts of the building, in different seasons or in different years. Below a few common pests found in the hotels and methods of their control are described. 10.3 MOTHS Clothes and house moths are of a pale buff color and are seen flying mainly between June and October. They are relatively small and rarely live for longer than a month. The female lays its eggs (up to 200) in some dark, warm place on material which the grubs (larvae) will later eat. The eggs hatch and the grubs immediately feed on the material as they move about. When fully grown they crawl into sheltered places, spin a cocoon round themselves become a chrysalis (pupa) and later emerge as moths to start another life cycle. The entire life cycle (egg-grub-chrysalis-moth) varies from one month or two years depending on the food available, temperature and humidity). Thus it follows that the articles which most need protection from damage by moth are: Blankets, bedding and quilts (not man-made fibers); Carpets and under felts; Upholstered furniture and curtains; Stuffed animals and birds, i.e. Fur and feathers. 10.4 CARPET BEETLES Carpet beetles are 2-4 mm long like small mottled brown, grey and cream ladybirds. The larvae are small, covered in brown hairs and tend to rollup when disturbed. As they grow, they mould and the old cast-off skins may be the first sign of infestation. Adults are often seen April-June, seeking places to lay their eggs and the larvae are most active in October before they hibernate. The adult beetle feeds on pollen and nectar of flowers but lays its eggs in old birds‟ nests, fabrics and accumulated fluff in buildings. It is the larvae which hatch from these eggs that do the damage by feeding on feathers, fur, hair or wool and articles made from these substances. They tend to wander along pipes from the roof to storage cupboards and under floorboards to carpets and under felts. 10.5 WOOD BORING BEETLES These beetles can be likened to moths or carpet beetles, in that it is the grub, larva or „worm‟ which does the damage to the wood. The common furniture beetle lays about 2060 eggs in cracks and crevices of unpolished wood, e.g. flooring, panels, roof timbers, backs of wardrobes and chests of drawers. On hatching, the grub eats its way through Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 57
  58. 58. Hotel Housekeeping, Semester- Second the wood, and this tunneling causes weakening of the wood and may take from 2-3 years. Eventually the grub matures, bores towards the surface of the wood and changes into a pupa. From this pupa emerges the beetle, which bites its way into the open air through an exit hole which is about 0.15 cm. in size. The beetles have a very short life (probably 2-3 weeks) during which time they move around by walking or occasionally flying, mating takes place and eggs are laid, often in the old exit holes. Head lice, which live in the hair of the head, are probably the most common of all lice. They cause intense irritation and suck blood; the eggs, „nits‟ which are very numerous, are stuck firmly on to the hairs and cannot be removed by brushing. Bedbugs may be secreted in second-hand furniture, bedding and books and under the wooden lathes of trunks, when luggage has been lying in the holds of ships or in trains, and thus may find their way into any establishment. Silverfish are wingless insects, silvery grey in color and about 1 cm long. The young closely resemble the adults and both are rounded in front and tapered towards the rear. Silverfish require a moist place in which to live and are found in basements, and around pips, drains, sinks, etc. they leave their hiding places n search of food of a cellulose nature. Cockroaches are more likely to be found in the kitchen and restaurant/dining room areas than in the accommodation area, although cockroaches do not necessarily require human food, and will feed on whitewash, hair and books if no other food is available. 10.6 RATS & MICE Rats and mice are more likely to be found in kitchens and dining areas than in bedrooms. They are attracted by scraps of food, candles, soap etc. Hygienic storage and disposal of food and all kinds of waste, and the cleanliness of all areas where food is handled, are important to prevent an infestation, Rats and mice may be destroyed with poisons. Rats and bad infestations of mice may also be dealt with by experts from the local Public Health Department. 10.7 WOOD ROT 10.7.1 Dry rot Dry rot can be recognized by its offensive, moldy smell, by its friable condition and the „dead‟ sound when the wood is hit with a hammer. When dry rot occurs/ it is necessary Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 58

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