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  1. 1. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Food and Beverage Production Diploma In Hotel & Hospitality Management Subject Code-HM-11 School of Distance Education Karnataka State Open University, Karnataka Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 1
  2. 2. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Copyright 2012, Karnataka State Open University All Rights Reserved Compiled and Printed By ECDL Educations Private Limited For, School of Distance Education Karnataka State Open University Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 2
  3. 3. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Preface Food is an essential part of human existence, as we all have heard of the same old story of cooking, after the discovery of Fire. But, with advent of Eating out in Hotels, restaurants, and the modernization has brought a big change in the eating habit of Humans. Today’s Food business is billion dollar industry, and with demands on the increase, it needs more skilled and technically educated persons. We have put across the latest developments in the food & food Industry, which would help you to gain the excellence in achieving success in the field of Food & Beverage Production ECDL… Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 3
  4. 4. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester CONTENTS BLOCK –I UNIT 1. 2. 3. 4. UNIT 5 6. 7. 8. UNIT 9. 10. Topic Aims & Objectives of cooking food Contents 1.1 Foundation ingredients, Raising agents 1.2 Methods of Cooking, Salt- Flavoring and Seasonings 1.3 Washing, peeling, Scrapping, cutting of vegetables 1.4 Method of mixing foods, methods of cooking foods Stock & Sauces 2.1 Meaning, uses, ) Types of stock 2.2 Uses of stock, Basic preparation method 2.3 Sauces, Thickening agents used in sauces 2.4 Mother sauce, Derivatives of Mother sauces Salami, 3.1 Meaning of Salami, ingredients of salami Sausages, 3.2 Manufacturing of Salami, varieties 3.3 Sausages 3.4 Types of Sausages Commodities 4.1 Cereals, ) Types of Cereals 4.2 Pulses, Types of pulses 4.3 Yoghurt, Varieties of Yoghurt 4.4 Cream, Types of Cream BLOCK –II Topic Contents Kitchen 5.1 Kitchen equipment‘s equipment 5.2 Large equipment, mechanical equipment. 5.3 Utensils & small equipment 5.4 Cooking fuels Kitchen 6.1 The type of establishment organizations 6.2 Kitchen Brigade in star grade hotel 6.3 Duties and responsibilities of kitchen staff 6.4 Modern Kitchen organization. Herbs, Spices, 7.1 Herbs & its uses. condiments 7.2 Varieties of Herbs 7.3 Meaning of spices, condiments and uses 7.4 Varieties of Spices & condiments Sandwiches 8.1 sandwiches 8.2 Types of Sandwiches 8.3 Types of Spread & filling 8.4 Preparation of Sandwich BLOCK –III Topic Contents Vegetable, 9.1 Vegetables, Types of Vegetables Fruit & nuts 9.2 Cooking of Vegetables 9.3 Fruits, Types of Fruits 9.4 Nuts, Variety of Nuts Hors d‘ oeuvre 10. 1 Introduction Hors d‘oeuvre 10.2 Types of Hors d‘oeuvre Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. Page No. 9 10-12 13-14 15-16 19 20-22 23-24 25-26 29 30 31 32 34 35-37 38-39 40-41 Page No. 47 48-49 50 51-52 54 55 56-57 58 60 61-62 63-64 65 67 68 69 70 Page No. 75 76-79 80-83 84-87 89 90-91 4
  5. 5. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 11. 12. UNIT 13. 14. 15. 16. 10.3 Canapés, Snack food , Dumpling 10.4 Recipes of Hors d‘ oeuvre Soups 11.1 Soups, 11.2 Types of soups 11.3 Thick soup, thin soup 11.4 Garnishing of Soups Fish , Chicken 12.1 Classification, cuts, Selection, cooking of fish & Egg cookery 12.2 Chicken- Selection procedures, cuts, and preparation 12.3 Introduction to egg cookery, Structure of an egg 12. 4 Selection of egg, Uses of egg in cookery BLOCK –IV Topic Contents Butchery 13.1 Meat, Mutton & Lamb, Beef & Veal, cuts 13.2 Game, By region 13.3 Cooking of game birds or animals 13.4 Meaning of fillet, steak sirloin steak. Bacon, ham, gammon International 14.1 Chinese cuisine-characteristics, ingredients used Cuisines 14.2 Thai cuisine: Characteristics, ingredients used, 14.3 Italian cuisine: Characteristics, ingredients used 14.4 Arabic cuisine: characteristics, ingredients used Bakery 15.1 Equipment‘s, Identification, Uses and handling Ingredients - Qualitative and quantitative measures 15.2 Hot & Cold Desserts 15.3 Bread making, Cakes, cookies 15.4 Indian Sweets Storage & 16.1 Food storage Reheating 16.2 Storage life of foods 16.3 Various methods of food storage 16.4 Rechauffe or reheating of food Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 92-93 94 96 97 98 99 101-102 103-104 105-106 107 Page No. 113 114-115 116 117 119 120-121 122-123 124 126-127 128-130 131-134 135-138 140 141 142 143 5
  6. 6. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 6
  7. 7. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 7
  8. 8. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 8
  9. 9. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester UNIT-1 AIMS & OBJECTIVES OF COOKING FOOD CONTENTS 1.0 Objectives 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Foundation Ingredients-Fats, Oils & their uses 1.3 Raising Agents-Their uses & types 1.4 Sweetening Agents 1.5 Salt & uses 1.6 Thickening Agents 1.7 Flavoring & Seasoning 1.8 Preparation of Ingredients 1.9 Cutting of Vegetables 1.10 Method of mixing food 1.11 Method of cooking food 1.12 Lesson Summary 1.13 Key Words 1.14 Questions to Solve 1.15 References 1.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘ Aims and objectives of cooking food ◘ Advantages of cooking food ◘ Cooking materials ◘Food constituents ◘ Effects of cooking food on food constituents ◘ Effects of cooking food on various ingredients 1.1 INTRODUCTION Cooking is an art through which an unpalatable food is made tastier and above all facilitate and hasten digestion for human digestive system, to be subsequently assimilated by body as nutrients & other vitamins. This varies according to the process of cooking. Cooking process changes the Texture, color, and adds flavor to the food. To cook food heat must be introduced. The heat breaks down the cellulose in the plant, softens tissues in the meat, transform and blends flavors within the food, destroys bacteria and makes food suitable for human consumption. The aim or the intention of cooking is to see that the food is cooked, undergoes a physical change sometimes a chemical change and whether the food is acceptable or not. 1. Cooking helps to make food digestive 2. Cooking enhance flavor 3. Cooking partly sterilizes food Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 9
  10. 10. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 4. Cooking makes food more palatable 5. Cooking makes food item attractive in appearance 6. Cooking introduces variety 7. Cooking helps to provide a balance meal. 1.2 FOUNDATION INGREDIENTS- FATS, OILS AND THEIR USES Fats and oils are nutritionally useful and an economical source of energy. They also contribute to the flavor and texture of food. They are popularly used as the medium of cooking. Fats are solids at ordinary temperature and melt when heated and oils are liquids at ordinary temperature. Various fats used in liquids are: a. Lard: pig fat b. Suet: fat around kidneys of lamb or beef c. Dripping: beef fat d. Butter e. Ghee f. Margarine g. Hydrogenated fat Oils are extracted from: a. Coconut b. Palm c. Olive d. Peanuts e. Mustard f. Corn g. Sunflower Uses of fats and oils a. Spreads b. Shortenings c. Salad dressing d. Frying e. Tempering 1.3 RAISING AGENTS- THEIR USES AND TYPES Raising or leavening increases the surface of a batter by creating gas bubbles which puff up, thus increasing the volume and making it light. The expansion of these gases during baking increases the volume of the product and gives a desirable porous structure. The aeration of flour products is effect by the following. a. b. c. d. Biochemical Chemical Mechanical Lamination : : : : Yeast Baking powder Beating or whisking Folding or rolling 1.4 SWEETENING AGENTS Sweetening Sweetening is used to enhance or improve the combine sensation of order and flavor of the dish produced. It also adds its own sweetness. Sweetening is available in various forms. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 10
  11. 11. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester a. Granulated b. Fine grained c. Powdered d. Solution forms Sugars very in their sweetening quality and are available in following forms: a. Granulated sugar b. Castor sugar c. Icing sugar d. Lactose e. Cane syrup f. Honey Uses of sweetening a. It gives a good flavor b. It gives good color c. It helps in fermentation d. It helps in food preservation 1.5 SALT AND USES. Salt It brings out the flavor of other ingredients. Salts are found in two types, i.e., rock salt and sea salt. Salts having a distinctive taste make a dish wonderful and it should be used skillfully because too much of it would spoil the dish. Salt is available in three forms, i.e., table salt, freezing salt. Uses of salt a. It improve the flavor of the dish b. Cauliflower when put in salted water makes the insects come out. c. It controls fermentation d. It helps in color retention e. It helps in preserving items f. It is essential for good health. 1.6 THICKENING AGENTS Thickening and binding agents The thickening agents are starch, eggs, gelatin, coconut, tamarind, curd, onion paste, etc. Thickening agents give consistency and palatable for the dish. They also improve the nutritive value of the dish. 1.7 FLAVORING AND SEASONINGS Flavoring and seasonings Spices and herbs give flavorings and seasonings to the dishes. Seasoning should bring out the natural flavors of main ingredients and should blend with them. Seasonings have no nutritive value but they give variety to the dishes and have medicinal value. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 11
  12. 12. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Uses of seasonings and flavorings a. Helps in digestion b. Used for medicinal purposes c. Enhance flavor d. Improve appearance e. Improve palatability f. Acts as preservatives. 1.8 PREPARATIONS OF INGREDIENTS Many methods are used for food preparations before cooking and they are done according to the requirements of various dishes. This helps to improve appearance, texture, flavor and palatability. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Washing This is necessary to remove the superficial dirt‘. Meat, fish, vegetables and fruits are washed in cold water before any preparation. Peeling Spoiled, solid and inedible portions are removed. Skins of vegetables or fruits are either peeled or scabbed. The outer layer can be stripped. Paring Removing the surface layer, in circular motion by pressure, of a knife-edge all round the object. Cutting Reducing, by means of knives into small pieces. Chopping Chopping food item with a chopping knife into small pieces is known as chopping Mincing Cutting into very fine pieces. Shredding Cutting into long narrow pieces by means of knife or shredder. E.g.: Cabbage. Slicing Cutting into thin pieces but not so fine as shredding. E.g.: Onion Slitting Making a slit in the middle lengthwise. E.g.: Ladies finger, Green chilly. Grating Reducing to small particles by rubbing on a grater. E.g.; Cheese Mashing This is a method of breaking up of soft food with a masher by using pressure. E.g. Potato Grinding Reducing to fragments by crushing or grinding. Pressing Separating liquid portions, from solids by using weights or mechanical pressure. E.g.: Removing water from paneer. Dripping Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 12
  13. 13. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Separating, fat from connective tissues by heat. 1.9 CUTTING OF VEGETABLES Batons ―Sticks‖ of vegetables around 12mm/½ -inch thick and up to 7.5cm/3-inches long. Usually cut before cooking. Brunoise A very fine dice up to 2mm/¹/12th inch square. Usually cut before cooking. Often used as a garnish. Chips/French Fries/Crisps Chips and Fries are ―sticks‖ of vegetables between 5cm/2-inches and 10cm/4-inches long and up to 2.5cm/1-inch thick. Crisps are very thin slices no thicker than 6mm/¼inch. Both are cut before cooking and are usually deep fried until crispy. Chunks A piece of cut vegetable larger than 3.75cm/1¾-inches. Usually cut before cooking. Cubes Pieces of vegetables from 12mm/½ -inch to 36mm/1½-inches square, Can be cut before or after cooking. Dice Pieces of vegetables between 6mm/¼-inch and 12mm/½ -inch square, Can be cut before or after cooking. Grated Thin pieces of vegetables created using a grater. They can be any length depending on the vegetable used but are always wafer thin. Julienne Strips of vegetables usually 3mm/ ⅛- inch square up to 5cm/ 2 inches long standard. Often a mandolin is used for accuracy. Often used as a garnish. Mashed Vegetables which have already been cooked until soft then further broken down with a fork or masher. Matchsticks Thin ―sticks‖ of vegetables no thicker than 6mm/¼-inch square and 5cm/2-inches long. Paysanne Very thin slices of vegetables no larger than 6mm/¼-inch square. Most often used as a garnish. Purée Vegetables which have usually already been cooked until soft then mashed then made smooth by rigorous beating or passing through a sieve. With some vegetables a food processor can be used. Shred Vegetables cut into thin strips generally no wider than 6mm/¼-inch, usually done before cooking. Slices Vegetables cut into similar size flat pieces. Can be lengthways or width ways, from 6mm/¼-inch to 2.5cm/1-inch thick. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 13
  14. 14. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Sulfrino Balls Sulfrino vegetable balls are made with a very small melon scoop, sometimes called a Parisienne scoop, up to 12mm/½-inch in diameter. Most usually used for garnishes. 1.10 METHOD OF MIXING FOODS Food preparation often involves the combining and mixing of different foods or food materials. 1. 2. 3. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Blending Mixing two or more ingredients thoroughly. E.g. Milk and roux for béchamel sauce. Cuttings Usually this is a process of incorporation of fat in flour and other dry ingredients with a knife. E.g. Pastry. Creaming Softening fat by friction with a spoon usually followed by gradual incorporation of sugar. Eg: Cake making Folding Mixing materials, with a palate knife or wooden spoon by careful lifting and dropping motion. Kneading Manipulating by alternating pressure, with folding and stretching as in kneading bread. Marinating Coating the surface of food materials, which is usually a mixture of oil and acid. Stirring Mixing materials with an appropriate tool such as spoon by a circular motion. E.g. White sauce. Whipping Rapid beating with a wire eggbeater or mechanical beater usually to incorporate air. E.g. Whipping egg whites. 1.11 METHODS OF COOKING FOODS Various methods of cooking food are: 1. Boiling It means immersing the food in a pan of liquid. Basic rules of boiling a) A food should be completely immersed. b) The flavor of meat and poultry is enhanced by the addition of herbs and vegetables to the cooking liquor. c) Scum that arises during the boiling must be removed. d) Pot liquor, which contains flavor, should not be thrown but should be used for gravies or sauces. e) Fast boiling should be done to green vegetables as it preserves the green color and prevent excessive loss of vitamins and mineral salt. f) Root vegetables should be placed in cold water to boil. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 14
  15. 15. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. g) Stocks, soups and sauces should be simmered gently. h) Always poach fish and never boil otherwise a fish will breakup. Poaching Poaching is cooking gently in water, which is just below boiling point, i.e., 93oC to 95oC. Basic rules for poaching a. Food items should be completely emerged in the liquid and left in it through out the cooling process. b. As soon as the liquid with the food item being to boil, lowers the temperature to allow poaching. c. Adding vinegar and salt helps in quicker coagulation. d. It is important that fresh eggs should be used for poaching. Steaming Steaming is cooking by moist heat. Steaming may be direct or indirect. Indirect steaming is done when the food it placed in a closed pan. Direct steaming is placing the article in a perforated container or on a covered plate over a saucepan of water. Basic rules of steaming a. Small items should always be steamed b. Vegetables are not suitable for steaming c. Steaming should be done by covering the food item by greaseproof paper. Stewing Stewing is gently simmering in a small quantity of water, stock or sauce until the cut food items are tender and both liquid and food are served together. It is done in covered saucepan at a low temperature. Basic rules of stewing a. While stewing the liquid should cover the food items. b. The liquid should not reach too high a temperature. Braising This is a combined method of roasting and stewing. This is usually done in a pan with a tight fitting lid. It is a long method of cooking. The meat is first browned in its own fat or small amount of hot fat. This seals the pours and thus the juices are retained. Basic rules of braising a. Braising pan size should be selected according to the size of food items to be braised. b. It should be done slowly. c. Fresh vegetables and herbs should be used. d. Items such as meat, poultry and game suitable for braising are those of a tuff nature. Roasting Roasting is cooking of large pieces of meat on a turning spit oven or open fire. Basically there are four types of roasting. 1. Pot roasting 2. Oven roasting 3. Spit roasting Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 15
  16. 16. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 7. 8. 9. 10. 4. Tandoori method Pot roasting Cooking is done in a covered pot or pan. Only good quality meats are used for pot-roasting. Oven roasting It is cooking in a roasting tray in an oven by using fat. Good quality meat, poultry and vegetables are used. Spit roasting It is the original form of roasting. It is cooking by direct head basted with fat. Tandoori method It is a special type of roasting. Here roasting is done in a tandoori oven which is made of mud. Coal is used to heat the oven. Basic rules of Roasting a) Meat, poultry, games should be tender and of top quality. b) The juices from the process of roasting meat, poultry and game must be used to make the accompanying gravy. Grilling The food is placed on grill bars and subjected to the action of radiated heat, which could be below or above. The source of heat may be from coal, charcoal, coke, gas or electricity. The grilling equipment is called salamander. Basic rules for grilling a) Items must be small in size and top quality. b) Items should be oiled and seasoned. c) Grill bars should be cleaned and oiled Baking It is cooking of food by dry heat in an oven. Basic rules of baking a) Food items should be placed in the right position in the oven. b) Correct temperature should be maintained according to the baked items. Frying It is the process by placing the food item in fat or oil at a sufficiently high temperature. There are two types of frying. Deep fry It is cooking food by immersing it in fat completely. E.g. Vada, Puri, Pakavada. Shallow fry Cooking in a little fat on a hot plate. E.g. Poratha, dosha. Griddling or Broiling It is cooking by direct heat and it is similar to grilling. The pan or grill is oiled slightly to prevent sticking. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 16
  17. 17. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 1.12 LESSON SUMMARY Culinary art is a form of art through which, the aims and objectives of cooking is achieved by various cooking process. By cooking the food not just becomes appetizing but is safe for human consumption by making it more digestible for human system. For cooking, various medium is used which does not even makes cooking possible but adds nutritive value. Some of the cooking or baking needs food to be raised to make it porous and softer for eating, which is done through various raising agents and leavening agent‘s i.e. yeast, baking powder, whisking, etc. In cooking some of the dish needs thickening of the gravy which gives consistency, and makes it palatable. To enhance the taste of the dish sweetening is added for giving it flavor, color and above all for preservation. Salt is also a more important cooking material for improving flavor, control fermentation, color retention, for preserving and above all for good health. Last but not the least, the flavoring & seasoning through various herbs & spices brings out the natural flavors of main ingredient, helps in digestion, used for medicinal purposes and of course for improving appearance. Food preparation often involves the combining and mixing of different food or food material. The combining and mixing methods such as beating, blending, creaming, kneading, whipping, whisking, folding, marinating and stirring. Cooking is the process of preparing food by use of heat. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the world, reflecting unique environmental, economic, and cultural traditions. Cooks themselves also vary widely in skill and training. Cooking can also occur through chemical reactions without the presence of heat. Preparing food with heat or fire is an activity unique to humans, and some scientists believe the advent of cooking played an important role in human evolution. Most anthropologists believe that cooking fires first developed around 250,000 years ago. The development of agriculture, commerce and transportation between civilizations in different regions offered cooks many new ingredients. New inventions and technologies, such as pottery for holding and boiling water, expanded cooking techniques. Some modern cooks apply advanced scientific techniques to food preparation 1.13 KEY WORDS Unpalatable - Inedible, Indigestible. Facilitate - make easy, smooth the progress of. Hasten - Speed up, accelerate. Margarine - Butter with less fat, cooking oil Porous - spongy, absorbent Enhance - improve, add to, boost Medicinal - medical, curative Incorporation – Integration, merger, absorption Friction - rubbing, abrasion Manipulating- control, maneuver, operate Coating - outside layer, shell, covering Immersing – dip, submerge Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 17
  18. 18. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Scum – froth, foam, crust Coagulation - to group together as a mass, 1.14 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What are the aims and objectives of cooking? 2. Discuss the advantages of cooking? 3. Explain the different Foundation ingredients? 4. What are the uses of Fats and Oils? 5. Mention the types of raising agents and their uses? 6. Write about Salt and Sweetening in food preparation? 7. Write in short about thickening agents, Flavors & seasoning? 8. What are the different methods of mixing foods? 9. Mention the various methods of cooking? 10. Difference between deep frying & shallow frying? 11. Difference between Baking & Roasting? 12. Discuss the dry heat methods of cooking? 1.15 REFERENCES 1. Thangam E. Philip- Modern cookery Vol.-I from Orient Longman. 2. Krishna Arora - Theory of Cookery from Frank Bros & Co. 3. Auguste Escoffer – The complete guide to the art of Modern cookery, from Heineman. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 18
  19. 19. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester UNIT-2 STOCK AND SAUCES CONTENTS 2.0 Objectives 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Meaning & uses 2.3 Types of Stock 2.3.1 White Stock 2.3.2 Brown Stock 2.3.3 Remouillage 2.3.4 Broth (Bouillon) 2.3.5 Fumet (Essence) 2.3.6 Estouffade 2.3.7 Court Bouillon 2.4 Uses of Stock 2.5 Basic Preparation Method 2.6 Sauces 2.7 Thickening agents used in Sauces 2.8 Role of Sauces 2.9 Mother Sauces 2.9.1 Bechamel Sauce 2.9.2 Espagnole Sauce 2.9.3 Veloute Sauce 2.9.4 Hollandise sauce 2.9.5 Tomato Sauce 2.9.6 Mayonnaise sauce 2.10 Derivatives of Mother Sauces 2.11 Lesson Summary 2.12 Key Words 2.13 Questions to Solve 2.14 References 2.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘Stock categories, types and uses ◘Stock - basic preparation method & preparation of stocks ◘ Sauces and their importance ◘Thickening agents used in sauces ◘ Mother Sauces & preparation methods 2.1 INTRODUCTION Stocks form the basis of most sauces and soups. Stock is a broth liquid containing the juices of meat, bones or vegetables that have been extracted by long, slow cooking. Stocks are the foundation for many soup recipes, and are a wonderful way to use leftover meats and vegetables. Flavor, body and clarity are the characteristics of a good stock and of the three; flavor is the most important. To get a good flavor a high proportion of ingredients to water is Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 19
  20. 20. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester used. The most flavorful stock is achieved by just covering the bones, shell, or vegetables with water. Chicken and Vegetable stocks are the easiest to prepare and are the mildest in flavor and have become one of the most popular stocks. The word "sauce" is a French word that means a relish to make our food more appetizing. Sauces are liquid or semi-liquid foods devised to make other foods look, smell, and taste better, and hence be more easily digested and more beneficial. Because of the lack of refrigeration in the early days of cooking, meat, poultry, fish, and seafood didn't last long. Sauces and gravies were used to mask the flavor of tainted foods. Sauces are one of the fundamentals of cooking. 2.2 MEANING, USES Stocks are nutritious strongly flavored liquid. They are important foundation liquid that are used in the preparation of various dishes such as soups, sauces, gravies, stews, curries, rice etc. The flavors and soluble nutrients of meats, herbs and vegetables are extracted by prolonged and gentle simmering. This usually takes between six and eight hours. The exception to this rule is fish stock, which only takes 20 minutes. There are two basic methods of making meat stocks either white stocks or brown stock. The meat used to flavor the stock will depend on what the final stock is to be used for. Brown beef stock would be used for brown beef stews as white lamb stock would be used for white lamb stews. Not all meats are used for stocks. 2.3 TYPES OF STOCK Stocks are flavorful liquids produced by simmering bones, meat trimmings, vegetables and other aromatic ingredients in water. Stocks are further categorized as white stock or brown stock, both of which are discussed below. They are used as the foundation for soups, stews and sauces. They are not served "as is", however. Categories and Types of Stocks 2.3.1 White Stock - it is made from the meaty bones and trims from veal, beef, poultry, some types of game, and fish. The bones are frequently blanched in order to remove any impurities that might cloud or discolor the finished stock. Ordinary white stock is classically prepared from veal meat and bones, with the addition of poultry carcasses. A white beef stock (sometimes referred to as a "neutral stock") is often prepared by first simmering the stock at higher temperature than would be used for most stocks for several minutes. The aim is to produce a stock with a nearly neutral flavor. It is often flavored for use in vegetable soups or bean dishes. White beef stock can contribute a significant body to these dishes, while still allowing the flavor of the major ingredient to predominate. 2.3.2 Brown Stock - one of the most commonly called-for stocks in the classic and contemporary repertoire of any kitchen is likely to be brown veal stock (fond de veau brun). Brown stocks are prepared by first cooking meaty bones and meat trim to a deep Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 20
  21. 21. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester brown color, as well as the mirepoix and a tomato product, before they are simmered. This changes both the flavor and color of the finished stock. Brown stocks are especially valuable in sauce cookery, as they are used as the foundation for brown sauce, demiglace and pan gravies. 2.3.3 Remouillage - the word translates as a "rewetting", which is a good way to think of the way that remouillage is made. Bones used to prepare a "primary stock" are reserved after the first stock is strained away from the bones. The bones are then covered with water, and a "secondary stock" is prepared. Some chefs argue that, if the first stock was made properly and simmered for the correct amount of time, there will be little if anything left in the bones to provide either flavor or body in the remouillage. Others feel that this second generation of stock can be used as the basis for other broths or as the cooking liquid for braises and stews. The food being prepared will provide the majority of the flavor in the finished sauce, and a first-rate stock can be reserved for use in dishes where its role is more significant. 2.3.4 Broth (or Bouillon) - it shares many similarities with stocks. They are prepared in essentially the same fashion. Meaty bones (or in some cases, the entire cut of meat, bird or fish) are simmered in water (or remouillage or a prepared stock) along with a variety of vegetables and other aromatic ingredients. Many meatless dishes are prepared with a vegetable broth. Some chefs may refer to this preparation as a vegetable stock. Those stocks made from meat or fish bones will reach a state of clarity and body through the extraction of proteins found in bones and meat. Vegetable broths vary greatly in the degree of body and clarity that they may achieve. 2.3.5 Fumet (or Essence) - the most common fumet is one prepared by sweating fish bones along with vegetables such as leeks, mushrooms and celery, then simmering these ingredients in water, perhaps with the addition of a dry white wine. The end result is generally not as clear as a stock, but it is highly flavored. Fumets and essences can be prepared from such ingredients as wild mushrooms, tomato, celery or celery root, ginger and so forth. These essences, nothing more than highly flavored infusions made from especially aromatic ingredients, can be used to introduce flavor to other preparations, such as consommés or broths and a variety of "small sauces". 2.3.6 Estouffade - the classic formula for estouffade set down by Escoffier is virtually identical to what was then known as a brown stock. There are some differences to note, however. Estouffade is prepared by simmering together browed meaty veal bones, a piece of fresh or cured pork, and the requisite vegetables and other aromatics. Contemporary kitchens tend to prepare a brown stock that does not include pork. Today, estouffade is less widely used as a basic preparation, although it is still regarded as a classic preparation. 2.3.7 Court Bouillon - a "short broth" is often prepared as the cooking liquid for fish or vegetables. The basic components of a court bouillon include aromatic vegetables and herbs, an acid such as vinegar, wine or lemon juice, and water. A court bouillon may be prepared as part of the cooking process or it may be prepared in large batches and used as required, in much the same manner as stocks and broths are prepared. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 21
  22. 22. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 2.4 USES OF STOCK The three major uses of Stock are: ● As base for Sauces & Soups. ● As base for Stews & Braises. ● As a cooking medium for Vegetables & Grains. 2.5 BASIC PREPARATION METHOD General rules about the preparation and cooking of stocks: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Always use fresh bones and vegetables Never use unsound meat or bones or rotten vegetables Fats and scum should be skimmed as soon as they form the stock an unpleasant flavor and greasy taste. Stock should always simmer gently Salt should never be added to stock as it will become too concentrated through the prolonged cooking process and spoil the flavor. Stock for storage should be strained, re boiled, rapidly cooled then placed in a refrigerator until required. Bouquet- garni should be removed 2.6 SAUCES A sauce is a liquid accompaniment, which goes with a dish. A basic sauce is made from a liquid (stock/milk) and a thickening agent sauces has a keen sense of small, delicate sense of taste, colorful appearance, velvet texture and has a definite taste. It has a natural flavor. 2.7 THICKENING AGENTS USED IN SAUCES 1. Corn flour It is diluted in water and added to a boiling stock for thickening purpose. 2. Beurre Manie This is prepared by equal quantities of butter and flour kneaded to a smooth paste and mixed into a boiling liquid. 3. Blood Blood is used for game cooking, it also gives particular flavor, and e.g. it is used in jugged hare 4. Egg yolks The eggs yolks are whisked to the ribbon stage. 5. Glazes Fish or meat glazer can be made into sauces by adding butter or cream. 6. Roux Made with butter and flour 7. Vegetable or fruit purees A vegetable or fruit purees are known as caulis. 8. Meat/poultry Usually used as small dices or juliennes. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 22
  23. 23. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 2.8 ROLE OF SAUCES 1. It enhance flavor 2. It gives color 3. It helps in digestion 4. It moisten dry food 5. It enhance nutritional value 6. It lend a name to dish 7. It gives a balanced taste 8. It is served as an accompaniment. 2.9 MOTHER SAUCE Sauces are liquid or semi-liquid mixtures. A keen sense of smell, delicate sense of taste, a light, strong hand for the blending – all contribute to a perfect sauce. A perfect sauce has a colorful appearance, is glowing in its rich smoothness, and has a velvety texture, a definite taste and a natural flavor. It complements the food it accompanies, rather than mask its taste. It provides moisture, color, and shine to food In the early 19th century, the chef Antonin Carême created an extensive list of sauces, many of which were original recipes. It is unknown how many sauces Carême is responsible for, but it was estimated to be in the hundreds. In the late 19th century, and early 20th century, the chef Auguste Escoffier consolidated Carême's list to five mother sauces. They are: Sauce Béchamel, milk based sauce, thickened with a white roux. Sauce Espagnole, a fortified brown veal stock sauce. Sauce Velouté, white stock based sauce, thickened with a roux or a liaison. Sauce Hollandaise, an emulsion of egg yolk, butter and lemon or vinegar. Sauce Tomate, tomato based sauce. 2.9.1 Béchamel sauce, also known as white sauce, is one of the mother sauces of French cuisine and is used in many recipes of Italian cuisine, for example lasagne. It is used as the base for other sauces. Béchamel sauce is the base for a number of other classic sauces with additional ingredients added including: Mornay sauce (cheese) Nantua sauce (crayfish, butter and cream) Crème sauce (heavy cream) Mustard sauce (prepared mustard seed) Soubise sauce (finely diced onions that have been sweated in butter) Cheddar cheese sauce (Cheddar cheese, dry mustard, Worcestershire sauce) 2.9.2 Espagnole sauce is one of the mother sauces that are the basis of sauce-making in classic French cooking. In the late 19th century, Auguste Escoffier codified the recipe, which is still followed today. Espagnole has a strong taste and is rarely used directly on food. As a mother sauce, however, it serves as the starting point for many derivatives, such as Sauce Africaine, Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 23
  24. 24. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Sauce Bigarade, Sauce Bourguignonne, Sauce aux Champignons, Sauce Charcutière, Sauce Chasseur, Sauce Chevreuil and Demi-glace. There are hundreds of other derivatives in the classical French repertoire. The basic method of making Espagnole is to prepare a very dark brown roux, to which veal stock or water is added, along with browned bones, pieces of beef, vegetables, and various seasonings. This blend is allowed to slowly reduce while being frequently skimmed. The classical recipe calls for additional veal stock to be added as the liquid gradually reduces but today water is generally used instead. Tomato paste or pureed tomatoes are added towards the end of the process, and the sauce is further reduced. 2.9.3 A velouté sauce, along with Tomato, Hollandaise, Béchamel, and Espagnole, is one of the sauces of French cuisine that were designated the five "mother sauces" by August Escoffier in the 19th century, which was a simplification of the "Sauce Carême" list of Marie-Antoine Carême. The term velouté is from the French adjectival form of velour, meaning velvety. In preparing a velouté sauce, a light stock (one in which the bones used have not been previously roasted), such as chicken, veal or fish stock, is thickened with a blond roux. Thus the ingredients of a velouté are equal parts by mass butter and flour to form the roux, a light chicken, veal, or fish stock, and salt and pepper for seasoning. Commonly the sauce produced will be referred to by the type of stock used e.g. chicken velouté Sauce velouté is often served on poultry or seafood dishes, and is used as the base for other sauces. Sauces derived from a velouté sauce include: Sauce Vin Blanc: By adding white wine and heavy cream to fish velouté. Allemande sauce: By adding a few drops of lemon juice, egg yolks, and cream Bercy: Shallots, white wine, lemon juice and parsley added to a fish velouté Poulette: Mushrooms finished with chopped parsley and lemon juice Aurore: Tomato purée Hungarian: Onion, paprika, white wine Sauce ravigote: The addition of a little lemon or white wine vinegar creates a lightly acidic velouté that is traditionally flavored with onions and shallots, and more recently with mustard. Normandy: Mushroom cooking liquid and oyster liquid or fish fumet added to fish velouté, finished with a liaison of egg yolks and cream Suprême sauce: By adding a reduction of mushroom liquor (produced in cooking) and cream to a chicken velouté 2.9.4 Hollandaise sauce: is an emulsion of lemon juice and butter, by way of egg yolk. In appearance it is light yellow and opaque, smooth and creamy. The flavor is rich and buttery, with a mild tang added by the lemon juice, yet not so strong as to overpower mildly-flavored foods. Hollandaise is one of the five sauces in the French haute cuisine mother sauce repertoire. It is considered notoriously difficult to make, because yolks tend to scramble when Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 24
  25. 25. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester heated. It is so named because it was believed to have mimicked a Dutch sauce for the state visit to France of the King of the Netherlands. Hollandaise sauce is well known as a key ingredient of eggs Benedict, and is often paired with vegetables such as steamed asparagus. Being a mother sauce, Hollandaise sauce is the foundation for many derivatives created by adding or changing ingredients. The following is a non-exhaustive listing of such minor sauces. The most common derivative is Sauce Béarnaise. It can be produced by replacing the acidifying agent (vinegar reduction or lemon juice) in a preparation with a strained reduction of vinegar, shallots, fresh chervil, fresh tarragon and (if to taste) crushed peppercorns. Alternatively, the flavorings may be added to a standard Hollandaise. Béarnaise and its children are often used on steak or other "assertive" grilled meats and fish. o Sauce Choron is a variation of béarnaise without tarragon or chervil, plus added tomato purée. o Sauce Foyot (a.k.a. Valois) is béarnaise with meat glaze (Glace de Viande) added. o Sauce Colbert is Sauce Foyot with the addition of reduced white wine. o Sauce Paloise is a version of béarnaise with mint substituted for tarragon. Sauce au Vin Blanc (for fish) is produced by adding a reduction of white wine and fish stock to hollandaise. Sauce Bavaroise is hollandaise with added cream, horseradish, and thyme. Sauce Crème Fleurette is hollandaise with crème fraîche added. Sauce Dijon, also known as Sauce Moutarde or Sauce Girondine, is hollandaise with Dijon mustard. 2.9.5 A tomato sauce is the same as marinara sauce. Tomato sauce is any of a very large number of sauces made primarily from tomatoes, usually to be served as part of a dish (rather than as a condiment). Tomato sauces are common for meat and vegetables, but they are perhaps best known as sauces for pasta dishes. Tomatoes have a rich flavor, high liquid content, very soft flesh which breaks down easily, and the right composition to thicken into a sauce when they are cooked (without the need of thickeners like roux). All of these qualities make them ideal for simple and appealing sauces. The simplest tomato sauces consist just of chopped tomato flesh (with the skins and seeds optionally removed), cooked in a little olive oil and simmered until it loses its raw flavor, and seasoned with salt. 2.9.6 Mayonnaise Sauce, abbreviated as mayo, is a food spread. It is a stable emulsion of oil, egg yolk and either vinegar or lemon juice, with many options for embellishment with other herbs and spices. Lecithin in the egg yolk is the emulsifier. Mayonnaise varies in color but is often white, cream, or pale yellow. It may range in texture from that of light cream to thick. In countries influenced by French culture, mustard is also a common ingredient. In Spain and Italy, olive oil is used as the oil and mustard is never included. Numerous other sauces can be created from it with addition of various herbs, spices, and finely chopped pickles. Where mustard is used, it is also an emulsifier. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 25
  26. 26. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 2.10 DERIVATIVES OF MOTHER SAUCES White sauce Espagnole Veloute Mornay Demi glace Fish Chicken Meat Cheese Madere Normande Allemande Supreme Cream Diable Vin Aurore Chivry Scotch egg Robert Diplomat Poulette Ivory Mustard Chaud froid Shrimp Fine herbs Riche Parsley Lyonnaise Joinville Caper Chaudfroid Soubise Piquante Curry Ravigote Anchovy Bercy Onion sauce Basic sauces and their derivatives Hollandaise sauce Tomato sauce Mayonnaise sauce Bearbause Barbecue Combridge Noisette Italienne Gloucester Mustard Chaud Froid Remoulade Maltaise Milanaise Tartare Foyot Tomated Vincent Choron Bretonne Cocktail Rachel Portugaise Thousand island Grimod Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 26
  27. 27. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 2.11 LESSON SUMMARY Stock is a flavored liquid made by gently simmering bones or vegetables in a liquid to extract their flavor, aroma, color and nutritive value. Stocks are the foundation for many soup recipes, and are efficient & economic way to use leftover meat and vegetables. Stocks are used as base for sauces and soups, as base for stews & braises and as a cooking medium for vegetables and grains. A good stock is evaluated by flavor, aroma color, and clarity. The preparation of stocks calls for understanding, care, and astute taste. Long, slow simmering of food and cold water used for stock (except for fish stock) is required to draw out the flavor and nutrients into liquid. The six mother sauces are Béchamel sauce that is made of milk and pale roux. Common sauces in this group include crème, Mornay and soubise. Espagnole sauces that are brown stock based, such as brown sauces. Common sauces in this group include bordelaise, chasseur, lyonnaise, etc. Mayonnaise sauce is made by combining lemon juice or vinegar with egg yolks & then adding oil drop by drop as the mixture is rapidly whisked, common sauces in this category are Remoulade, Gloucester, Tartare, Cocktail Combridge. Tomato sauce is tomato based sauces; common sauces in this category include spaghetti sauce, marinara & a wide variety of tomato sauces. Veloute sauces are made with white stock and roux. Common sauces in this category include allemande, ravigote, supreme, & white bordelaise. Hollandaise sauce is an emulsion of butter & lemon juice using egg yolks as the emulsifying agents, usually seasoned with salt or cayenne pepper. Common sauces in this category include Mustard, Rachel, Foyot, Grimod, and Maltaise. 2.12 KEY WORDS Nutritious - nourishing, wholesome, healthy Contemporary - present-day, current, existing Repertoire – range, collection, collection Carcasses – remains, skeleton, shell Aromatic - sweet-smelling, perfumed Mirepoix- A mirepoix can be a combination of celery (either common pascal celery or celeriac), onions, and carrots. There are a lot of regional mirepoix variations. Demi-glace- It is a rich brown sauce in French cuisine used by itself or as a base for other sauces. Scum- a film or layer of foul or extraneous matter that forms on the surface of a liquid. Blending – combination, joining together, unification Velvety – smooth, soft, like velvet Strainer – sieve, colander, filter. Sauté – cook, stir fry, fry up Consistency – constancy, evenness, uniformity Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 27
  28. 28. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 2.13 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What is a stock, and discuss its uses? 2. What are the different types of stock? 3. What is the role of stock in food preparation? 4. What are the different ingredients for preparing various stocks? 5. List six major mother sauces? 6. Name the derivatives of Béchamel sauce? 7. Mention the derivatives of Espagnole sauce? 8. What are the derivatives of Mayonnaise sauce? 9. Name the derivatives of Tomato sauce? 10. Name the derivatives of Veloute sauce? 11. Name the derivatives Hollandaise sauce? 2.14 REFERENCES 1. Thangam E. Philip- Modern cookery Vol.-I from Orient Longman. 2. Krishna Arora - Theory of Cookery from Frank Bros & Co. 3. Auguste Escoffer – The complete guide to the art of Modern cookery, from Heineman 4. Petersons James, Sauces, John Wiley & sons 5. Mc Gee Harold, On Food and Cooking, Macmillan Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 28
  29. 29. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester UNIT-3 SALAMI, SAUSAGES CONTENTS 3.0 Objectives 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Meaning of Salami, Ingredients of Salami 3.3 Manufacturing of Salami 3.4 Varieties of Salami 3.5 Sausages 3.6 Types of Sausages 3.6.1 Cooked Sausages 3.6.2 Cooked Smoked Sausages 3.6.3 Fresh Sausages 3.6.4 Fresh Smoked Sausages 3.6.5 Dry Sausages 3.7 Lesson Summary 3.8 Key Words 3.9 Questions to Solve 3.10 References 3.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘ Sausages ◘ Types of sausage ◘ Salami ◘ Salami ingredients and manufacturing process ◘ Varieties of salami 3.1 INTRODUCTION The word sausage originally comes from the Latin word salsus, which means salted or preserved. In the olden days people did not have refrigeration to preserve their meat and so making sausage was a way of overcoming this problem. Sausage making evolved as an effort to economize and preserve meat that could not be consumed fresh at slaughter. In sausage making, quality standards are maintained while using most parts of the animal carcass. Salami is a cured sausage, fermented and air-dried. Salami may refer specifically to a class of salumi (the Italian tradition of cured meats), where an individual sausage or style of sausage (e.g. Genoa) would be referred to with the singular Italian form salame. Alternatively, in general English usage, salami may be singular or plural and refer to a generic style or to various specific regional styles from Italy or elsewhere, such as France or Germany. The name comes from the Latin/Italian root sal-, meaning 'salt'. 3.2 MEANING OF SALAMI, INGREDIENTS OF SALAMI Salami is cured sausage, fermented and air-dried meat, originating from one of a variety of animals. Historically, salami has been popular among Southern European peasants because it can be stored at room Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 29
  30. 30. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester temperature for periods of up to 10 years, supplementing a possibly meager or inconsistent supply of fresh meat. Varieties of salami are traditionally made in Italy, France, Hungary, Germany, Spain, Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Greece, Romania, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Poland and Turkey The word originates from the word Sale (salt) with a termination -ame used in Italian as an indicator of collective nouns; the original meaning was thus all kind of salted (meats). The Italian tradition of cured meats including several styles, the word salame soon specialized to indicate only the most popular kind, made with ground, salted and spiced meat forced into animal gut with an elongated and thin shape, then left to undergo some kind of fermentation process A traditional salame, with its typical marbled appearance, is made from one or more of the following meats: Pork, or less commonly, especially in Kosher and Halal salami, beef (particularly veal), venison, poultry (mostly turkey because of dietary limitations, but also goose salami is traditional in some areas of Northern Italy), and horse, also swordfish and sometimes shark in southern parts of Japan. Additional ingredients may include: salt spices, usually white pepper garlic minced fat wine various herbs vinegar The raw meat mixture is usually allowed to ferment for a day, then the mixture is either stuffed into an edible natural or inedible cellulose casing and hung to cure. Heat treatment to about 104°F (40 °C) may be used to accelerate further fermentation and start the drying process. Higher temperatures (about 140°F (60 °C)) are used to stop the fermentation when the desired pH is reached, but the product is not fully cooked (167°F (75 °C) or higher). The casings are often treated with an edible mold (Penicillium) culture as well. The mold is desired as it imparts flavor and prevents spoilage during the curing process. 3.3 MANUFACTURING OF SALAMI, Though completely uncooked, salami is not "raw" per se; they have been prepared via curing. The term salame cotto refers to salami cooked or smoked before or after curing and it is typical of Piedmont region in Italy. This is done to impart a specific flavor but not to cook the meat. Before curing, a cotto salame is still considered raw and is not ready to be eaten. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 30
  31. 31. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Salami is cured in warm, humid conditions to encourage growth of the bacteria involved in the fermentation process. Sugars (usually dextrose) are added as a food source for the bacteria during the curing process, although it tends not to be added to horse meat because of the latter's naturally high levels of glycogen. Lactic acid is produced by the bacteria as a waste product, lowering the pH and coagulating and lowering the waterholding capacity of the meat. The acid produced by the bacteria makes the meat an inhospitable environment for other, pathogenic bacteria and imparts a tangy flavor that distinguishes salami from machine-dried pork. The flavor of salami relies just as much on how these bacteria are cultivated as it does on quality and variety of other ingredients. Originally, the bacteria were introduced into the meat mixture with wine, which contains other types of beneficial bacteria; now, starter cultures are used. The whole process takes about 36 weeks, although some age it more for additional taste and some can cut it down to about 24 weeks for a sweeter taste. The drying and curing process is determined by the climate of the curing environment and the size and style of casing. After fermentation, the sausage has to be dried. This changes the casings from being water-permeable to being reasonably airtight. A white covering of either mold or flour helps prevent the photo-oxidation of the meat and rancidity in the fat. Nitrates or nitrites are added to provide the cured meat color and inhibit growth of harmful bacteria from the genus Clostridium. Salt, acidity, nitrate/nitrite levels and dryness of the fully cured salami combine to make the uncooked meat safe to consume. It is important that high quality, fresh ingredients are used; otherwise, deadly microorganisms and toxins can develop. 3.4 VARIETIES OF SALAMI Varieties of salami include: Cacciatore (Cacciatora, Cacciatorini) "Hunter" salami. Italy. Spegepølse (Danish, means salted and dried sausage) Milanese Genovese Fegatelli Felino, Province of Parma Finocchiona, typical of southern Tuscany Pepperoni Sopressata, typical of Calabria Ciauscolo, typical of Marche Nduja Saucisson sec (French "dry sausage") Winter salami (Hungarian Téli Szalámi) German Salami Kulen spicy salami characteristic of Balkans and parts of Hungary Chorizo also spicy Iberian variant Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 31
  32. 32. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 3.5 SAUSAGES The word sausage originally comes from the Latin word salsus, which means salted or preserved. In the days of old people did not have refrigeration to preserve their meat and so making sausage was a way of overcoming this problem. Dry sausage was born as a result of the discovery of new spices, which helped to enhance, flavor and preserve the meat. Different countries and different cities within those countries started producing their own distinctive types of sausage, both fresh and dry. These different types of sausage were mostly influenced by the availability of ingredients as well as the climate. Some parts of the world with periods of cold climate, such as northern Europe were able to keep their fresh sausage without refrigeration, during the cold months. They also developed a process of smoking the sausage to help preserve the meat during the warmer months. The hotter climates in the south of Europe developed dry sausage, which did not need refrigeration at all. Basically people living in particular areas developed their own types of sausage and that sausage became associated with the area. For example Bologna originated in the town of Bologna in Northern Italy, Lyons sausage from Lyons in France and Berliner sausage from Berlin in Germany. 3.6 TYPES OF SAUSAGES 3.6.1 Cooked Sausage - Made with fresh meats and then fully cooked. The sausage is either eaten immediately after cooking or must be refrigerated and is usually reheated before eating. Examples include Braunschweiger, Veal sausage and Liver sausage. 3.6.2 Cooked Smoked Sausage- Much the same as cooked sausage, but it is cooked and then smoked, or smoke-cooked. It can be eaten hot or cold, but is stored in the refrigerator. Examples include Wieners, Kielbasa and Bologna. 3.6.3 Fresh Sausage- Made from meats that have not been previously cured. This sausage must be refrigerated and thoroughly cooked before eating. Examples include Boerewors, Italian Pork sausage and Fresh Beef sausage. 3.6.4 Fresh Smoked Sausage- This is fresh sausage that is smoked. After smoking, the sausage can then be refrigerated and cooked thoroughly before eating. Examples include Mettwurst and Roumanian sausage. 3.6.5 Dry Sausage- Made from selected meats. These are the most complicated of all sausages to make, as the drying process has to be carefully controlled. Once produced this type of sausage can be readily eaten, and will keep for very long periods under refrigeration. Examples include Salami‘s and summer sausage. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 32
  33. 33. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 3.7 LESSON SUMMARY The word salami is a cured (fermented and air dried) sausage of Italaian tradition. The name comes from the Italian verb salame, meaning to salt. Traditional salami is made from a mixture which may include the following: chopped beef, pork, donkey, wine (not always) salt and various herbs and spices. The word sausage originally comes from the Latin word salsus, which means salted or preserved. In the olden days people did not have refrigeration to preserve their meat and so making sausage was a way of overcoming this problem. 3.8 KEY WORDS Meager - not enough, too little, insufficient Elongated - stretched out, lengthened, extended Tangy – pungent, spicy, flavorful 3.9 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What is Salami? 2. What are the Ingredients to make salami? 3. Explain the Manufacturing process of Salami? 4. Name the different varieties of Salami? 5. What is a sausage? 6. What are the different types of Sausage? 7. What prompted Salami & sausage making? 3.10 REFERENCES 1. Jessica Souhami , Sausages, Frances Lincoln Ltd. 2. Campbell- Platt.G and Cook.P, Fermented Meats, Blackie Academic and Professional, Glasgow. 3. Thangam E. Philip- Modern cookery Vol.-I from Orient Longman Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 33
  34. 34. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester UNIT- 4 COMMODITIES CONTENTS 4.0 Objectives 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Cereals 4.3 Types of Cereals 4.4 Pulses 4.5 Types of Pulses 4.6 Yoghurt 4.7 Varieties of Yoghurt 4.8 Cream 4.9 Types of Cream 4.10 Lesson Summary 4.11 Key Words 4.12 Questions to Solve 4.13 References 4.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘ Cereals and their varieties ◘ Pulses and their varieties ◘ Yoghurts and its varieties ◘ Creams and type of cream ◘ Storage of creams 4.1 INTRODUCTION Staple foods are those which are eaten regularly as part of the daily diet and nearly always include cereals and / or pulses. Rice, for example, is widely consumed in Asia, whereas beans, maize, cassava, potato, banana, etc. are more popular stable food in many African, Latin American and Caribbean countries. Pulses are considered as poor man‘s meat due to their high protein content ranging from 20 to 40% and this makes them important in human food from nutrition point of view. Both cereals and pulses are nutritionally important since they usually provide the bulk of the diet and energy needs. They are also relatively cheap sources of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals. Although there are no records available regarding the origin of yoghurt, the belief in its beneficial influence on human health and nutrition existed in many civilizations over a long period of time. Cream is also a dairy product that is composed of the higher butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. In un-homogenized milk, over time, the lighter fat rises to the top. In the industrial production of cream this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called "separators". In many countries, cream is sold in Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 34
  35. 35. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester several grades depending on total butterfat content. Cream can be dried to a powder for shipment to distant markets. 4.2 CEREALS Cereals are grasses (members of the monocot family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae) cultivated for the edible components of their grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis), composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran. Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop; they are therefore staple crops. In their natural form (as in whole grain), they are a rich source of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, oils, and protein. However, when refined by the removal of the bran and germ, the remaining endosperm is mostly carbohydrate and lacks the majority of the other nutrients. In some developing nations, grain in the form of rice, wheat, millet, or maize constitutes a majority of daily sustenance. In developed nations, cereal consumption is moderate and varied but still substantial. The word cereal derives from Ceres, the name of the Roman goddess of harvest and agriculture. 4.3 TYPES OF CEREALS. RICE Unpolished Brown Polished Rice rice Botanical name: Oryza sativa (There are more than 8000 different types of rice). Rice is a staple food for large part of the worlds' population especially Latin American, East, South and South-Eastern Asia and is the second most consumed cereal grain second to only maize. Nutritional values: The chief consumption of rice is as a food substance, but it should never be forgotten that the large and continued consumption of the white, polished rice is likely to be injurious to the health. The nations of which rice is the staple diet eat it unpolished as a rule, when it is brownish and less attractive to the eye, but much more nutritious as well as cheaper. Having no laxative qualities, rice forms a light and digestible food for those in whom there is any tendency to diarrhea or dysentery, but it contains less potash and vegetable acids than potatoes. Brown rice is rich in vitamins B1, B2, B3 and B6, as well as manganese, iron, selenium, magnesium, phosphorus and trace minerals. Also, brown rice is a source of good quality proteins (in terms of amino acid quantity) and gamma-oryzanol (an extract of rice bran oil that has been used to treat digestive, menopausal and cholesterol problems) Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 35
  36. 36. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Health benefits: Comparable to whole wheat, brown rice is quite nutritious as far as calories, vitamins and minerals are concerned. Protein 8.6% and, Fibre content 3.5% WHEAT -Botanical name: Triticum aesativum Nutritional values: Please note that wheat products such as pasta, noodles, breads, and biscuits use flour that undergoes a process in which 60% of wheat grain is removed. Of this 60% lost are the most nutritious aspects of the wheat : the bran and the germ and as a result more than 50% of the B vitamins, folic acid, zinc, copper, phosphorous, calcium and iron are removed! Whole meal wheat supplies the following nutrition: Good supply of dietary fibre and manganese, Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6 and E and folic acid plus calcium, phosphorus, zinc, copper, protein, magnesium, manganese and iron. Wheat germ is the vitamin and mineral rich embryo of the wheat kernel that is removed during the refining process to make the "white" wheat flour. 4.4 PULSES A pulse is an annual leguminous crop yielding from one to twelve seeds of variable size, shape, and color within a pod. Pulses are used for food and animal feed. Archaeologists have discovered traces of pulse production around Ravi River (Punjab), the seat of the Indus Valley civilization, dating around 3300 BC. Meanwhile, evidence of lentil cultivation has also been found in Egyptian pyramids and dry pea seeds have been discovered in a Swiss village that are believed to date back to the Stone Age. Archaeological evidence suggests that these peas must have been grown in the eastern Mediterranean and Mesopotamia regions at least 5,000 years ago and in Britain as early as the 11th century. The term "pulse", as used by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), is reserved for crops harvested solely for the dry seed. This excludes green beans and green peas, which are considered vegetable crops. Also excluded are crops that are mainly grown for oil extraction (oilseeds like soybeans and peanuts), and crops which are used exclusively for sowing (clovers, alfalfa). However, in common use these distinctions are not clearly made, and many of the varieties so classified and given below are also used as vegetables, with their beans in pods while young cooked in whole cuisines and sold for the purpose; for example black eyed beans, lima beans and Toor or pigeon peas are thus eaten as fresh green beans cooked as part of a meal. Pulses are important food crops due to their high protein and essential amino acid content. Like many leguminous crops, pulses play a key role in crop rotation due to their ability to fix nitrogen Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 36
  37. 37. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 4.5 TYPES OF PULSES Mysore dhal Green gram Toor dhal Bengal gram Pulses grams and beans are leguminous crops providing various kind of grains used for food and animal feed. They play a role in crop rotation due to their ability to fix nitrogen in the soil. They are important food crops due to their high protein and essential amino acids content. They are the most important source of vegetable protein in almost all countries. Their use ranges from baby food to delicacies of the rich and poor. These include varieties of lentils, varieties of grams and varieties of beans. In the lentils group we have yellow lentils (Mysore dhal), green gram (Pasi payaru) and toor dhal. Lentils are low in fat and high in protein and fibre. They also contain folate, vitamin B1 and minerals. Lentils are one of the best sources of iron. They also cook easily. Almost every home will have some kind of lentils cooked for their main meal. Usually it is either yellow lentils or green gram. Toor dhal is used as an ingredient in sambar dishes and also as curry dish. In some homes invariably lentils may be the only curry made to eat the rice with. Lentils also go with other food like bread etc. Also they are used in the making of short eats or snacks (Payatham paniyaram). Lentils contain 20 to 25 percent by weight protein and due to this reason they are sometimes called poor man's protein. Not only the lentils contain much protein, the digestibility of that protein is also high. The lentils are the most important source of protein and iron to the vegetarians. These are available in plenty throughout the world. In the grams varieties, black gram is extensively used in dishes like Dosa, Idli and vadai. Also it is an ingredient of papad. Bengal gram and channa dhal are used in the making of snacks. Bengal gram as well as channa dhal are very nutritious and is recommended for diabetics as other pulses. These grams have no effect on blood glucose levels and this is important for diabetics and to other people as well. Chick peas are nutty flavored pulse packed with vitamins, protein and minerals and soluble fibre which reduces the cholesterol levels. They are used to make curries with and sometimes they are soaked in water and deep fried and eaten as a snack. They are a source of zinc, folate and protein. They are also very high dietary fibre and is a source of carbohydrates for diabetics. They contain 64% carbohydrates, 23% protein, 5% fat and fibre. In the beans group, the commonest available vegetable is long beans. Long beans is a plant that grows very easily in the gardens and after the rains, plant seeds from older crops and they grow very swiftly bearing numerous long beans which are then used for curries. This is a crop that is locally cultivated too. Long beans are good source of Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 37
  38. 38. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester protein, Vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, iron, phosphorous, potassium, vitamin C, folate and magnesium. There are other types of beans but long beans are a local produce. Urid dhal Chick Peas Long Beans 4.6 YOGHURT Yogurt or yoghurt is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as "yogurt cultures". Fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and its characteristic tang. Worldwide, cow's milk is most commonly used to make yogurt, but milk from water buffalo, goats, sheep, camels and yaks is also used in various parts of the world. The milk is first heated to about 80 °C (176 °F) to kill any undesirable bacteria and to denature the milk proteins so that they set together rather than form curds. The milk is then cooled to about 45 °C (112 °F). The bacteria culture is added, and the temperature is maintained for 4 to 7 hours to allow fermentation. 4.7 VARIETIES OF YOGHURT Plain Yogurt Plain yogurt is regular yogurt that is made by fermenting pasteurized milk. It does not contain added sugar or flavoring to enhance its flavors. It has a silky and smooth consistency, and is not too thick or custard like. It has a natural tart flavor and it is used in the preparation of many dishes. Fruit Yogurt Fruit yogurt is simply plain yogurt in which one or many types of fruit have been incorporated. Generally fresh and pureed fruits are added to make such yogurt and it is one of the most popular types of yogurt among consumers. But the downside of such fruit flavored yogurt is that it contains high amounts of sugar and calories as compared to regular yogurt, and as such is not an ideal choice of yogurt for people who are watching their weight. Swiss Style or Custard Yogurt This type of yogurt has custard like almost pudding consistency. It is available in both plain and flavored form. To stabilize the consistency of Swiss style yogurt, a stabilizer like gelatin, pectin or agar is used in it. It is also creamier than regular yogurt. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 38
  39. 39. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Frozen Yogurt frozen yogurt is a kind of soft ice cream that is consumed as an alternative to regular ice cream. Because of the freezing process, most of the live and beneficial bacteria in the yogurt are destroyed. Most manufacturers who make frozen yogurt, market it as low fat and low sugar. But you need to check the labels before you buy frozen yogurt as an alternative to ice cream. In most cases, frozen yogurt contains as much sugar and milk fat as regular ice cream. European Style Yogurt European style yogurt is characterized by its smooth and creamy texture. This type of yogurt is made by pouring warm cultured milk in a big vat which is then stirred periodically with a long ladle. This mixture is then poured into cups and consumed. Sometimes fruits and other flavorings are added into the vat of cultured milk to make flavored European style yogurt. Greek Yogurt Greek yogurt is a very thick yogurt that is made by removing the whey from the yogurt by a straining process. It is a very smooth yogurt that has a thicker consistency than plain yogurt and is used in cooking many Mediterranean dishes. Because excess water or moisture is strained from this type of yogurt, Greek yogurt has higher amount of butterfat than plain yogurt. Low-fat Yogurt Low-fat yogurt, which is a favorite among the calorie and health conscious people, is made from skimmed milk or reduced fat milk. Low fat yogurt can be both plain and flavored. It contains around 0.5-2% milk fat compared to 3-5% milk fat contained in regular yogurt. These were the different types of yogurt that are available. Yogurt contains high levels of vitamins, calcium, iodine, and potassium, which are required for the proper functioning of the body. It is also an excellent source of protein. Whichever kind of yogurt you choose, try to incorporate at least three to four servings of yogurt per week in your diet 4.8 CREAM Cream is a dairy product that is composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. In un-homogenized milk, over time, the lighter fat rises to the top. In the industrial production of cream this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called "separators". In many countries, cream is sold in several grades depending on the total butterfat content. Cream can be dried to a powder for shipment to distant markets. Cream skimmed from milk may be called "sweet cream" to distinguish it from whey cream skimmed from whey, a by-product of cheese-making. Whey cream has a lower fat content and tastes more salty, tangy and "cheesy". Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 39
  40. 40. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Cream produced by cattle (particularly Jersey cattle) grazing on natural pasture often contains some natural carotenoid pigments derived from the plants they eat; this gives the cream a slight yellow tone, hence the name of the yellowish-white color, cream. Cream from goat's milk, or from cows fed indoors on grain or grain-based pellets, is white. 4.9 TYPES OF CREAM Types of Cream Type Butterfat Content Uses Half and Half Cream 12% fat (range 10.5-18%) In the United States, half and half is a mix of 1/2 whole milk and ½ cream, typically used as a cream in coffee. Half-and-half does not whip, but it can be used in place of whipping (heavy) cream in many recipes for less fat cooking. Single Cream 20% Cream with a low fat-content, which does not thicken when beaten. Used in both sweet and savory dishes. Also know as light cream. Light Cream 20% fat (range 18-30%) Pretty much the same as half and half. Also know as coffee cream or table cream. Will whip if it contains 30% butterfat but will not be very stable. Generally contains only 20% butterfat. Also know as single cream. Light cream is not available everywhere. 30% Cream with enough butterfat in it to allow it to thicken when whipped. Does not whip as well as heavy cream but works well for toppings and fillings. Almost all whipping cream is now ultra-pasteurized; a process of heating that considerably extends its shelf life by killing bacteria and enzymes. Heavy Cream or Heavy Whipping Cream 36 to 38% This cream whips denser than whipping cream. Whips up well and holds its shape. Doubles in volume when whipped. Double Cream 48% Double cream is the British term for heavy or whipping cream in the United States, but it is a little thicker than our whipping cream. It contains about 48% butterfat. Double cream is so rich, in fact, that it is easy to over whip it and get it too thick. Whipping Cream Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 40
  41. 41. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Clotted Cream Creme fraiche 55 to 60% Also know as Devonshire or Devon Cream. It is a thick, rich, yellowish cream with a scalded or cooked flavor that is made by heating un-pasteurized milk until a thick layer of cream sit on top. The milk is cooled and the layer of cream is skimmed off. Traditionally served with tea and scones in England. It is a matured, thickened cream that has a slightly tangy, nutty flavor and velvety rich texture. The thickness can range from that of commercial sour cream to almost as solid as room temperature margarine. In France, the cream is un-pasteurized and therefore contains the bacteria necessary to thicken it naturally. In America, where all commercial cream is pasteurized, the fermenting agents necessary can be obtained by adding buttermilk or sour cream. It is used as a dessert topping and in cooked sauces and soups, where it has the advantage of not curdling when boiled. Pasteurized and Ultra-pasteurized: Creams will generally be labeled pasteurized or ultrapasteurized. Pasteurized cream will provide a better flavor, will whip up fluffier, and will hold up longer. As ultra-pasteurized whipping cream has been heated to above 280 degrees F. to extend its shelf life, it is more temperamental when it comes to whipping. Ultra-Pasteurized Heavy Cream "will not work" if peaks or frothing are required in your recipe. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 41
  42. 42. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 4.10 LESSON SUMMARY Cereal crops or grains come from grass family cultivated for their edible grains or fruit seeds. The word ‗cereal‘ derives from ‗Ceres‘, the name of pre- Roman goddess of Harvest and agriculture. The term ―Pulses‖ is limited to crops harvested solely for dry grain, thereby excluding crops harvested green for food (green peas, green beans etc.) which are classified as vegetable crops. Also excluded are those crops used mainly for oil extraction (e.g. soybean & groundnuts) and leguminous crops (e.g. Clover) Pulses contain carbohydrates, mainly starches (55-65 percent of the total weight) Proteins including essential amino acids (18-25 percent, and much higher than cereals) and fat (1-4 percent), the reminder consists of water and edible substances. Yoghurt or yogurt is a diary product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. Fermentation of the milk produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yoghurt, its texture and its characteristics. Yoghurt can be made from sheep‘s, cows, goats or even Soya milk. Natural whole meal yogurt has a similar nutritional value to boiled milk, being rich in protein and minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus. Cream is also a diary product that is composed of the higher butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. In un- homogenized milk, over time, the lighter fat rises to the top. All cream, unless ultra pasteurized (briefly heated to 149 deg. C/300 deg. F and then cooled), is highly perishable and should be kept in the coldest part of the refrigerator. 4.11 KEY WORDS Staple- main, principal core Kernel - essential part, seed, core Bacteria – microorganisms, microbes, germs Enzyme - any complex chemical produced by living cells that is a biochemical catalyst Vat – container, holder, tub Pudding- a sweet cooked dessert with a smooth creamy texture, typically consisting of flour, milk, eggs, and flavoring Centrifuges- a device that rotates rapidly and uses centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities 4.12 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Write in detail about Cereal and types of Cereals? 2. Write in detail about Pulses and types of Pulses? 3. Write in short about nutritional value of Rice and wheat? 4. What is the difference between Yoghurt & cream? 5. What are the different types of Yoghurt? 6. What are the different types of Cream? Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 42
  43. 43. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 4.13 REFERENCES 1. Thangam E. Philip- Modern cookery Vol.-I from Orient Longman. 2. Krishna Arora - Theory of Cookery from Frank Bros & Co. 3. Auguste Escoffer – The complete guide to the art of Modern cookery, from Heineman. 4. David .A.V. Dendy, Cereals and Cereal Products, Springer 5. Henry Leffmann, Analysis of Milk & Milk Products, Read Books 6. Joseph A Kurmann, Encyclopedia of Fermented Fresh milk products. Springer Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 43
  44. 44. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 44
  45. 45. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 45
  46. 46. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 46
  47. 47. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester UNIT-5 KITCHEN EQUIPMENT CONTENTS 5.0 Objectives 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Kitchen Equipments 5.3 Large Equipment, Mechanical Equipment 5.4 Utensils & small equipment 5.5 Cooking Fuels 5.6 Lesson Summary 5.7 Key Words 5.8 Questions to Solve 5.9 References 5.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘ Kitchen equipments and cooking fuels. 5.1INTRODUCTION Technological advances during industrialization brought major changes to the kitchen. Iron stoves, which enclosed the fire completely and were more efficient, appeared. Gas pipes were first laid in the late 19th century, and gas stoves started to replace the older coal-fired stoves. The trend to increasing gasification and electrification continued at the turn of the 20th century. A trend began in the 1940s to equip the kitchen with electrified small and large kitchen appliances such as blenders, toasters, and later also microwave ovens. Following the end of World War II, massive demand in Europe for low-price, high-tech consumer goods led to Western European kitchens being designed to accommodate new appliances such as refrigerators and electric/gas cookers. 5.2 KITCHEN EQUIPMENT‘S Various types of equipment are used in a kitchen. The type, amount and size of equipment will depend on the type of menu being provided and number of people to dine. Kitchen equipment may be divided into three categories: 1) Large equipment – cooking ranges, electric ovens, microwave ovens, steamers, boiling pan, deep fat-fryers, sinks, tables. 2) Mechanical equipment – peelers, mincers, mixers, refrigerators, dish-washers. 3) Utensils and small equipment – pots, pans, whisks, bowls, spoons and ladles. 5.3 LARGE EQUIPMENT, MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT The service equipments used in hotel industry are: 1. Bain - Marie It is used to keep soups, sauces and cooked foods hot prior to or during service. 2. Hot cupboards Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 47
  48. 48. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 3. It is principally used to keep the service plates hot. These are having cabinets which are directly heated either by a burner sited bellow, indirectly by hot gases conducted round the cabinet through channels or by steam generated in a well in the base. It is also used to keep cooked food hot during the delay between cooking and service. General purpose and roasting ovens These are used for all oven works, i.e., roasting and baking. There are two principal methods of heating. a) Internal heating It means the flames are visible inside the oven, similar to domestic cooker. b) Semi-internal heating It has a burner placed under a metal plate called the sole. The hot gases enter into the oven round the edges of the sole plate. 4. Boiling tables It can be used for all boiling of top operations. It is having a series of ring burners. 5. Stock pot stoves By their low height it is suitable for larger utensils. It is having low level boiling tables, generally 610mm (24 inch) height usually with an openring burner, although a solid top version is available. 6. 8. Ranges A range is a composite unit made up of a boiling table (hot plate) and a general purpose oven occasionally with the addition of a grill fitted in the pot rack at eye level. It is used for all cooking purpose. 7. Brat pans It is also known as tilting fryers. It is mainly used for multiple purpose, i.e., for shallow fry, deep fry or boiling. They are capable of handling up to 200 average portions an hour. For E.g.: a) Shallow frying- Trout (A fish of mountain streams, lakes, rivers) - 36 in 4 minutes. b) Dry frying- Egg - 30 at a time, About 600 an hour, Bacon 100 portions in 10 minutes. c) Poaching- Egg - 800 an hour, Fish - 200 portions an hour d) Stewing- 27-32 liters (6-7 gallons) e) Sautéing-27 kg of meat an hour. Forced convection ovens A forced convection oven is suitable for all normal roasting and baking. With its even temperature distribution the full capacity oven may be used and cooking times reduced. 9. Pastry ovens These ovens are used for large outputs baking of pastry, cakes. They are purpose built, externally heated with an oven height from 127mm to 135mm (5 inch to 5 ½ inch). An important feature is the even temperature throughout the oven. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 48
  49. 49. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 10. Grillers Grillers are of main two types, i.e. a) Under fried grillers These are sometimes known as flare grills with the source of heat. Burners are located underneath. b) Over fried grillers It is also known as salamanders. Here the source of heat is above. 11. Griddle plates These are sometime known as dry plates. A gas bar burner heats this from below. They are used for fast or continuous frying of eggs, bacon, liver, steak, chops, etc. or hamburgers and pancakes. Griddle is chosen according to menu requirements but is particularly useful for call order cooking in snack bars and grillrooms. Microwaves Microwave cookery takes place in a specially designed electrical oven. Microwaves are transferred to the food by electro-magnetic radiation. These waves travel through the air and because food is poor conductor of energy, the wave passes into the food causing the water molecules in the food to vibrate and heat up very quickly. Food counters In recent years there has been an increasing tendency towards assisted or selfhelp counter service operations which has developed because of the need to serve large numbers of peoples quickly and efficiently. Almost any type of food can be displayed on an electrically (based) controlled service counted. For e.g.: Soups, roasts, vegetable dishes, cooked desserts along with choice of cold meats, salads, fruits and pastries, etc. Refrigerators A refrigerator is very need equipment for storing wine, chilled meat, vegetables, fish, frozen foods. 12. 13. 14. 5.4 UTENSILS & SMALL EQUIPMENT - POTS AND PANS The pots and pans used in cooking are as under: 1. Sauté use- This is a shallow long handled vessel with slopping sides and a wide surface area, made of tin lined copper. It is used in the preparation of sauces in which evaporation is required. It is available in various sizes. E.g.: 20 cm (8 inch) diameter and 7 cm (2 ¾ inch) deep 2. Plat a'sauter- This is a shallow, long handled vessel, made of tin lined copper or aluminum with straight copper or aluminum with straight sides and a wide surface area. It is used for sautéing purpose like meat sautéing where the food juices are incorporated as an integral part of finished product. It is available in various sizes. E.g.: 15 cm (6 inch) diameter. 3. Frying pan- Frying pans are solid based pans, made of iron, steel, aluminum or stainless steel with shallow sloping sides and a wide surface area to heat for frying foods. E.g.: 15 cm (6 inches) base diameter Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 49
  50. 50. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Friture- Whether round or oval, single or double handled a friture has a wire basket that fits into the pan. This type of pan can be used for all deep fat frying and small quantities frying. Stock pot- This deep, lidded, double handled pan has a tap near the bottom for 'letting off' stock and is made from heavy-duty aluminum. Stockpots are used on top of the stove only for making large quantities of stock. Stew pan (or) sauce pan - This type of aluminum pan is either single or double handled with a lid. The single handled type is used on the top of the stove only, where as the double handled type is also used in the oven. Both types are used for all boiling and stewing. Boiling pan- This aluminum pan has two handles and a lid and is available in a wide range of sizes, i.e., 2-65 liters and is used on top of stove or in the oven for all boiling and stewing. Braising pan- This type of pan is same like boiling pan but shallower and available in a similarly wide range of sizes, i.e., 11-30 liters. It is used for braising vegetables or main meal items on top of the stove. Omelets pan- It is made from aluminum copper or steel. This type of pan is shallow, round and single handled. It is used only for omelets. 5. 6. KITCHEN KNIVES 1.Boning knife- This is used for the boning of raw or cooked meat. The carbon steel blade must be sharpened regularly. 2.Vegetable knife- This knife has a small shaped handle and short carbon steel or stainless steel blade. It is used for fine preparation, vegetable paring and finishing. The measurement is 103 or 155 mm (4 or 6 inches) 3. Cooks chopping knives- It is available with longer and heavier blades. The measurement is 255 pr 305 mm (10 or 12 inch) and is usually made from carbon steel. They are used for all preparation and chopping. 4. Filleting knife- This knife has a long flexible carbon steel or stainless steel. The measurement is 155mm (6 inch) blade. It is used for skinning and filleting fish. Palette knife- It has either carbon steel or stainless steel blade. It has a measurement of 155mm or 205mm or 255mm or 305mm (6, 8, 10 & 12 inch) long. They are used for moving prepared food, turning cooked food and lifting cooked food from oven trays. Steel- This is carbon steel bar with either a wooden handle. It is used for sharpening all steel knives, but is needed to be sharpened regularly after each use. 5.5 COOKING FUELS The different methods of cooking are: 1. Cooking by fire 2. Cooking by oil 3. Cooking by gas Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 50
  51. 51. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 4. 5. Cooking by electricity Sundry cooking method 1. Cooking by fire Wood is widely used in India but it is very wasteful and dirty. Coal gives out intense heat but not steady. Cooking by oil The oil which is used for cooking is kerosene. It is a clean method in compare to cooking by wood. Advantage of oil a) Economy- Oil is comparatively cheap b) Cleanliness - Not very clean and hygienic c) Effect on equipments- Open flame is likely to destroy the lifespan of utensils. d) Dependability- Supply is to be visible e) Flexibility- intensity can moderately be controlled. f) Safety - Fire hazard like to form in storage areas. g) Storage- Storage space has to be provided h) Installation - Installation is elaborate. i) Speed- Speed is quicker. Cooking by gas It is easy and the most flexible as well as useful method of coking. A reasonable range of equipment is now been manufactured in India for use in this medium. Advantage of gas a) Economy- It is relatively less expensive. b) Cleanliness- Moderate cleaning and hygienic. c) Effect on equipment- Open flame is likely to destroy the life of equipments. d) Dependability- Fails at short notice. e) Flexibility - Intensity can be minutely controlled. f) Safety- Cylinders are available. g) Storage- Gas cylinders are available. h) Speed - Speed is quickest. i) Installation -It is not very flexible. Cooking by electricity A considerable range of equipments necessary for the modern kitchen can be obtained. Hot plates, boilers, toasters, chapatti plates, etc. are some of the type of equipments working by electricity. Advantage of electricity a) Economy- Electricity charges are rather heavy when compared with other fuels. b) Cleanliness -Clean and hygienic c) Effect on equipment and utensils- No open flame as a result there is very little waste on utensils. d) Dependability - Fails without warning. e) Flexibility -Intensity can be controlled. f) Safety - Least dangerous 2. 3. 4. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 51
  52. 52. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester g) h) i) Storage- No problem Installation - Relatively simple. Speed - Not so quick Advantage of wood a) Economy -Cheapest form b) Cleanliness -Problem of collection and disposable of ashes. c) Effect on equipment and utensils - Equipment has to be replaced over a short life. d) Dependability -Supply can also be ensured. e) Flexibility -No control over intensity. f) Safety -Fire hazards are most likely because of open flame. g) Storage -Storage space is a problem. h) Installation -It is no problem. i) Speed -Slow. 5. Sundry cooking method There are many new methods of cooking food. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 52
  53. 53. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 5.6 LESSON SUMMARY Various types of equipment are used in kitchen. The type, amount and size of equipment will depend on the type of menu being provided. Kitchen equipment may be divided into three categories: Large equipment are, ranges, steamers, boiling pan, deep fat fryers, sinks, tables. Mechanical equipment is peelers, mincer, mixers, refrigerators, dish washers. Utensils and small equipments are pots, pans, whisks, spoons & knives. Fuels are those substances that when oxidized give rise to heat energy. This heat Energy can be converted to other forms of energy like electricity, or mechanical Energy like, Vehicle motion. Fuels can be divided into categories such as primary And secondary Fuels. The various types of fuels for cooking are, cooking by fire, Cooking by oil, cooking by gas, cooking by electricity, Sundry cooking method 5.7 KEY WORDS Composite – complex, combined, multiple Convection Oven - an oven that creates a uniform temperature with internal fans. Radiation – emission, rays, heat Molecules- Molecules are small particles that make up all living and non-living things. They are made up of even tinier particles called atoms. 5.8 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Explain briefly the various Large & Mechanical equipments used? 2. Explain in detail the various Utensils & small equipments used in kitchen? 3. What are the different methods of fuel used? 4. Explain the advantages & disadvantages of the various fuels? 5.9 REFERENCES Frances E. Ruffin, Kitchen smarts, Food Safety & Kitchen Equipment, The Rosen Publishing group. Thangam E. Philip- Modern cookery Vol.-I from Orient Longman. Krishna Arora - Theory of Cookery from Frank Bros & Co. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 53
  54. 54. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester UNIT-6 KITCHEN ORGANIZATIONS CONTENTS 6.0 Objectives 6.1 Introduction 6.2 The type of establishments 6.3 Kitchen Brigade in Star Hotel 6.4 Duties & Responsibilities of Kitchen staff 6.4.1 Chef de Cuisine 6.4.2 Sous Chef 6.4.3 Senior Sous Chef 6.4.4 Sous Chef 6.4.5 Chef de Partie 6.4.6 Chef Garde Manger 6.4.7 Chef de Nuit 6.4.8 Commis 6.4.9 Apprentices 6.5 Modern Kitchen Organization 6.6 Lesson Summary 6.7 Key Words 6.8 Questions to Solve 6.9 References 6.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘Kitchen Brigade ◘Duties and Responsibilities of Kitchen Staffs 6.1 INTRODUCTION The staff in kitchen needs to be able to prepare, at any given moment, a wide number of items. The size of the kitchen staff can range from one person to a large group, classically known as the brigade. The size of the kitchen staff is determined equally by the number of meals the restaurant commonly serves and how extensive the menu is. The number of people actually employed in a kitchen will vary greatly from one operation to the next such as breakfast, lunch, dinner, banquet, etc. Georges Auguste Escoffier, a French chef, restaurateur and culinary writer popularized and updated traditional French cooking methods. He organized his kitchens by the brigade system, with each section run by a chef de partie. In this system everybody had a distinct task, which meant that no one duplicated anyone else‘s work. This system provided efficiency, economy, safety and an esprit de corps. 6.2 THE TYPE OF ESTABLISHMENT Many establishments today are far from modest in scope, and the lack of skilled workers in all of these distinct areas, along with technological advances that call for a certain consolidation, has modified the brigade system substantially. It is important, however, to understand the hierarchy that Escoffier formulated, because that will give you a good Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 54
  55. 55. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester overview of just about every task that might be faced in the universe we call ―the kitchen‖. The size of the kitchen staff can range from one person to a large group, classically known as the brigade. The size of the kitchen staff is determined equally by the number of meals the restaurant commonly serves and how extensive the menu is. The number of people actually employed in a kitchen will vary greatly from one operation to the next such as breakfast, lunch, dinner, banquet, etc. Kitchen Organization will vary, mainly due to the size and the type of the establishment, Organization depends on 5 factors, they are as follows: 1. Menu is the deciding factor for a food facility organization. 2. Type of Establishment. 3. Size of Operation. 4. Physical facilities. 5. Human Resource available. 6.3 KITCHEN BRIGADE IN STAR GRADE HOTEL CHEF DE CUISINE SOUS CHEF CHEF GARDE MANGER CHEF POTAGER (Soup Cook) BOUCHERIE (Butcher Shop) CHACUTIER (Pork Butcher and Sauage maker) Chef de Nuit (Night Duty Chef) 6.4 SLADIER (Salad Maker) CHEF SAUCIER (Sauce Cook) CHEF PATISSIER Chef Entermtier (Vegetable Cook) BREAKFAST COOK CHEF ROTISSEUR VOLAILLEUR (Poulterer) POISSONER (Fishmonger) CHEF COMMUNAR (Staff/Cafeteri a Cook) (CHEF GRILLARDIN Grill Cook/CHEF SAVOURIER (Savoury Cook) COMMI-I COMMI - II COMMI - III HORD D’OEUVRIER (Horsd’ocuvre cook) : TRANCHEUR (Craver) APPRENTICE TRAINEES DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF KITCHEN STAFF 6.4.1 The Chef de Cuisine in the large establishment is much more a departmental manager than a working craft man. He is selected for his organizing and executive abilities than for his culinary skill. Though it is obvious that he should have such skill and a large appreciation of fine cookery, His principle function is to plan, organize and supervise the work of the kitchen. 1. Administrator in charge of the kitchen Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 55
  56. 56. Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Plans the kitchen economically and elegantly Recruits the kitchen staff in co-ordination of the management Sees to the welfare of the kitchen staff Supervises and trains his staff Plans the menus and co-ordinates the fixing of its price Controls the quality, quantity and cost of production in the kitchen Checks spoilage and wastage Lays down standards and specifications of ingredients Takes responsibility for correction and criticism Indemnifies his staff Co-ordinates with the other departments of the hotel Informs the staff of the hotel policies Develops standard recipes Takes part in various F&B meetings 6.4.2 Sous Chef or under chef is the principal assistant of the Chef de Cuisine. In large establishments the Sous Chef will have no sectional or partial responsibility but will aid the chef in his general administration and in particular in supervising the work of preparing food and in overseeing its service at the (Pick up counter). Where a considerable kitchen operation is involved there may be more that one Sous Chef. 6.4.3 SENIOR SOUS CHEF 1. Represents the Exec. Chef in his absence 2. Makes the duty roster of the kitchen staff 3. Responsible for proper staff rotation 4. Acts as a liaison between the Exec. Chef and the staff 5. Ensures smooth flow of dishes from the kitchen 6. Maintains the co-ordination between the different sections of the kitchen 7. Reports to the Exec. Chef 6.4.4 SOUS CHEF 1. Represents the Sr. Sous Chef in his absence 2. Supervises the work in the kitchen 3. Heads a satellite kitchen 4. Takes the position of the Chef de Partie in his absence 6.4.5 Chef de Partie Chef de partie is a working cook in charge of a clearly defined section of activities within the kitchen. The Chef de Partie particularly of the sauce and Grade Manager may have the status and duties of a Sous Chef in addition to sectional responsibilities. 1. Reports to the Exec. Chef and the Sous Chefs 2. Responsible for food production and control of waste in the area 3. Trains and supervises the personnel in his section 4. Controls usage, eliminates wastage with a view to minimize food cost 5. Maintains high standards of cleanliness in his section 6. Co-ordinates with other sections of the kitchen Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 56