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O.b. c 11 communication


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O.b. c 11 communication

  1. 1. COMMUNICATION Dr. Rajesh Kamath Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health Manipal University
  2. 2. COMMUNICATION • “Constantly talking is not necessarily communicating.” • Poor communication is most probably the most common source of interpersonal conflict. • Individuals spend nearly 70% of their waking hours communicating – Writing, reading, speaking, listening. • Recruiters rank Communication skills at the top of their list of desired characteristics.
  3. 3. COMMUNICATION • Communication is the Transfer and the Understanding of meaning. • What would perfect communication be?.. • When a thought or idea was transmitted so the receiver perceived exactly the same mental picture as the sender. • Is perfect communication ever achieved?..
  4. 4. COMMUNICATION – Functions of Communication • 4 major functions within a group or organisation : • 1. Control • 2. Motivation • 3. Emotional expression • 4. Information
  5. 5. COMMUNICATION - Functions of Communication • 1. Control : • Organisations have authority hierarchies and formal guidelines employees are required to follow. • When employees are required to communicate any job-related grievance to their immediate boss, to follow their job description, or to comply with company policies, communication is performing a control function. • Does Informal communication also control behaviour? • When work groups harass a member who produces too much..?..
  6. 6. COMMUNICATION - Functions of Communication • 2. Motivation : • Communication motivates by clarifying what needs to be done, how well they are doing, and how to improve performance if it is below par.
  7. 7. COMMUNICATION - Functions of Communication • 3. Emotional expression : • For many employees, their work group is a primary source of social interaction. • The communication within the group is a fundamental mechanism by which members show their satisfaction and frustration.
  8. 8. COMMUNICATION - Functions of Communication • 4. Information : • Communication provides the information needed for decision making. • All these 4 functions are equally important.
  9. 9. COMMUNICATION – The Communication Process. • Communication Process : The steps between a source and a receiver that result in the transfer and understanding of meaning. • The key parts of this process model are: • 1. Sender – encodes the thought. • 2. Encoding • 3. Message – speech, writing, movements of arms, expression on our faces. • 4. Channel – Formal or Informal • 5. Decoding - • 6. Receiver • 7. Noise – communication barriers • 8. Feedback – tells us how successful we have been in transferring our messages as originally intended.
  10. 10. COMMUNICATION – The Communication Process.
  11. 11. COMMUNICATION – Direction of Communication • Direction of Communication : • 1. Downward communication. • 2. Upward communication. • 3. Lateral communication.
  12. 12. COMMUNICATION – Direction of Communication • 1. Downward communication : • Used by group leaders and managers communicating with employees to assign goals, provide job instructions, explain policies and procedures, point out problems that need attention and offer feedback about performance. • As managers, one must explain why a decision was made. • Employees are twice as likely to be committed to changes when the reasons behind them are fully explained. • It is one-way in nature. Managers inform employees but rarely solicit their advice or opinions.
  13. 13. COMMUNICATION – Direction of Communication • 2. Upward communication : • Feedback to higher ups, inform them about progress towards goals, relay current problems. • Keeps managers aware of how employees feel about their jobs, co-workers, and the organisation in general; how conditions can be improved. • For effective upward communication, remove distractions : Meet in a conference room rather than the boss’s cubicle; Communicate in headlines; Support your headlines with actionable items.
  14. 14. COMMUNICATION – Direction of Communication • 3. Lateral communication : • Communication taking place among menbers of the same work group, members of work groups at the same level, managers at the same level, or any horizontally equivalent workers. • Saves time, facilitates communication. • Some lateral relationships are formal, most are informal. • When done with management’s support, it can be beneficial. • When formal vertical channels are breached, it can create dysfunctional conficts.
  15. 15. COMMUNICATION – Interpersonal communication • Interpersonal communication : • 1. Oral communication. • 2. Written communication. • 3. Non verbal communication.
  16. 16. COMMUNICATION – Interpersonal communication • 1. Oral communication : • The chief means of conveying messages. • Speeches, formal one-on-one and group discussions, and the grapevine. • Advantages : Speed, feedback. • Rapid feedback allows sender to quickly detect and correct it. • Disadvantage : The more people the message has to pass through, the greater the distortion.
  17. 17. COMMUNICATION – Interpersonal communication • 2. Written communication : • Memos, letters, faxes, e-mail, instant messaging, organisational periodicals, notices placed on bulletin boards. • Tangible and verifiable. • Both the sender and the receiver have a record of the communication. • The message can be stored for an indefinite period. • Physically available for later reference. • Particularly relevant for lengthy communication. • Eg. : The Marketing plan for a new product may contain a number of tasks spread over several months. • Writing something down makes you think about it more, think logically, and clearly. • Disadvantages : Time-consuming, eg. Written exam vs Viva. • No built-in feedback mechanism.
  18. 18. COMMUNICATION – Interpersonal communication • 3. Non verbal communication : • The 2 most important messages body language conveys are : • 1. The extent to which we like another and are interested in his or her views. – We are more likely to position ourselves closer to people we like. • 2. The perceived status between a sender and receiver. – If you feel you are of a higher status than another, you are more likely to adopt a casual approach- sit slouched or with crossed legs. • Facial expessions, intonations, physical distance.
  19. 19. COMMUNICATION – Organisational communication • Formal small group networks : • 1. Chain – rigidly follows the formal chain of command. Eg. Rigid 3 level organisation. • 2. Wheel – Central figure to act as the conduit for the entire group’s communication. Eg. Team with a strong leader. • 3. All-channel – All group members to actively communicate with each other. Eg: Self managed teams. • Grapevine
  20. 20. COMMUNICATION – Organisational communication
  21. 21. COMMUNICATION – Organisational communication • The Grapevine : • It is the informal communication network in a group or organisation. • A survey found it is where 75% of employees hear about matters first. • Word-of-mouth has important effects on whether job applicants join an organisation.
  22. 22. COMMUNICATION – Organisational communication • 3 main characteristics : • 1. Not controlled by management. • 2. Most employees perceive it as more believable and reliable than formal communication from top management. • 3. It is largely used to serve the interests of the people within it.
  23. 23. COMMUNICATION – Organisational communication • One interesting study: • When on executive decided to resign, 81% of the others knew about it, but only 11% had transmitted the information to someone else. • Research suggests about 75% of information that flows along the grapevine is acurrate. • As widely believed, • Rumours do not arise because they make good gossip. • Rumours arise when there is ambiguity in situations that are important to us, when there is anxiety.
  24. 24. COMMUNICATION – Organisational communication • As managers, it can give you a feel for the morale of your organisation and identify issues your employees consider important. • For employees, small talk creates a sense of closeness and friendship among those who share information. • As managers, try to minimise the negative consequences of rumours. How? • 1. Provide information. • 2. Explain actions and decisions that may appear inconsistent, unfair, or secretive. • 3. Refrain from shooting the messenger – rumors are a natural byproduct – respond calmly, rationally, respectfully. • 4. Maintain open communication channels – encourage employees to come to you with concerns and suggestions.
  25. 25. COMMUNICATION – Electronic communication • Electronic communication – Advantages and challenges : • 1. E mail. • 2. Instant messaging and short messaging service. • 3.Networking software. • 4. Blogs. • 5. Video Conferencing.
  26. 26. COMMUNICATION – Electronic communication • 1. Email : • Advantages : • Can be quickly written, edited, stored. • They can be distributed to one person or thousands with the click of a mouse. • Recipients can read them at their own convenience. • Cost is minimal.
  27. 27. COMMUNICATION – Electronic communication • Drawbacks : • 1. Misinterpreting the message. • 2. Communicating negative messages. • 3. Time consuming nature of e-mail. • 4. E-mail emotions. • 5. Privacy concerns.
  28. 28. COMMUNICATION – Electronic communication • 1. Misinterpreting the message : • One research team at New York university found we can accurately decode an e mail’s intent and tone only 50% of the time. • 2. Communicating negative messages : • Email may not be the best way to communicate negative messages. • 3. Time consuming nature of e mail : • An estimated 62 trillion e mails are sent every year. 60%, i.e. 36 million are non spam. • A survey of Canadian managers revealed that 58% of them spent 2-4 hours per day reading and responding to e mails.
  29. 29. COMMUNICATION – Electronic communication • Strategies to deal with email overload: • 1. Don’t check e mail in the morning. Take care of other important tasks which might otherwise never get done. • 2. Check e mail in batches. Maybe twice a day. Don’t log in 50 times a day. • 3. Unsubscribe from newsletters and subscriptions that you do not need. • 4. Stop sending e mail that you do not need to send. Shorter e mails get shorter responses. • 5. Declare e-mail bankruptcy. Wipe out your entire inbox and start over.
  30. 30. COMMUNICATION – Electronic communication • 4. E mail emotions. The lack of visual and vocal cues means emotionally positive messages, including praise, will be seen as more emotionally neutral than the sender intended. • Without real time feedback from the receiver, senders write things they would never be comfortable saying in person. • When writing an e mail when angry and upset, save it as a draft and look at it again later. • When others send flaming messages, remain calm and do not respond in kind. • Try to see the message from the other party’s point of view.
  31. 31. COMMUNICATION – Electronic communication • 5. Privacy concerns : • 2 privacy issues with e-mails: • 1. E mails may be monitored. • 2. You can’t always trust the recipient of the e- mail to keep it confidential. • Never write anything that you would not want made public.
  32. 32. COMMUNICATION – Electronic communication • 2. Instant messaging and short messaging service : • Pros: • Flexible, one can be reached anywhere, anytime. • Preferable for 1 or 2 line messages that would otherwise clutter up an e-mail inbox. • Cons: • Can disturb concentration and focus. Eg. During meetings. • Security risk:Can be intercepted. • Informality of text messaging may spill over into business e mails. Eg.: omg, wth..
  33. 33. COMMUNICATION – Electronic communication • 3. Networking software : • Facebook, Myspace. • To get the most out of social networks and to avoid irritating your contacts, use them for high-value items only. • A prospective employer might check your Facebook or Myspace profiles.
  34. 34. COMMUNICATION – Electronic communication • 4.Blogs: • A website where entries are written, and generally displayed in reverse chronological order, about news, events and personal diary entries. • 112 million blogs and 350 million blog entries are written everyday. • Millions of employees have blogs. • Many organisations and organisational leaders have blogs that speak for the organisation. • TWITTER : A free blogging and networking service where users send and read messages known as tweets, may of which concern OB issues. • “Micro-blog” • Tweets can come from any employee about any work topic, with organisations having less control over it. • Can invite action against employees.
  35. 35. COMMUNICATION – Electronic communication • 5. Video Conferencing : • Permits employees in an organisation to have meetings with people at different locations. • Travel savings. • Important for everyone to be informed of the agenda beforehand and equal time to be provided to people at all locations, or remote participants can feel left out.
  36. 36. COMMUNICATION – Managing information • Managing information : • 1. Dealing with information overload. • 2. Always on call. • 3. Information security.
  37. 37. COMMUNICATION – Managing information • 1. Dealing with information overload : • Intel designed an 8 month experiment to see how limiting information overload might aid productivity. • One group of employees was told to limit both digital and in-person contact for 4 hours on Tuesdays, while another group followed its usual routine. • The first group was more productive and 75% of its members suggested the program be expanded.
  38. 38. COMMUNICATION – Managing information • 2. Always on call : • Some business travellers were disappointed when airlines began offering wireless internet connections in flight because they could no longer use their time in flight as a rare opportunity to relax without a constant barrage of organisational communications. • Both workers and their spouses relate the use of electronic communication technologies outside work to higher levels of work-life conflict. • Risk of burnout from being on call 24 hours a day.
  39. 39. COMMUNICATION – Managing information • 3. Information security : • A Merrill Lynch survey of 50 executives found 52% rated leaks of company information as their number one information security concern, topping viruses and hackers. • In response, most companies actively monitor employee internet use and e mail records, and some even use video surveillance and record phone conversations. • Such practices may seem invasive to employees. • As managers, you can address their concerns by involving them in the creation of information-security policies and giving them some control over how their personal information is used.
  40. 40. COMMUNICATION – Choice of Communication channel • Channel richness : The amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode. • Why do people choose one channel of communication over another-say a phone call instead of a face to face talk? • A model of media richness helps explain channel selection among managers.
  41. 41. COMMUNICATION – Choice of Communication channel • Home work : Diagram : Information richness of Communication channels.
  42. 42. COMMUNICATION – Choice of Communication channel • Channels differ in their capacity to convey information. Some are rich in that they can • 1. Handle multiple cues simultaneously. • 2. Facilitate rapid feedback. • 3. Be very personal. • Others are lean in that they score low on these factors. • Face to face conversation scores the highest in channel richness, because it transmits the most information per communication episode – multiple information cues (words, postures, facial expressions, gestures, intonations), immediate feedback(both verbal and nonverbal), and the personal touch of being present.
  43. 43. COMMUNICATION – Choice of Communication channel • The choice of channel depends on whether the message is routine or non routine. • Routine messages tend to be straightforward and have minimal ambiguity;channels low in richness can carry them efficiently. • Non-routine communications are likely to be complicated and have the potential for misunderstanding. Managers can communicate them effectively only by selecting rich channels. • Evidence indicates high performing managers tend to be more media sensitive than low performing managers. • They are better able to match appropriate media richness with the ambiguity level in the message.
  44. 44. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • 1. Filtering • 2. Selective perception • 3. Information overload • 4. Emotions • 5. Language • 6. Silence • 7. Communication Apprehension • 8. Gender differences • 9. “Politically correct” communication
  45. 45. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • 1. Filtering : • A sender’s manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favourably by the receiver. • Eg: A manager who tells his boss what he feels his boss wants to hear. • The more the levels, the more the filtering. • Status differences increase filtering. • Fear, eagerness to please.
  46. 46. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • 2. Selective perception : • Receivers in the communication process selectively see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience, background, inte rests and expectations. • Eg: An interviewer who expects a female job applicant to put her family ahead of her career is likely to see that in all female applicants, regardless of whether they actually feel that way. • We do not see Reality • We interpret what we see and call it reality.
  47. 47. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • 3. Information overload : • When the information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity, the result is information overload. • When this condition strikes, what do individuals do? • They tend to select, ignore, pass over, or forget information. • Or they may put off further processing until the overload situation is over. • The result is lost information and less effective communication.
  48. 48. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • 4. Emotions : • You may interpret the same message differently when you are angry or distraught than when you are happy. • Extreme emotions such as jubilation or depression are most likely to hinder effective communication. • The rational and objective thinking process is disregarded.
  49. 49. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • 5. Language : • Words can mean different things to different people. • Age and context are the 2 biggest factors. • Our use of language is far from uniform.
  50. 50. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • 6. Silence : • Absence of information. • One survey found over 85% of managers reported remaining silent on atleast one issue of significant concern. • Employee silence means managers lack information about ongoing operational problems. • Silence regarding discrimination, harassment, corruption and misconduct means top management cannot take action to eliminate this behaviour. • Employees who are silent may also experience psychological stress. • As managers, you must make sure you behave in a supportive manner when employees voice divergent opinions or express concerns. • One act of ignoring or belittling an employee for expressing concerns may well lead the employee to withhold important future communication.
  51. 51. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • 7. Communication Apprehension : • 5 to 20 % of the population. • Also called Social anxiety. • Undue tension and anxiety in oral communication, written comunication, or both. • May rely on faxes or memos when a phone call would be faster and more appropriate. • As managers, be aware that oral communication apprehensives may severely limit their oral communication and rationalise this practice by telling themselves it is not necessary for them to do their job effectively.
  52. 52. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • 8. Gender differences : • Research shows men tend to talk to emphasize status. • Whereas women tend to use it to create connections. • Men – status, power, independence. • Women – connection, intimacy.
  53. 53. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • Men frequently complain that women talk on and on about their problems. • Women criticise men for not listening. • What’s happening is that when men hear a poblem, they assert their desire for independence and control by offering solutions. Many women, on the other hand, view telling a problem as a means to promote closeness and gain support and connection, not to get advice. • Mutual understanding is symmetrical. But giving advice is asymmetrical. Its sets up the advice giver as more knowledgeble, more reasonable, and more in control. This creates distance.
  54. 54. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • 9. “Politically correct” communication : • Communication that is so concerned with being inoffensive, that meaning and simplicity are lost or free expression is hampered. • Eg: • 1. The Los Angeles times allows its journalists to use the term “old age” but cautions that the onset of old age varies from “person to person”, so individuals in a group of 75 year olds are not necessarily all old. • 2. CNN has fined its broadcasters for using the word “foreign” instead of “international”. • 3. The Little People of America (LPA) association prefers the term “little people” to “dwarfs” or “midgets”.
  55. 55. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • Downside : • It can complicate our vocabulary and make it harder to communicate accurately. • Garbage – Postconsumer waste materials • Quotas – Educational equity • Women – People of gender
  58. 58. THANK YOU