International Entreprenuership


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International Entreprenuership

  1. 1. 8/23/2011 7:10:59 PM<br />1<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  2. 2. 8/23/2011 7:11:00 PM<br />2<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />As more countries become market oriented and developed, the distinction between foreign and domestic markets is becoming less pronounced.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  3. 3. 8/23/2011 7:11:01 PM<br />3<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br /><ul><li>International entrepreneurshipis the process of an entrepreneur conducting business activities across national boundaries.
  4. 4. It is exporting, licensing, or opening a sales office in another country.
  5. 5. When an entrepreneur executes his or her business model in more than one country, international entrepreneurship occurs.</li></ul>THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  6. 6. 8/23/2011 7:11:02 PM<br />4<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />II.THE IMPORTANCE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS TO THE FIRM<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  7. 7. 8/23/2011 7:11:04 PM<br />5<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />International business has become increasingly important to firms of all sizes.<br />B.Thesuccessful entrepreneur will be someone who understands how international business differs from domestic business and is able to act accordingly.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  8. 8. 8/23/2011 7:11:05 PM<br />6<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />III.INTERNATIONAL VERSUS DOMESTIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP <br />Whether international or domestic, an entrepreneur is concerned about the same basic issues—sales, costs, and profits.<br />What varies is the relative importance of the factors affecting each decision.<br />International entrepreneurial decisions are more complex due to uncontrollable factors.<br />Economics.<br />A domestic business strategy is designed under a single economic system and has the same currency.<br />Creating a business strategy for multiple countries means dealing with different levels of economic development and different distribution systems.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  9. 9. 8/23/2011 7:11:06 PM<br />7<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />Economics.<br />A domestic business strategy is designed under a single economic system and has the same currency.<br />Creating a business strategy for multiple countries means dealing with different levels of economic development and different distribution systems.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  10. 10. 8/23/2011 7:11:06 PM<br />8<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />Stage of Economic Development.<br />The U.S. is an industrially developed nation with regional differences in income.<br />An entrepreneur doing business only in the U.S. does not have to worry about lack of infrastructure, such as roads, and established business ethics and norms.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  11. 11. 8/23/2011 7:11:07 PM<br />9<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />Balance of Payments.<br />A country’s balance of payments affects the valuation of its currency.<br />The valuation of a country’s currency affects business transactions between countries.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  12. 12. 8/23/2011 7:11:07 PM<br />10<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />Type of System.<br />Barter or third-party arrangements have been used to increase business activity with the former U.S.S.R. and Eastern and Central European countries.<br />There are still many difficulties in doing business in developing and transition economies due to:<br />Gaps in the knowledge of the Western system regarding business plans, marketing, and profits.<br />Widely variable rates of return.<br />Nonconvertibility of the currencies. <br />Differences in the accounting system.<br />Nightmarish communications.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  13. 13. 8/23/2011 7:11:07 PM<br />11<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />Political-Legal Environment.<br />Multiple political and legal environments create different business problems.<br />Each element of the international business strategy can potentially be affected by multiple legal environments.<br />Laws governing business arrangements also vary greatly with 150 different legal systems and sets of national laws.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  14. 14. 8/23/2011 7:11:08 PM<br />12<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />Cultural Environment.<br />The impact of culture on entrepreneurs and strategies is significant.<br />An important cultural concern is bribery and corruption.<br />Another problem is finding a translator.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  15. 15. 8/23/2011 7:11:08 PM<br />13<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br /><ul><li>Technological Environment.
  16. 16. Technology varies significantly across countries.
  17. 17. New products in a country are created based on the conditions and infrastructure of that country.</li></ul>THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  18. 18. 8/23/2011 7:11:08 PM<br />14<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />Strategic Issues.<br />Four strategic issues are important to the international entrepreneur:<br />The allocation of responsibility between the U.S. and foreign operations.<br />The nature of the planning, reporting, and control systems to be used.<br />The appropriate organizational structure for conducting international operations.<br />The degree of standardization possible.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  19. 19. 8/23/2011 7:11:09 PM<br />15<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />Responsibility is generally allocated in stages.<br />Stage 1: In the first stages the entrepreneur typically follows a highly centralized decision-making process.<br />Stage 2: When success occurs, it is no longer possible to use completely centralized decision-making process.<br />Stage 3: Decentralization is scaled back and major strategic decisions are again centralized.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  20. 20. 8/23/2011 7:11:09 PM<br />16<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />To understand what is required for effective planning, reporting, and control, the entrepreneur should consider:<br />Environmental analysis.<br />Strategic planning.<br />Structure.<br />Operational planning.<br />Controlling the marketing program.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  21. 21. 8/23/2011 7:11:09 PM<br />17<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />The first step in identifying markets is to analyze data in the following areas:<br />Market characteristics.<br />Marketing institutions.<br />Industry conditions.<br />Legal environment.<br />Resources.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  22. 22. 8/23/2011 7:11:09 PM<br />18<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br /><ul><li>IV. ENTREPRENEURIAL ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
  23. 23. The choice of entry method depends on the goals of the entrepreneur and the company’s strengths and weaknesses.
  24. 24. Exporting.
  25. 25. Usually, an entrepreneur starts doing international business through exporting.
  26. 26. Indirect exporting involves a foreign purchaser in the local market or using an export management firm.
  27. 27. For certain commodities, foreign buyers seek out sources of supply.
  28. 28. Export management firms, another indirect method, are located in most commercial centers.
  29. 29. Direct exporting through independent distributors or through one’s own overseas sales office is another way to enter international business.
  30. 30. An independent foreign distributor directly contacts foreign customers and takes care of all technicalities.</li></ul>Entrepreneurs can open their own overseas sales offices and hire their own salespeople.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  31. 31. 8/23/2011 7:11:10 PM<br />19<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />Nonequity Arrangements.<br />Nonequity arrangements allow the entrepreneur to enter a market without direct equity investment in the foreign market.<br />Licensing involves an entrepreneur who is a manufacturer giving a foreign manufacturer the right to use a patent, trademark, or technology in return for a royalty payment.<br />This arrangement is most appropriate when the entrepreneur has no prospect of entering the market through exporting or direct investment.<br />The process is usually low risk and an easy way to generate incremental income.<br />Without careful analysis, licensing arrangements have several pitfalls.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  32. 32. 8/23/2011 7:11:10 PM<br />20<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />Turn-key projects.<br />Lesser developed countries are able to obtain manufacturing technology without surrendering economic control through turn-key projects.<br />A foreign entrepreneur builds a facility, trains the workers, and trains the management to run the installation.<br />Once the operation is on-line, it is turned over to local owners.<br />Initial profits can lead to follow-up sales.<br />Financing is provided by the local company or government.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  33. 33. 8/23/2011 7:11:10 PM<br />21<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />Management contracts.<br />Entrepreneurs can contract their management techniques and skills.<br />The management contract allows the purchasing country to gain foreign expertise without turning ownership over to a foreigner.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  34. 34. 8/23/2011 7:11:10 PM<br />22<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br /><ul><li>Direct Foreign Investment.
  35. 35. The wholly-owned foreign subsidiary has been a preferred mode of ownership for direct investment.
  36. 36. Minority interests.
  37. 37. The minority interest can provide the firm with either a source of raw materials or a captive market for products.
  38. 38. Entrepreneurs have used minority positions to gain a foothold in the market before making a major investment.</li></ul>THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  39. 39. 8/23/2011 7:11:11 PM<br />23<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />Joint ventures.<br />Two firms get together and form a third company in which they share the equity.<br />Joint ventures have been used by entrepreneurs in two situations:<br />When the entrepreneur wants to purchase local knowledge and an established facility.<br />When rapid entry into a market it needed.<br />The keys to success of joint ventures have not been well understood.<br />Reasons for forming a joint venture today are different than those in the past.<br />Previously, joint ventures were viewed as partnerships and often involved firms whose stock was owned by several other firms.<br />Joint ventures in the U.S. were first vertical joint ventures used by mining concerns and railroads.<br />Reasons for the significant increase in the use of joint ventures:<br />To share the costs and risks of an uncertain project.<br />To gain synergy between firms.<br />To obtain a competitive advantage.<br />To enter markets that pose entrance difficulties.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  40. 40. 8/23/2011 7:11:11 PM<br />24<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />Majority interest.<br />Another equity method is to purchase a majority interest in a foreign business.<br />The majority interest allows the entrepreneur to obtain managerial control while maintaining the company’s local identity.<br />One hundred percent ownership assures control.<br />One form of 100 percent ownership involved mergers and acquisitions.<br />The benefits and costs of a merger need to be considered.<br />The entrepreneur must understand mergers as a strategic option and the complexity of integrating one company into another.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  41. 41. 8/23/2011 7:11:11 PM<br />25<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />A horizontal merger is the combination of two firms that produce closely related products in the same area.<br />A vertical merger is the combination of firms in successive stages of production.<br />A product extension merger occurs when acquiring and acquired companies have related production but do not have directly competing products.<br />A market extension merger is when two firms produce the same products but sell them in different geographic markets.<br />A diversified activity merger is a conglomerate merger involving the consolidation of two unrelated firms.<br />Mergers are a sound strategic option for an entrepreneur when synergy is present.<br />Economies of scale are the most common reason for mergers.<br />A second factor that causes synergy is taxation, or unused tax credits.<br />(iii) The final factor is the benefits received in combining complementary resources<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  42. 42. 8/23/2011 7:11:11 PM<br />26<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />V.BARRIERS TO INTERNATIONAL TRADE<br />There has been a positive attitude toward free trade, starting about 1947 with the development of general trade agreements and reduction of trade barriers.<br />General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT.)<br />GATT is a multilateral agreement with the objective of liberalizing trade by eliminating tariffs, subsidies, and import quotas.<br />In each round, mutual tariff reductions are negotiated between member nations.<br />Members can ask for investigation of violations.<br />While GATT has helped develop more unrestricted trade, its voluntary membership gives it little authority.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  43. 43. 8/23/2011 7:11:12 PM<br />27<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />Increasing Protectionist Attitudes.<br />Support of free trade increased significantly in the 1980s due to the rise in protectionist pressures in many countries.<br />The persistent U.S. trade deficit has strained the world trading system.<br />The economic success of a country (Japan) perceived as not playing by the rules has also strained the trading system.<br />In response many countries have established bilateral voluntary export restrictions to circumvent GATT.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  44. 44. 8/23/2011 7:11:12 PM<br />28<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />Trade Blocs and Free Trade Areas.<br />Groups of nations are banding together to increase investment between nations in the group and exclude others.<br />Free trade areas have been established between the U.S. and Israel and between the U.S. and Canada.<br />The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico reduces barriers and encourages investment.<br />The Americas, Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay have created the Mercosul trade zone, a free trade zone between the countries.<br />The European Community (EC) is founded on the principle of supra-nationality—member nations are not able to enter into trade agreements on their own that are inconsistent with EC regulations.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  45. 45. 8/23/2011 7:11:12 PM<br />29<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />Entrepreneur’s Strategies and Trade Barriers.<br />Trade barriers pose problems for entrepreneurs who want to become involved in international business.<br />Trade barriers increase the costs of exporting projects to a country.<br />Voluntary export restrictions may limit the ability to sell products in a country from production facilities outside the country.<br />4. An entrepreneur may have to locate assembly or facilities in a country to conform to the local content regulations.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  46. 46. 8/23/2011 7:11:15 PM<br />30<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />VI.ENTREPRENEURIAL PARTNERING<br />One of the best methods to enter an international market is to partner with an entrepreneur in that country.<br />A good partner shares the entrepreneur’s vision and is unlikely to exploit the partnership.<br />Selecting a good partner.<br />Collect information about the industry and potential partner.<br />Check references for each potential partner.<br />3. Meet with the potential partner to get to know the individual and company before any commitment is made.<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />
  47. 47. 8/23/2011 7:11:16 PM<br />31<br />by Dr.Rajesh Patel,Director,NRV MBA<br />Thank You!<br />THE NATURE <br />OF <br />INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP<br />