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Fish neting


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Fish neting

  1. 1. ACNOWLEDGEMENTS The successful completion of this final report on Fish Netting survey has ultimately reached to its extreme point. no doubt this report on Fish Netting survey has given me a feeling of satisfaction and happiness. I have paucity of words expressing my gratefulness and warmest regards to Dr. Abha Mishra, Applied Animal Sciences, School for Biosciences and Biotechnology, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, for his expert and peerless guidance persistent encouragement, wise counselling, constant supervision, sharp and faithful criticism, cordial cooperation during the course of the study tour. I would like to thank my group member for their co-operation in the fish netting survey. Shailendra Kumar Rajesh Kumar Gautam Vipin Kumar Preeti Sagar
  2. 2. Team: The Study Tour of the M. Sc. IIIrd semester was conducted in, from the date 10-092013 along with 4 students of the Department of Applied Animal Sciences, with study tour team members. The In-charge of the Study Tour team was Dr. Abha Mishra, Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Animal Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, A Central University, Lucknow.
  3. 3. Introduction of Fish Netting Various methods and means are employed by man to catch .the for food and the fishing gear has undergone evolution in different parts of the world giving rise to various methods of the present‟s day. The methods in use at particular place depends on the type of fish caught, nature of the river or sea bed and the available capital .The fishing gear , along with the vessel, auxiliary equipment and men, constitutes a “fishing unit”. The size of a fishing unit is determined by the distance of fishing grounds from the shores, handling and disposal of catch as well as geographical factors .The amount of the catch by a unit depends upon its efficiency and the productivity of the fishing ground from the shores, handling and disposal of catch by a unit depends upon its efficiency and the productivity of the fishing ground .the quantity of fish caught by a single unit depends upon its efficiency and the productise of the fishing area . After fishing is done, the craft and gear are subjected to repair and rest, before going on the next launch. The is called a fishing cycle per day depends upon the daily pattern of occurrence (density) of fishes, type of fishing of method used , geographical conditions of fishing grounds of the fisherman. . Fig: Net
  4. 4. The Main Types of Nets are used for Marine Fishing: Various types of nets are used to catch fish all over the world, and are prepared to suit the condition of the fishing ground, weather and the species of fish to be caught .the efficiency of the net depends on its design , size of the mesh and “tension” on the wedding .Twines of the net made of cotton, silk, hemp, fibre, or the synthetic material as the nylon, decron, tetron, vinylon, etc. nets prepared from synthetic fibbers‟ are better being transparent and are resistant to rotting. A net is also provided with ropes, cables, floats, sinkers, anchors, stakes, snoods, etc. Nets are mainly of the following types: 1. Dip Net or Lift Net. 2. Cast Net. 3. Long Line and Hooks. 4. Drift Nets and Gill Nets. 5. Boat- Seines. 6. Trawl or Drag Net. 7. Shore Seines (Rampani Net). 1. Dip Net or Lift Net: These nets are operator in shallow sea water to capture schooling mackerels. Its operation is usually done form a boat. The net is lowered down in water to trap the schooling fishing. The large ones are fixed along the shore and operated by a long bamboo acting as a lever form a platform also made of bamboo .Dip Net is known by various names such as “Hela Jal” ,”Kharra Jal”, “Khourasala Jal”, and “Bhesal Jal” .Bhesal jal is operated form a boat.
  5. 5. Fig. Dip Net or Lift Net 2. Cast Nets: These are flat and circular but large sized nets, used to capture small size fishes. It has usually a string. These are having weights or sinkers along their margin .The net are cast by the sweep of the arm .when it spreads, fishes are caught in it. Is operator by a single fisherman? Fig: Cast Nets
  6. 6. 3. Line Fishing: The fish method has been in use for a long time. Fish is caught by offering a baited hook and the gear the operated by hand. In a “hand line” one or more hooks are attached at the end of a cotton line (Dori) whose other end is tied to long bamboo stick (2-5 meter long), Gold or silver plated hooks are also known. The bent hook is useful in keeping the fish captive after it has taken the bite .some people use beautiful hook made of mother -of-pearl, tortoise shell, whale bone. The various shape and size double by the fish that is unable to release it and is lifted from the water. A bite is selected carefully considering the preference of fish and may be an earthworm, prawn, cockroach, caterpillar, small fish, frog, etc .A mixture made of flour or baked rice and piece of fish flesh is also used as a bait .a long line consists of a main line and several pendent branch lines. Balance line Cotton line (dori) Eye Shank Point Bend Fig. a Fishing Hook Fig. a long Line Fishing Hook
  7. 7. Fig. Caterpillars, Earthworm Fig. (Hand Line) Fishing 4. Drift Net and Gill Nets: Drift nets and gill nets are will-like nets of various sizes and meshes. The yarn is of hemp or nylon and floats are attached to the net to keep it vertical and straight. Normally light coloured nets for turbid water and dark coloured for dark waters are selected. The gill nets are commonly used in Tamil Nadu and
  8. 8. Gujarat. Thus ,the fish is caught in the net twine behind the operculum .Hence these nets are called “gill nets” The net is set in the evening , and hauled the next morning to collect the entangled fish .The net is used to collect big fishes , and there for net with large mesh size mesh and strong twine is used. 5. Boat- Seines: The nets are generally conical shape, mostly without flanks or wings. A boat seine consists of an 8-10m long with long wings on each side. The wings are 30-50 m long having mesh, and in size towards the blind end of bag. The net is carried by tow boats to the fishing area, where the boats move in opposite directions paying the net in a semi-circle. The ropes attached to the wings are tied to the boats. 6. Trawl Nets: It is very efficient net for capturing bottom living fish and prawns. Conical bag-like net is attached to a moving boat, and the mouth is kept open. A common trawl net is about 30 m long, and the wings are 100 m long. It is operated by one or two bots or fishing vessels. The nets are of two types, „beam trawl‟ and otter trawl‟, depends upon the method of keeping the mouth open during operation. Fig : . Trawl Nets
  9. 9. 7. Shore Seines (Rampani Net): These are large sized nets made up 100-500 rectangular pieces, Joined end to end. Each piece may be 3-6m long. The side pieces are of larger mesh of 3-5 cm, but the middle pieces have meshes of smaller size (1-2cm). Floats are fixed to the upper rope, and sinkers are provided to the lower rope. Long ropes are attached to both the ends for hauling. One end of the net is held on the shore by 20-25men, and the net is carried on boats. It is laid in a semicircle to enclose large area, bringing the other end back to the shore, where it is held by a second group of 20-25 men. The two ends are pulled and the net is dragged to the shere. The large net of the karwar coast is called „Rampani net‟. Fishing Craft: Various kinds of fishing crafts, designed and built according to local conditions, are used in different parts of the country. In rivers and reservoirs, Avery smile circular basket like craft, 4 m in diameter is used. It is made up of bamboo covered with leather to make it water tight. Along the east coast, the simple craft used is called “Catamaran” (Tamil kattu =binding, maram=wood).This is a rudimentary craft made by tying several logs of wood. Each is 5-10 m long, and is made of 4-7 logs, these of the sides are raised up so
  10. 10. as to give boat- like shape to the craft. A triangular said or paddles with flattened blade are provided. Logs of wood tied to each other by rope, are joined by wooden pegs. Various types of open boats called by different names are for fishing in different regions. Those used along the Orissa and Andhra Pradesh coast are called „Macula‟ boats. Each is made of planks of wood joined together with palm leaf fibres, and is without ribs or frame, and may be about 10m long. „‟dinghies” and „‟Nuka‟‟ are small boats used in Bengal and Orissa. Dragnet: In the netting process the nylon net also known called as Drag net is used. Through the top meshes of net run a thick and strong cord which was held at either ends by a number of fisherman. This drag net was pulled with the help of rope and slowly – slowly the most part of the drag net was pulled out by the workers at corners of the pond. In such a way the big drag net become modified in to the pouch net or bag net. In this bag net, all the fishers were collected in the small area. Fig :Dragnet
  11. 11. Fishing Gear: Several types of nets, traps and hooks are used to catch fish prawns & crabs. It is difficult to enumerate all the fishing methods in used in various part of India, and there is no uniformity in the names given to various fishing gears used in commercial fisheries. Some of these gears are used for catching only; others for fish prawns and crabs, while some are used for crustaceans only. Some of the common method and gear are described below. Fishing without Gear (Hand Picking): This is probably the simplest method of catching fish, which are caught by hand in swallow water. In some hilly parts or near dams, water flow out through narrow channels, the fishes that come out in the shallow channels are picked up by hand. Fig. Hand Picking Without Gear Fig: catfish of hand picking
  12. 12. Spear and Harpoon: Large sized fish are wounded with the help of spear and float in water so that they are easily caught .the spear used for hunting a fish has been in used for hunting a fish has been use sense ancient times and is called a “Konch”. Harpoon is called „EK-katiya‟ and has a barbed iron point attached to a 3 m long bamboo shaft .5-8 m o=long spear are used in turbid water. A spar is also used to spear a fish though holes in the ice. A rope of suitable length is fastened to every spear, so that it is recovered for rue, after being thrown at a fish. Fish Poison: Certain chemicals when mixed with water affect the nervous system and paralyse the fish. For example, rotenone prepared from the roots of the plant Derris elliptic and other species paralyse the fish in 10-15 minutes. Similarly, under water explosions also kill the fish in large numbers. These methods are not use in commercial fishery as all the fish are killed indiscriminately.
  13. 13. Vote of thanks The successful completion of this final report on Fish Neting survey has ultimately reached to its extreme Point. No doubt this report on Fish Neting survey has geven me a feeling of satisfaction and happiness. I owe a deep sense of gratitude to Dr. Abha Mishra, Assistant Professor, Applied Animal Sciences, School for Biosciences and Biotechnology, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, for her inspiring sagacious guidance and incessant encouragement and constructive suggestion, inspiring and warm blessing throughout the course of this on Fish Netting survey. At last but not the least, I heartily thanks to my Group Member for their support and heartily cooperation during the period of study tour in Lucknow. Shailendra Kumar Rajesh Kumar Gautam Vipin Kumar Preeti Sagar