The successful completion of this final report on Fish Netting survey has
ultimately reached to its extreme point. no doubt this report on Fish Netting
survey has given me a feeling of satisfaction and happiness.
I have paucity of words expressing my gratefulness and warmest regards
to Dr. Abha Mishra, Applied Animal Sciences, School for Biosciences and
Biotechnology, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, for his
expert and peerless guidance persistent encouragement, wise counselling,
constant supervision, sharp and faithful criticism, cordial cooperation during the
course of the study tour.
I would like to thank my group member for their co-operation in the fish
Rajesh Kumar Gautam
The Study Tour of the M. Sc. IIIrd semester was conducted in, from the date 10-092013 along with 4 students of the Department of Applied Animal Sciences, with
study tour team members. The In-charge of the Study Tour team was Dr. Abha
Mishra, Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Animal Sciences,
Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, A Central University, Lucknow.
Introduction of Fish Netting
Various methods and means are employed by man to catch .the for food
and the fishing gear has undergone evolution in different parts of the world
giving rise to various methods of the present‟s day. The methods in use at
particular place depends on the type of fish caught, nature of the river or sea bed
and the available capital .The fishing gear , along with the vessel, auxiliary
equipment and men, constitutes a “fishing unit”. The size of a fishing unit is
determined by the distance of fishing grounds from the shores, handling and
disposal of catch as well as geographical factors .The amount of the catch by a
unit depends upon its efficiency and the productivity of the fishing ground from
the shores, handling and disposal of catch by a unit depends upon its efficiency
and the productivity of the fishing ground .the quantity of fish caught by a
single unit depends upon its efficiency and the productise of the fishing area .
After fishing is done, the craft and gear are subjected to repair and rest, before
going on the next launch. The is called a fishing cycle per day depends upon the
daily pattern of occurrence (density) of fishes, type of fishing of method used ,
geographical conditions of fishing grounds of the fisherman.
The Main Types of Nets are used for Marine Fishing:
Various types of nets are used to catch fish all over the world, and are
prepared to suit the condition of the fishing ground, weather and the species of
fish to be caught .the efficiency of the net depends on its design , size of the
mesh and “tension” on the wedding .Twines of the net made of cotton, silk,
hemp, fibre, or the synthetic material as the nylon, decron, tetron, vinylon, etc.
nets prepared from synthetic fibbers‟ are better being transparent and are
resistant to rotting. A net is also provided with ropes, cables, floats, sinkers,
anchors, stakes, snoods, etc.
Nets are mainly of the following types:
1. Dip Net or Lift Net.
2. Cast Net.
3. Long Line and Hooks.
4. Drift Nets and Gill Nets.
5. Boat- Seines.
6. Trawl or Drag Net.
7. Shore Seines (Rampani Net).
1. Dip Net or Lift Net:
These nets are operator in shallow sea water to capture schooling
mackerels. Its operation is usually done form a boat. The net is lowered down in
water to trap the schooling fishing. The large ones are fixed along the shore and
operated by a long bamboo acting as a lever form a platform also made of
bamboo .Dip Net is known by various names such as “Hela Jal” ,”Kharra Jal”,
“Khourasala Jal”, and “Bhesal Jal” .Bhesal jal is operated form a boat.
Fig. Dip Net or Lift Net
2. Cast Nets:
These are flat and circular but large sized nets, used to capture
small size fishes. It has usually a string. These are having weights or
sinkers along their margin .The net are cast by the sweep of the arm
.when it spreads, fishes are caught in it. Is operator by a single
Fig: Cast Nets
3. Line Fishing:
The fish method has been in use for a long time. Fish is caught by
offering a baited hook and the gear the operated by hand. In a “hand line” one
or more hooks are attached at the end of a cotton line (Dori) whose other end is
tied to long bamboo stick (2-5 meter long), Gold or silver plated hooks are also
known. The bent hook is useful in keeping the fish captive after it has taken the
bite .some people use beautiful hook made of mother -of-pearl, tortoise shell,
whale bone. The various shape and size double by the fish that is unable to
release it and is lifted from the water. A bite is selected carefully considering
the preference of fish and may be an earthworm, prawn, cockroach, caterpillar,
small fish, frog, etc .A mixture made of flour or baked rice and piece of fish
flesh is also used as a bait .a long line consists of a main line and several
pendent branch lines.
Cotton line (dori)
Fig. a Fishing Hook
Fig. a long Line Fishing Hook
Fig. (Hand Line) Fishing
4. Drift Net and Gill Nets:
Drift nets and gill nets are will-like nets of various sizes and meshes. The
yarn is of hemp or nylon and floats are attached to the net to keep it vertical and
straight. Normally light coloured nets for turbid water and dark coloured for
dark waters are selected. The gill nets are commonly used in Tamil Nadu and
Gujarat. Thus ,the fish is caught in the net twine behind the operculum .Hence
these nets are called “gill nets” The net is set in the evening , and hauled the
next morning to collect the entangled fish .The net is used to collect big fishes ,
and there for net with large mesh size mesh and strong twine is used.
5. Boat- Seines:
The nets are generally conical shape, mostly without flanks or wings. A
boat seine consists of an 8-10m long with long wings on each side. The wings
are 30-50 m long having mesh, and in size towards the blind end of bag. The net
is carried by tow boats to the fishing area, where the boats move in opposite
directions paying the net in a semi-circle. The ropes attached to the wings are
tied to the boats.
6. Trawl Nets:
It is very efficient net for capturing bottom living fish and prawns.
Conical bag-like net is attached to a moving boat, and the mouth is kept open. A
common trawl net is about 30 m long, and the wings are 100 m long. It is
operated by one or two bots or fishing vessels. The nets are of two types, „beam
trawl‟ and otter trawl‟, depends upon the method of keeping the mouth open
Fig : . Trawl Nets
7. Shore Seines (Rampani Net):
These are large sized nets made up 100-500 rectangular pieces, Joined
end to end. Each piece may be 3-6m long. The side pieces are of larger mesh of
3-5 cm, but the middle pieces have meshes of smaller size (1-2cm). Floats are
fixed to the upper rope, and sinkers are provided to the lower rope. Long ropes
are attached to both the ends for hauling. One end of the net is held on the shore
by 20-25men, and the net is carried on boats. It is laid in a semicircle to enclose
large area, bringing the other end back to the shore, where it is held by a second
group of 20-25 men. The two ends are pulled and the net is dragged to the shere.
The large net of the karwar coast is called „Rampani net‟.
Various kinds of fishing crafts, designed and built according to local
conditions, are used in different parts of the country. In rivers and reservoirs,
Avery smile circular basket like craft, 4 m in diameter is used. It is made up of
bamboo covered with leather to make it water tight. Along the east coast, the
maram=wood).This is a rudimentary craft made by tying several logs of wood.
Each is 5-10 m long, and is made of 4-7 logs, these of the sides are raised up so
as to give boat- like shape to the craft. A triangular said or paddles with
flattened blade are provided. Logs of wood tied to each other by rope, are joined
by wooden pegs.
Various types of open boats called by different names are for fishing in
different regions. Those used along the Orissa and Andhra Pradesh coast are
called „Macula‟ boats. Each is made of planks of wood joined together with
palm leaf fibres, and is without ribs or frame, and may be about 10m long.
„‟dinghies” and „‟Nuka‟‟ are small boats used in Bengal and Orissa.
In the netting process the nylon net also known called as Drag net is used.
Through the top meshes of net run a thick and strong cord which was held at
either ends by a number of fisherman. This drag net was pulled with the help of
rope and slowly – slowly the most part of the drag net was pulled out by the
workers at corners of the pond. In such a way the big drag net become modified
in to the pouch net or bag net. In this bag net, all the fishers were collected in
the small area.
Several types of nets, traps and hooks are used to catch fish prawns &
crabs. It is difficult to enumerate all the fishing methods in used in various part
of India, and there is no uniformity in the names given to various fishing gears
used in commercial fisheries. Some of these gears are used for catching only;
others for fish prawns and crabs, while some are used for crustaceans only.
Some of the common method and gear are described below.
Fishing without Gear (Hand Picking):
This is probably the simplest method of catching fish, which are caught
by hand in swallow water. In some hilly parts or near dams, water flow out
through narrow channels, the fishes that come out in the shallow channels are
picked up by hand.
Fig. Hand Picking Without Gear
Fig: catfish of hand picking
Spear and Harpoon:
Large sized fish are wounded with the help of spear and float in water so
that they are easily caught .the spear used for hunting a fish has been in used for
hunting a fish has been use sense ancient times and is called a “Konch”.
Harpoon is called „EK-katiya‟ and has a barbed iron point attached to a 3 m
long bamboo shaft .5-8 m o=long spear are used in turbid water. A spar is also
used to spear a fish though holes in the ice. A rope of suitable length is fastened
to every spear, so that it is recovered for rue, after being thrown at a fish.
Certain chemicals when mixed with water affect the nervous system and
paralyse the fish. For example, rotenone prepared from the roots of the plant
Derris elliptic and other species paralyse the fish in 10-15 minutes. Similarly,
under water explosions also kill the fish in large numbers. These methods are
not use in commercial fishery as all the fish are killed indiscriminately.
Vote of thanks
The successful completion of this final report on Fish Neting survey has
ultimately reached to its extreme Point. No doubt this report on Fish Neting
survey has geven me a feeling of satisfaction and happiness.
I owe a deep sense of gratitude to Dr. Abha Mishra, Assistant
Biotechnology, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, for her
inspiring sagacious guidance and incessant encouragement and constructive
suggestion, inspiring and warm blessing throughout the course of this on Fish
At last but not the least, I heartily thanks to my Group Member for their
support and heartily cooperation during the period of study tour in Lucknow.
Rajesh Kumar Gautam