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Prepared by
S.RAJESH KUMAR
PSG TECH
E-mail : srk3rajesh@gmail.com
• Introduction
• Types of nonwoven fabrics
• Nonwoven web forming methods
• Nonwoven bonding techniques
• Finishing of non...
INTRODUCTION
Polymers
Fibers
Yarns
Woven Knitted Braided Non-woven
Fabrics
Application
Woven structure Knitted structure Braided struct...
NONWOVENS IN GENERAL
Definition of nonwovens
Nonwoven is a sheet, web, or batt of natural and/or man-made fibers or filame...
Brief about Nonwoven
• Fibers are the basic element of Nonwovens. The
selection of raw fibers, determines the properties
o...
• To distinguish nonwovens from papers by a Identified material
should contains 30% - 50% of mass content is made up of
fi...
Production Rate
To produce 500,000 meters of woven sheeting
requires
2 months of yarn preparation
3 months of weaving on 5...
Types of
Nonwoven Fabrics
Fabric production stages
The production of nonwovens can be described in three stages,
although modern technology allows a...
Nonwoven Web Forming
Methods
Web Forming by Carding process
Web
• A web is the basic structure of
fiber to fabric nonwovens
• It is a loose mat of fibe...
Air Laid
Wet Laid
Wet laid is similar to paper
making. In Papermaking uses pulp but in
Wet laid uses longer fiber, perhaps...
Spun Bonding
Spun Bonding
Products
Surgical gowns
• Home furnishing/ Bedding
• Geotextile fabrics
• Diaper cover stocks
• House Wrap
• ...
Products
• Filters (Air & Liquid)
• Insulation
• Face masks
• Barriers in Medical diapers
• Hazmat Applications (Oil split...
Products
Baby diapers- standing leg cuff
Adult diapers
Medical Products
Industrial protective apparel
Spun bond - Melt blo...
Nonwoven Bonding Techniques
Different Bonding Techniques
• Needle punching
Hydro-Entanglement
Mechanical Bonding Products
Products
Felt
Geotextiles
Blood filters
Synthetic leather...
Thermal Bonding Products
Products
Upholstery
• Cussion pads
• Heat insulation
• Sound insulation
• Medical Products
• Auto...
cug
Adhesive bonding
Chemical Bonding Products
Powder bonding
• Products
Roofing : Acrylic Weatherability
Water repellency...
FINISHING OF
NON WOVENS
Finishing of Nonwovens
 The production of nonwoven fabrics is carried out as a
continuous process, with fiber or resin as...
Finishing Methods
Chemical Mechanical Thermal-mechanical
Chemical finishing involves the application of chemical
agents a...
Finishing types
Dry Finishing methods
 Shrinkage
 Glazing
 Crabbing
 Calendering
 Pressing
 Perforating
Wet Finishin...
Commercial Nonwoven
Products
• Nonwovens are designed to offer particular characteristics, suitable for
certain use. Their various properties are combi...
2012 Asian Nonwovens Market 2.6 million tones
Source: INDA Estimates & Rory Holmes, INDA-CAB Conference 2012 (www.inda.org)
Nonwoven in
Technical Textiles
Technical Textiles are textile materials manufactured
mainly for their technical performanc...
35
Some examples of Day-to-Day use of
Technical Textiles
Furnishing
Shoulder Pads
Collar / Cuff Interlinings
Waddings in J...
Agrotech – Horticulture,
Agricultural, Forest
Meditech – Personal
Hygiene, Medical
Mobiltech – Car, Ships,
Aircraft, Space...
PRODUCT APPLICATION IN AGRICULTURE ANIMAL
HUSBAN-
DARY
CROP
PRODUCE
FLORICUL -
TURE
HORTICUL-
TURE
POST
HARVESTING
NONWOVE...
Nonwovens are used effectively for optimizing the productivity of crops,
gardens and greenhouses.
In horticultural applica...
39
MEDICAL TEXTILES
Surgical Extra Corporeal Healthcare &
Hygiene
Implantable Non-Implantable
Soft Tissue Hard Tissue Card...
Products
Artificial skin
Wound-contact layer
Wadding, Scaffold
Plasters
Elastic bandages
Non-elastic bandages
Compression ...
Products
• Surgical drapes
• Surgical gowns
• Surgical caps
• Absorbent layer
• Cover stock
• Surgical cloths
• Surgical g...
• The surgical disposables primarily consist of masks, caps, drapes,
gowns, covers and shoe covers made of polypropylene s...
Nonwoven Geotextiles are thicker and made either from short and
continuous filaments, carded or laid in even patterns and ...
Benefits of using Nonwoven in
GeoTextiles
• Cheap and easy to manufacture.
• Superior chemical resistance in even the
aggr...
One of the fastest growing segments in the
nonwovens industry, filtration is characterized by dozens
of end use areas and ...
Micron Air particle filters, with their high arrestance Microfiber nonwovens,
protect driver and passengers of a vehicle f...
• Nonwovens for filtering coolants and lubricants, as well as
washing, phosphating and coagulation baths in the metal-
pro...
- Sound insulation
- Anti-radiation-type construction textiles will be very important in the future.
- Foil, a special fil...
Household Textiles
Nonwoven fabrics can be used in the
following household textile applications:
– Floor coverings
– Uphol...
Automotive Interiors
Facings and structural reinforcement materials are
used in a variety of different applications Includ...
Advantages of using nonwovens
• Easy to recycle and compost
• Easy to convert into pads and shapes
• High tear resistance
...
Pesticide Protective Materials
Three layered Chemical Protective Fabric
Spunbond Pillow Cover Spunbond Grocery Bag
Moistened Hand WipesInsulation High Lofts
Spunlace Wet Wipes
Typical Surgical Gown
(Spunbond - Meltblown - Spunbond)
References
• Giovanni Tanchis,“The Nonwovens-Reference books of Textile
technologies”, April 2008
• Wilhelm Albrecht, “Non...
References
• http://www.towel-roll.com
• http://www.ittaindia.org
• http://www.edana.org
• http://www.inda.org
• http://ze...
Nonwovens & its applications
Nonwovens & its applications
Nonwovens & its applications
Nonwovens & its applications
Nonwovens & its applications
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Nonwovens & its applications

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This presentation gives idea about the non woven fabric types and its applications in the present market.

Published in: Engineering
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Nonwovens & its applications

  1. 1. Prepared by S.RAJESH KUMAR PSG TECH E-mail : srk3rajesh@gmail.com
  2. 2. • Introduction • Types of nonwoven fabrics • Nonwoven web forming methods • Nonwoven bonding techniques • Finishing of nonwovens • Commercial nonwoven products • Nonwoven in technical textiles Presentation Content
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. Polymers Fibers Yarns Woven Knitted Braided Non-woven Fabrics Application Woven structure Knitted structure Braided structure
  5. 5. NONWOVENS IN GENERAL Definition of nonwovens Nonwoven is a sheet, web, or batt of natural and/or man-made fibers or filaments, excluding paper, that have not been converted into the yarns, and that are bonded together in different ways It may also having other names such as Shaped Fabrics (or) Yarn free Fabrics Non-Woven structure
  6. 6. Brief about Nonwoven • Fibers are the basic element of Nonwovens. The selection of raw fibers, determines the properties of the final nonwoven products. • Fiber selection purely depend on Application, customer requirement and cost of Product. • The fibers can be in the form of stable form (or) filament form. Any natural or synthetic fiber could be used in the production of non woven. • Synthetic fibers provide specialized properties , uniformity, and consistency of supply which cannot be achieved by natural fibers. • Bi component fibers are a manufactured fiber having two distinct polymers components may also used in nonwoven manufacturing. • Nano fibers, Glass micro fibers also used in nonwoven Industry
  7. 7. • To distinguish nonwovens from papers by a Identified material should contains 30% - 50% of mass content is made up of fibers (excluding chemicall fibers) • Length to diameter ratio mare than 600. • Density of the fabrics is less than 0.4 g/cm3 • Stitching the fibers or filaments in place • Thermally fusing the fibers or filaments to each other or to other meltable fibers or powders. • Nonwoven structures may incorporate monofilaments or yarns • A nonwoven may be a structural component of a composite Identification of nonwoven
  8. 8. Production Rate To produce 500,000 meters of woven sheeting requires 2 months of yarn preparation 3 months of weaving on 50 looms 1 month for finishing and inspection Non-woven fabric can deliver the same quantity within 2 months from the order received Nonwoven Production cycle
  9. 9. Types of Nonwoven Fabrics
  10. 10. Fabric production stages The production of nonwovens can be described in three stages, although modern technology allows an overlapping of some stages, and in some cases all three stages can take place at the same. That three unavoidable main stages are: 1) Web formation a) Fiber to Fabric (Ex: Carded, Air Laid, Wet Laid) b) Polymer to fabric (Ex: Spun Bond, Melt Blown, SMS) 2) Web bonding 3) Finishing Treatments
  11. 11. Nonwoven Web Forming Methods
  12. 12. Web Forming by Carding process Web • A web is the basic structure of fiber to fabric nonwovens • It is a loose mat of fibers • Webs require bonding for stability Carded fabric Applications: • All fiber to fabric products • Bandages • Some pre-moistened wipes • Apparel Interlinings
  13. 13. Air Laid Wet Laid Wet laid is similar to paper making. In Papermaking uses pulp but in Wet laid uses longer fiber, perhaps blended with wood pulp If more than 70% of material is wood pulp, then that is a paper Application areas: Automotive Hygiene Insulation Wipes Medical
  14. 14. Spun Bonding
  15. 15. Spun Bonding Products Surgical gowns • Home furnishing/ Bedding • Geotextile fabrics • Diaper cover stocks • House Wrap • Roofing
  16. 16. Products • Filters (Air & Liquid) • Insulation • Face masks • Barriers in Medical diapers • Hazmat Applications (Oil split Sorbents) Polymers Gear pumps AirAir Melt blown techniques
  17. 17. Products Baby diapers- standing leg cuff Adult diapers Medical Products Industrial protective apparel Spun bond - Melt blown - Spun bond (SMS) SMS Production stages Spun bond filament Quenching Melt blown layer forming Stretching SMS fabric output Spun bond filament over laying Calendaring
  18. 18. Nonwoven Bonding Techniques
  19. 19. Different Bonding Techniques
  20. 20. • Needle punching Hydro-Entanglement Mechanical Bonding Products Products Felt Geotextiles Blood filters Synthetic leather Blankets Automotive interior trim Carpets etc.,
  21. 21. Thermal Bonding Products Products Upholstery • Cussion pads • Heat insulation • Sound insulation • Medical Products • Automotive heat insulation • Protective wrapping material etc., Nonwovens with bonding agents Infrared heat source Reflector Infrared treatment Embossed roll calendaring Hot smooth calender Embossed cylinder web
  22. 22. cug Adhesive bonding Chemical Bonding Products Powder bonding • Products Roofing : Acrylic Weatherability Water repellency etc., Automotive : PVC copolymers- Sealing performance Flame retardancy etc., • Print bonding •
  23. 23. FINISHING OF NON WOVENS
  24. 24. Finishing of Nonwovens  The production of nonwoven fabrics is carried out as a continuous process, with fiber or resin as the input material and a roll of fabric as output, or as a series of batch processes.  Correspondingly, fabric finishing is carried out either in tandem with web formation and consolidation or off-line as a separate operation.  Nonwovens may be given one or more of a variety of finishing processes as a means of enhancing fabric performance or aesthetic properties.  Performance properties include functional characteristics such as moisture regain and absorbency or repellency, flame retardancy and frictional behavior.
  25. 25. Finishing Methods Chemical Mechanical Thermal-mechanical Chemical finishing involves the application of chemical agents as coatings to fabric surfaces or the impregnation of fabrics with chemical additives or fillers. Mechanical finishing involves altering the texture of fabric surfaces by physically reorienting or shaping fibers on or near the fabric surface. Thermal-mechanical finishing involves altering fabric dimensions or physical properties using of heat and pressure
  26. 26. Finishing types Dry Finishing methods  Shrinkage  Glazing  Crabbing  Calendering  Pressing  Perforating Wet Finishing methods  Coloration  Printing  Anti static finishing  Hygiene finishing  Dust bonding treatment  Absorbent and Repellent finishes (Oil, Static, Water, etc.,) Products  Roofing Felts  Boat Hulls  Floor Coverings  Wall hangings  Dusters etc.,
  27. 27. Commercial Nonwoven Products
  28. 28. • Nonwovens are designed to offer particular characteristics, suitable for certain use. Their various properties are combined together in order to create the required functionalities. • The modern nonwoven technologies are permits to simulate required structures and properties as per market need. Some of the commercially available products are listed below:
  29. 29. 2012 Asian Nonwovens Market 2.6 million tones Source: INDA Estimates & Rory Holmes, INDA-CAB Conference 2012 (www.inda.org)
  30. 30. Nonwoven in Technical Textiles Technical Textiles are textile materials manufactured mainly for their technical performance and functional properties. Nonwovens are the only Technical textiles which offers different qualities to economical solutions for a wide range of applications.
  31. 31. 35 Some examples of Day-to-Day use of Technical Textiles Furnishing Shoulder Pads Collar / Cuff Interlinings Waddings in Jackets Clothing Floor Mops Tea Bags Coffee Filters Kitchen Carpets Vertical Blinds Wall Coverings Railway Tracks Soil Erosion Slope Stabilizations Flyovers Landfills Civil Engineering Masks, Gowns, Caps, Bandage, Baby Diaper, Sanitary Napkin Hospital Factory Dust Collection Filter Bags Liquid Filtration Battery separators Carpets, Roof-liners, Seat belts, Tyres, Airbags Car
  32. 32. Agrotech – Horticulture, Agricultural, Forest Meditech – Personal Hygiene, Medical Mobiltech – Car, Ships, Aircraft, Space Buildtech – Construction, Lightweight engineering Oekotech – Recyling, Waste Disposal Clothtech – Garment, Shoes Packtech - Packing Geotech – Road & Rail Infrastructure Protech – Person & Property ProtectionHometech – Furniture & Furnishing Sporrtech – Sports & Leisure Indutech – Filtration & Chemical Engineering Classification
  33. 33. PRODUCT APPLICATION IN AGRICULTURE ANIMAL HUSBAN- DARY CROP PRODUCE FLORICUL - TURE HORTICUL- TURE POST HARVESTING NONWOVEN FABRICS  MULCHMAT * * *  CATTLE SHED UNDERLAY *  PROTECTIVE CLOTHING * * * * * AGRO TEXTILE • Special textiles that are manufactured for agricultural applications. These textile structures are used as controlling environment for plants/animals in applications like Agriculture, Horticulture , Animal husbandry • Benefits of Agrotextile Products Used in Protected Cultivation For Indian Agriculturists for improved Productivity & Quality of Produce and lower Cost of Production
  34. 34. Nonwovens are used effectively for optimizing the productivity of crops, gardens and greenhouses. In horticultural applications, nonwovens protect the plants against temperature extremes by day and by night, thus creating the foundation for earlier harvests with excellent results. Agriculture & Horticulture
  35. 35. 39 MEDICAL TEXTILES Surgical Extra Corporeal Healthcare & Hygiene Implantable Non-Implantable Soft Tissue Hard Tissue Cardiovascular Modern disposable absorbent hygiene products have made an important contribution to the quality of life and skin health of millions of people.
  36. 36. Products Artificial skin Wound-contact layer Wadding, Scaffold Plasters Elastic bandages Non-elastic bandages Compression bandages Gauze dressing
  37. 37. Products • Surgical drapes • Surgical gowns • Surgical caps • Absorbent layer • Cover stock • Surgical cloths • Surgical gowns • Masks • Wipes • Outer layer
  38. 38. • The surgical disposables primarily consist of masks, caps, drapes, gowns, covers and shoe covers made of polypropylene spunbond fabric (non-woven) with or without polyethylene film. • Ultra disposable surgical gowns protects the medical professionals against the transmission of AIDS, hepatitis and other blood-borne infections. • Surgical masks protect medical and dental professionals from acquiring or transmitting infections. • Non-woven shoe covers protect surgeons from infections and the discharge and adverse effects of static electricity. Ex:SURGICAL GOWN DATA:- Bacterial filtration efficiency : 95% to 98% Air permeability : 25-30 cm3/cm2/sec This shows not only these are safer, these are much more comfortable. Advantages of Disposable products
  39. 39. Nonwoven Geotextiles are thicker and made either from short and continuous filaments, carded or laid in even patterns and then mechanically (needle punched) or thermally bonded. GEO TEXTILES
  40. 40. Benefits of using Nonwoven in GeoTextiles • Cheap and easy to manufacture. • Superior chemical resistance in even the aggressive environment application. • Highly porous structure • Staple fibers needle punched together to form fabric capable of withstanding construction installation stresses.
  41. 41. One of the fastest growing segments in the nonwovens industry, filtration is characterized by dozens of end use areas and applications. Nonwovens can be engineered very precisely to meet exacting specifications and stringent regulatory requirements for the filtration of air, liquid, bacteria, dust, gas and a myriad of other areas. Examples of nonwoven application: Air filtration Liquid filtration Automotive filtration FILTRATION
  42. 42. Micron Air particle filters, with their high arrestance Microfiber nonwovens, protect driver and passengers of a vehicle from pollen, dust, soot and other harmful particles penetrating inside their car via the intake air flow. Air Filtration Air filters for intake, exhaust and recirculated air filtration in indoor climate control systems: Filter mats Pocket filters Activated-carbon Combination filters Cassette filters HEPA/ULPA filters Depth-loading filter cartridges High-temperature filters
  43. 43. • Nonwovens for filtering coolants and lubricants, as well as washing, phosphating and coagulation baths in the metal- processing industry. • Nonwovens for filtering milk, frying fats, drinking water, and blood plasma. • Membrane support nonwovens for filtering fruit juices, enzymes, electro-dip coating and effluents. Liquid Filtration Special Filtration • Respirators • Vacuum cleaners • Kitchen hood filters • Dust removal
  44. 44. - Sound insulation - Anti-radiation-type construction textiles will be very important in the future. - Foil, a special film, combined with materials such as foam thermal insulation products - Resistance to hydrolysis with water, which is important in areas where contact is inevitable PU-ether-based chemical applied to the use of textiles. - Breathable, wind-and rain-proof light houses. Nonwoven applications in CONSTRUCTION
  45. 45. Household Textiles Nonwoven fabrics can be used in the following household textile applications: – Floor coverings – Upholstery materials – Webbings, etc., Nonwoven wall hanging China nonwoven carpet
  46. 46. Automotive Interiors Facings and structural reinforcement materials are used in a variety of different applications Includes: Headliners Trunk liners Door trim Package trays Sun visors Seats In Shoes A broad spectrum of applications including: - Liners - Counter liners - Inter-liners and - Reinforcing materials Membranes and insoles ensure a healthy foot climate and a high degree of foot comfort.
  47. 47. Advantages of using nonwovens • Easy to recycle and compost • Easy to convert into pads and shapes • High tear resistance Rice Bag Example Product: • Food wrap: Meat • Cheese and fish wrappers • Food contact packaging • Tea & coffee bags • Absorbent pads • Sacks, bags & sachets • Envelopes • Sacks and bags • Protection • Sheets, bags, sacks, wraps for delicate products (Ex: electronic products, car bumpers, leather goods) PACKAGING
  48. 48. Pesticide Protective Materials Three layered Chemical Protective Fabric
  49. 49. Spunbond Pillow Cover Spunbond Grocery Bag Moistened Hand WipesInsulation High Lofts
  50. 50. Spunlace Wet Wipes Typical Surgical Gown (Spunbond - Meltblown - Spunbond)
  51. 51. References • Giovanni Tanchis,“The Nonwovens-Reference books of Textile technologies”, April 2008 • Wilhelm Albrecht, “Nonwoven Fabrics”, 2003 • Bernard P Corbman, “Textiles : Fibre to Fabric”, McGraw Hill Book Co., Singapore, 1983 • Pushpa B and Sengupta A K , "Industrial Application of Textiles for Filtration and Coated fabrics", Vol.14, 1992 • The Indian Textile Journal, September 2008
  52. 52. References • http://www.towel-roll.com • http://www.ittaindia.org • http://www.edana.org • http://www.inda.org • http://zend123.en.made-in-china.com • http://www.made-in-china.com • http://www.textileworld.com • http://www.nonwoven-material.cn • http://www.imerys-perfmins.com • http://silvix.koreasme.com • http://engineering.indiabizclub.com

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