NONWOVENS IN GENERAL
Definition of nonwovens
Nonwoven is a sheet, web, or batt of natural and/or man-made fibers or filaments,
excluding paper, that have not been converted into the yarns, and that are bonded together
in different ways
It may also having other names such as Shaped Fabrics (or) Yarn free Fabrics
Brief about Nonwoven
• Fibers are the basic element of Nonwovens. The
selection of raw fibers, determines the properties
of the final nonwoven products.
• Fiber selection purely depend on Application,
customer requirement and cost of Product.
• The fibers can be in the form of stable form (or)
filament form. Any natural or synthetic fiber could
be used in the production of non woven.
• Synthetic fibers provide specialized properties ,
uniformity, and consistency of supply which
cannot be achieved by natural fibers.
• Bi component fibers are a manufactured fiber
having two distinct polymers components may
also used in nonwoven manufacturing.
• Nano fibers, Glass micro fibers also used in
• To distinguish nonwovens from papers by a Identified material
should contains 30% - 50% of mass content is made up of
fibers (excluding chemicall fibers)
• Length to diameter ratio mare than 600.
• Density of the fabrics is less than 0.4 g/cm3
• Stitching the fibers or filaments in place
• Thermally fusing the fibers or filaments to each other or to
other meltable fibers or powders.
• Nonwoven structures may incorporate monofilaments or yarns
• A nonwoven may be a structural component of a composite
Identification of nonwoven
To produce 500,000 meters of woven sheeting
2 months of yarn preparation
3 months of weaving on 50 looms
1 month for finishing and inspection
Non-woven fabric can deliver the same quantity
within 2 months from the order received
Nonwoven Production cycle
Fabric production stages
The production of nonwovens can be described in three stages,
although modern technology allows an overlapping of some stages, and in
some cases all three stages can take place at the same. That three
unavoidable main stages are:
1) Web formation
a) Fiber to Fabric (Ex: Carded, Air Laid, Wet Laid)
b) Polymer to fabric (Ex: Spun Bond, Melt Blown, SMS)
2) Web bonding
3) Finishing Treatments
Web Forming by Carding process
• A web is the basic structure of
fiber to fabric nonwovens
• It is a loose mat of fibers
• Webs require bonding for stability
Carded fabric Applications:
• All fiber to fabric products
• Some pre-moistened wipes
• Apparel Interlinings
Wet laid is similar to paper
making. In Papermaking uses pulp but in
Wet laid uses longer fiber, perhaps
blended with wood pulp
If more than 70% of material is
wood pulp, then that is a paper
Finishing of Nonwovens
The production of nonwoven fabrics is carried out as a
continuous process, with fiber or resin as the input
material and a roll of fabric as output, or as a series of
Correspondingly, fabric finishing is carried out either in
tandem with web formation and consolidation or off-line
as a separate operation.
Nonwovens may be given one or more of a variety of
finishing processes as a means of enhancing fabric
performance or aesthetic properties.
Performance properties include functional
characteristics such as moisture regain and absorbency
or repellency, flame retardancy and frictional behavior.
Chemical Mechanical Thermal-mechanical
Chemical finishing involves the application of chemical
agents as coatings to fabric surfaces or the impregnation of
fabrics with chemical additives or fillers.
Mechanical finishing involves altering the texture of fabric
surfaces by physically reorienting or shaping fibers on or
near the fabric surface.
Thermal-mechanical finishing involves altering fabric
dimensions or physical properties using of heat and
• Nonwovens are designed to offer particular characteristics, suitable for
certain use. Their various properties are combined together in order to
create the required functionalities.
• The modern nonwoven technologies are permits to simulate required
structures and properties as per market need. Some of the
commercially available products are listed below:
2012 Asian Nonwovens Market 2.6 million tones
Source: INDA Estimates & Rory Holmes, INDA-CAB Conference 2012 (www.inda.org)
Technical Textiles are textile materials manufactured
mainly for their technical performance and functional
Nonwovens are the only Technical textiles which
offers different qualities to economical solutions for a
wide range of applications.
PRODUCT APPLICATION IN AGRICULTURE ANIMAL
MULCHMAT * * *
* * * * *
• Special textiles that are manufactured for agricultural applications. These
textile structures are used as controlling environment for plants/animals in
applications like Agriculture, Horticulture , Animal husbandry
• Benefits of Agrotextile Products
Used in Protected Cultivation For Indian Agriculturists for improved
Productivity & Quality of Produce and lower Cost of Production
Nonwovens are used effectively for optimizing the productivity of crops,
gardens and greenhouses.
In horticultural applications, nonwovens protect the plants against
temperature extremes by day and by night, thus creating the foundation for
earlier harvests with excellent results.
Agriculture & Horticulture
Surgical Extra Corporeal Healthcare &
Soft Tissue Hard Tissue Cardiovascular
Modern disposable absorbent hygiene products have made an
important contribution to the quality of life and skin health of millions
• The surgical disposables primarily consist of masks, caps, drapes,
gowns, covers and shoe covers made of polypropylene spunbond
fabric (non-woven) with or without polyethylene film.
• Ultra disposable surgical gowns protects the medical professionals
against the transmission of AIDS, hepatitis and other blood-borne
• Surgical masks protect medical and dental professionals from
acquiring or transmitting infections.
• Non-woven shoe covers protect surgeons from infections and the
discharge and adverse effects of static electricity.
Ex:SURGICAL GOWN DATA:-
Bacterial filtration efficiency : 95% to 98%
Air permeability : 25-30 cm3/cm2/sec
This shows not only these are safer, these are much more comfortable.
Nonwoven Geotextiles are thicker and made either from short and
continuous filaments, carded or laid in even patterns and then mechanically
(needle punched) or thermally bonded.
Benefits of using Nonwoven in
• Cheap and easy to manufacture.
• Superior chemical resistance in even the
aggressive environment application.
• Highly porous structure
• Staple fibers needle punched together to form
fabric capable of withstanding construction
One of the fastest growing segments in the
nonwovens industry, filtration is characterized by dozens
of end use areas and applications.
Nonwovens can be engineered very precisely to
meet exacting specifications and stringent regulatory
requirements for the filtration of air, liquid, bacteria, dust,
gas and a myriad of other areas.
Examples of nonwoven application:
Micron Air particle filters, with their high arrestance Microfiber nonwovens,
protect driver and passengers of a vehicle from pollen, dust, soot and other harmful
particles penetrating inside their car via the intake air flow.
Air filters for intake, exhaust and recirculated
air filtration in indoor climate control systems:
Depth-loading filter cartridges
• Nonwovens for filtering coolants and lubricants, as well as
washing, phosphating and coagulation baths in the metal-
• Nonwovens for filtering milk, frying fats, drinking water, and
• Membrane support nonwovens for filtering fruit juices,
enzymes, electro-dip coating and effluents.
• Vacuum cleaners
• Kitchen hood filters
• Dust removal
- Sound insulation
- Anti-radiation-type construction textiles will be very important in the future.
- Foil, a special film, combined with materials such as foam thermal insulation products
- Resistance to hydrolysis with water, which is important in areas where contact is
inevitable PU-ether-based chemical applied to the use of textiles.
- Breathable, wind-and rain-proof light houses.
Nonwoven applications in
Nonwoven fabrics can be used in the
following household textile applications:
– Floor coverings
– Upholstery materials
– Webbings, etc.,
Nonwoven wall hanging
China nonwoven carpet
Facings and structural reinforcement materials are
used in a variety of different applications Includes:
A broad spectrum of applications including:
- Counter liners
- Inter-liners and
- Reinforcing materials
Membranes and insoles ensure a healthy foot
climate and a high degree of foot comfort.
Advantages of using nonwovens
• Easy to recycle and compost
• Easy to convert into pads and shapes
• High tear resistance
• Food wrap: Meat
• Cheese and fish wrappers
• Food contact packaging
• Tea & coffee bags
• Absorbent pads
• Sacks, bags & sachets
• Sacks and bags
• Sheets, bags, sacks, wraps for delicate
(Ex: electronic products, car bumpers,
Pesticide Protective Materials
Three layered Chemical Protective Fabric
Spunbond Pillow Cover Spunbond Grocery Bag
Moistened Hand WipesInsulation High Lofts
• Giovanni Tanchis,“The Nonwovens-Reference books of Textile
technologies”, April 2008
• Wilhelm Albrecht, “Nonwoven Fabrics”, 2003
• Bernard P Corbman, “Textiles : Fibre to Fabric”, McGraw Hill Book
Co., Singapore, 1983
• Pushpa B and Sengupta A K , "Industrial Application of Textiles for
Filtration and Coated fabrics", Vol.14, 1992
• The Indian Textile Journal, September 2008