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Handbook for Living in the United States (अमेरिकामा बसोबास, सहयोगी पुस्तक)

Handbook for Living in the United States (अमेरिकामा बसोबास, सहयोगी पुस्तक)

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This is a bi-lingual book (Nepali & English) for Nepali-speaking refugees resettled in the USA since 2008. Prepared by Rajesh Koirala, and Douglas Hall. Published in 2012. If you want to read texts of this book, please click here: http://handbookforlivingintheunitedstates.blogspot.com/

This is a bi-lingual book (Nepali & English) for Nepali-speaking refugees resettled in the USA since 2008. Prepared by Rajesh Koirala, and Douglas Hall. Published in 2012. If you want to read texts of this book, please click here: http://handbookforlivingintheunitedstates.blogspot.com/

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Handbook for Living in the United States (अमेरिकामा बसोबास, सहयोगी पुस्तक)

  1. 1. cd]l/sfdf a;f]af; -;xof]uL k':ts_ ;Dkfbsx¿ /fh]z sf]O/fnf 8un; xn Handbook for Living in the United States Editors Rajesh Koirala Douglas Hall
  2. 2. Text Prepared By Lutheran Social Services of New England 261 Sheep Davis Road, Suite A-1 Concord, NH 03301 www.lsnne.org Printed in the United State of America By Gyan Jyoti Kendra 10 Ashley Drive Manchester, NH 03103 www.gyanjyotikendra.org First Edition: January, 2012 Price in the U.S. $14.00 ISBN: 978-0-615-58000-5
  3. 3. ljifo–;"rL à s[t1tf============================================================================================ix à of] lstfasf pkof]lutfx¿===============================================================xiii )!= k'gjf{; ;+:yf ====================================================================================! ● k'gjf{; ;+:yf eg]sf] s] xf] < ● tkfO{+ / k'gjf{; ;+:yf ● k'gjf{; ;+:yfn] s] s] pknAw u/fpg] 5g < ● ;f];n ;]So'l/6L sf8{ ● tkfO{+sf lhDd]jf/L ● c+u|]hL sIffx? ● /f]huf/L ● ;dosf] Vofn ug'{ ● lzIff ● cfTdlge{/ ● cWofudg sfg'gsf] kfngf ug'{ ● sfuhkq ● k'g:yf{kgfsf nflu awfO{ )@= cfjf; ============================================================================================& ● tkfO{+sf] 3/ jf ckf6{d]G6 ● 3/;DaGwL zAbx? ● a:g' jf ;g'{cl3 ● ckf6{d]G6sf] /]vb]v ● efG;f ● efG;fsf ;/;fdfg ● efG;fsf] l8n ● ©f]xf]/ ● p8'; ● 3/ef8f lnFbfsf clwsf/ / lhDd]jf/L ● 3/ ;bf{ ● 3/df tftf]–lr;f]sf] k|aGw ● cfuf]af6 ;'/Iff )#= lzIff===============================================================================================!& ● lzIff ● afnlzIff ● ;/sf/L :s"nx? ● vf]kx? -ODo'gfOh];G;_ ● :s"nsf ljleGg tx ● z}lIfs jif{ ● :s"ndf vfgf ● xflh/L ● oftfoft ● :s"ndf k9fOg] ljifo ● c+u|]hL efiff l;sfO ● u[xsfo{ -xf]djs{_ ● nAwfÍ–kq -l/kf]6{–sf8{_ ● cfr/0f ● cleefjs ;+nUg ● 3/df cleefjssf] e"ldsf ● jo:ssf nflu lzIff ● c+u|]hL efiff l;sfO / ;fIf/tf sIffx? ● lhO8L ● pRrlzIff ● Jofj;flos tflnd ● ;fd'bflos -sDo'lg6L_ sn]hx? ● sn]h / ljZjljBfnox? ● sn]hdf cfj]bg ● sn]hsf] k9fO vr{ ● sn]hsf nflu e'StfgL ● ljb]zL l8u|L÷k|df0fkqsf] dfGotf ● ;+If]kdf )$= ;fdflhs ;]jfx¿ / ;fj{hlgs ;xfotf===============================================## ● sd cfo ePsf kl/jf/nfO{ d2t ● lghL ;xfotf ● ©"8 :6ofDk ● dlxnf, lzz' tyf afnaflnsf kf]if0f sfo{qmd -ljs_ ● d]l8s]8 ● d]l8s]o/ ● P;P;cfO ● 6ofg© ● z/0ffyL{ gub ;xfotf ● cg'bfg ldnfg ● cfjf; ;xfotf ● pmhf{ ;xfotf ● ;fj{hlgs ;xfotf / 5n5fd ● bf]efif]x? ● ;'ljwfsf ljj/0f b'?:t /fVg' ● cfTdlge{/ aGg] nIo )%= :jf:Yo ;]jf====================================================================================$# ● cd]l/sfdf :jf:Yo ;]jfx? ● j}1flgs ljlwx? ● k|f/lDes :jf:Yo hfFr ● lghL :jf:Yo ladf ● :jf:Yo /]vb]vdf ;/sf/L ;xfotf ● d]l8s]o/ ● d]l8s]8 ● d]l8s]8sf nflu cfj]bg ● d]l8s]8sf] k|of]u ● d]l8s]8 ;'ljwfsf] ;Ldf ● z/0ffyL{ d]l8sn ;xfotf ● :jf:Yo ;'/Iff ● 8fS6/ jf :jf:Yo;DaGwL lSnlgsx? ● hfFRg] ;do ● lgoldt :jf:Yo k/LIf0f ● 8fS6/nfO{ e]6bf ● bf]efif]sf] k|of]u ● clu|d :jLs[lt ● uf]kgLotf ● c:ktfnx? ● cfkftsflng :ofxf/ ● PDa'n]G; ● vf]kx? ● d]l8sn k/LIf0fx? i
  4. 4. ● PS;–/], Pdcf/cfO / l;6L :Sofgx? ● ldgfxf / cfly{s ;xfotf ● 8fS6/åf/f cf}ifwL l;©fl/; ● cf}ifwL ;]jg ● cf}ifwLsf] e08f/0f ● bfFtsf] :jf:Yo / bGt–lrlsT;s ● dfgl;s :jf:Yo ● z/0ffyL{x? / dfgl;s :jf:Yo ● lbUbf/L ● c? vfnsf dfgl;s ladf/Lx? ● cfTdxTof ● nfu'cf}ifw / /S;Lsf] s'nt )^= vfB ;'/Iff tyf kf]if0f=====================================================================^# ● :j:y kl/jf/ ● vfgf tof/L ● vfgfsf] ;'/Iff ● sfFrf] / ksfPsf] vfgfsf] k|of]u ● /]lk|mlh/]6/ / lk|mh/ ● efF8fjt{gsf] ;©fO ● ©f]xf]/sf] lj;h{g ● kf]l;nf] vfgf ● df}lns g]kfnL vfgf ● ©n©"n / t/sf/Lx? ● t/sf/Lsf] tof/L ● ;Unf] cGg ● lrNnf]sf] dfqfdf sdL ● g'gsf] dfqf sd ug'{ ● lrgLsf] dfqf ;Lldt ug'{ ● :j:y afnaflnsf ● ;fgf gfgLnfO{ 7f]; vfgf ● vfgf vfg] lglZrt ;do ● kf]l;nf vfBfGg kfOg] bf]sfg ● vfB–:6f]/x? ● s[ifssf] ahf/ ● vfgfdf ljj/0f )&= hflu/ / /f]huf/L===========================================================================&# ● sfdsf nflu tof/ ● sfd ug'{sf] dxÎj ● sfdsf k|sf/ ● sfdsf] vf]hL ● sfd vf]Hg] tl/sf ● hflu/sf nflu lgj]bg ● /]Ho'd] ● cGtjf{tf{sf] tof/L ● sfdsf nflu cGtjf{tf{ ● cGtjf{tf{kl5sf lzi6frf/ ● sfd yfNg'cl3 ● sfddf ;©n /xg] s]xL h'lStx? ● sfddf k'?if / dlxnf ● sfdsf] ;do–tflnsf ● sd{rf/Lsf clwsf/ ● e'StfgL kfpg' ● cfo -cfDbfgL_ ● tkfO{+sf] tna s;/L e'Stfg ul/G5 < ● s/x? ● Go"gtd Hofnf ● cflh{t cfo–s/ pwf/f] ● hflu/df a9'jf ● hflu/af6 al~rt ● a]/f]huf/ ;'ljwfx? )*= JolStut ;/;˚fO / nQfsk8f========================================================*% ● JolStut ;/;©fO ● JolStut ;/;©fOsf pTkfbg ● sL6f0f' ● xft w'g' ● xft slxn] slxn] w'g' k5{ < ● ;©f z/L/ ● skfnsf nflu ZofDk" / slG8;g/ ● z/L/sf] uGwgfzs ● bfFt df‰g' ● bfFtaLrsf] ;©fO ● sk8f w'g] ● sk8f w'nfO ● sk8f w'g] ;fa'g ● nQf–sk8f ● k/Dk/fut n'uf ● :s"n hfFbf nufpg] n'uf ● sfdsf n'uf ● hf8f]sf n'uf ● udL{sf n'uf ● h'Qf ● klx/gsf ;fdfg / gfk )(= :yfgLo oftfoft / cfgf] uf8L=========================================================(# ● :yfgLo oftfoft ● k}bn ● ;fOsnx? ● 6ofS;Lx? ● a;x? ● a; la;f}gL ● a; rNg] ;do–tflnsf / gSzf ● a; l6s6 / lgMz'Ns ofqf ;'ljwf ● /]n ● cfˆgf] uf8L ● gofF jf k'/fgf] ● t]n -UofF;_ vr{ ● uf8L vl/b ● d"Nodf df]ntf]n ● uf8Lsf] e'StfgL ● uf8Lsf] nfnk'hf{ ● uf8L btf{ ● uf8L ladf ● uf8L lg/LIf0f ● lhDd]jf/Lx? ● rfns cg'dlt–kq ● ;jf/L rfnssf lgod ● uf8L b'3{6gf ● gfgLx?sf nflu sf/–l;6 ● ;jf/L / k|x/L !)= /sd Joj:yfkg / a}+lsª===============================================================!)& ● cfo–Joosf] cg'dfg ● vr{sf] afF8©fF6 ● lan e'StfgL ● pmhf{ / k};fsf] art ● ;x'lnotdf lsgd]n ● a}+ssf] k|of]u lsg ug]{ < ● a}+s vftfx? ● a}+s ii
  5. 5. vftf vf]Ng] ● a}+s vftf z'Ns ● dfl;s a}+s–ljj/0f ● vftfdf ;Lw} tna hDdf ● 8]la6 sf8{ ● Pl6Pd ● C0fx? ● cGt/f{li6«o cfk|jf; ;+u7gsf] ofqf C0f ● qm]l86 o'lgogx? ● JolStut ljsf; vftf -cfOl8P_ ● s/x? ● qm]l86 ● qm]l86 ljj/0f ● qm]l86 sf8{ ● cd]l/sL d'b|f !!= ;f+:s[lts ;dfof]hg / PsLs/0f=====================================================!@! ● ;dfof]hg ● ;dfof]hg eg]sf] xf] < ● ;+:s[lt eg]sf] xf] < ● ;dfof]hgsf r/0fx? ● klxnf] r/0fM cfudg ● bf];|f] r/0fM jf:tljstf ● t];|f] r/0fM ;dfof]hg ● tkfO{+n] s] ug{ ;Sg'x'G5 < ● tgfj -lbUbf/L_ s] xf] < ● ;dfof]hgsf nflu cfˆgf] ;do lbg'xf]; ● tgfjsf nIf0fx? ● tgfj Joj:yfkg ug]{ pkfox? ● l5d]sLx?;Fu e]63f6 ● c;n l5d]sL aGg'xf]; ● ;dosf] Vofn ug'{ ● uf]kgLotf ● cgf}krfl/stf / gfdx? ● ;f]Wg' gx'g] s]xL k|Zgx? ● b'O{ JolStaLrsf] b"/L ● z/L/sf] efiff ● kl/jf/df ablnFbf] e"ldsf ● k'?if / dlxnf ● :s"n hfg] pd]/sf gfgLx? ● lszf]/–lszf]/L ● xh'/a'af–xh'/cfdf ● PsLs/0f ● ;f+:s[lts ;Dkbfsf] ;+/If0f ● ;fd'bflos ;+:yfx?df ;xeflutf ● g]kfnL efiffsf] k9fO–n]vfO !@= clwsf/, lhDd]jf/L, / sfg'g==========================================================!#% ● cd]l/sfsf] sfg'g–Joj:yf ● tkfO{+sf clwsf/ ● tkfO{+sf lhDd]jf/L ● lx+;fTds ck/fw ● rfns;DaGwL sfg'g ● of}g–;DaGw;DaGwL sfg'g ● 3/]n'–lx+;f ● b'Jo{jxf/sf k|sf/ ● b'Jo{jxf/ x'Fbf kfOg] ;xfotf ● w"d|kfg / /S;L ● ;]n]lS6e ;le{; ● cfos/ ● k|x/L ● tkfO{+ kqmfp kg'{eof] eg] ● ck/fw / l©tL{ -b]z lgsfnf_ !#= ;'/Iff / cfkftsflng cj:yfx¿=====================================================!$% ● afnaflnsfsf] ;'/Iff ● ;8sdf ;'/Iff ● 3/sf] ;'/Iff ● efG;fdf ;'/Iff ● cfuf]af6 ;'/Iff ● (!! eg]sf] s] xf] < ● (!! df ©f]g ug'{ ● s:tf] cj:yfdf (!! ©f]g ug'{ x'Gg ● k|x/L ● cfuf] ● PDa'n]G; ● kLl8t eP, ;xfotf dfUg'xf]; !$= ;~rf/==========================================================================================!%# ● 3/sf] ©f]g ● ;]n©f]g -df]afOn ©f]g_ ● 6]ln©f]g gDa/x? ● 6]ln©f]gsf lzi6frf/ ● g]kfn jf e"6fg ©f]g ug{ ● 6]ln©f]g lan ● 6]lnlehg ● s]a'n l6eL ● OG6/g]6 ● jN8{ jfO8 j]a -8An'8An'8An'_ ● OG6/g]6sf] ;'/lIft k|of]u ● kqklqsf !%= a'af–cfdf / afnaflnsf==================================================================!^! ● /fd|f] ;DaGw agfpg' ● ;dfj]z ● afnaflnsfsf] /]vb]v ● afn–b'Jo{jxf/ / afn– pk]Iff ● afn–;'/Iff ;]jfx? ● e/0f–kf]if0f ● 5f]/f5f]/L;Fu s'/fsfgL !^= kl/jf/ lgof]hg, uef{j:yfdf :jf:Yo / k|;"lt==================================!^& ● kl/jf/ lgof]hg ● ue{lg/f]wsf pkfox? ● ue{lg/f]wsf ;fwg kfpg] 7fpF ● uef{j:yf ● uef{j:yfdf :ofxf/ ● uef{j:yfdf lrlsT;snfO{ e]6bf ● vfg x'g] / gx'g] ● kfngf ug]{ hLjgz}nL ● cfly{s ;xfotf / d]l8sn ladf iii
  6. 6. ● k|;"ltsf nflu tof/L ● s;/L c:ktfn k'Ug] < ● c:ktfndf s] x'G5 < ● gjhft lzz'nfO{ 3/df :jfut ● 3/df s] ug]{ < !&= hLjgsf k|d'v 36gfx¿==================================================================!&% ● gofF e"lddf k/Dk/fut ;+:sf/ ● hGd ● hGdbtf{sf] k|df0fkq ● kf:gL ● ljjfx ● ljjfx cg'dlt–kq ● ljjfx–btf{sf] k|df0fkq ● d[To' ● d[To'btf{sf] k|df0fkq ● 3f6 ● bfx;+:sf/ ● lqmof–sd{ -zf]s kg]{ ;do_ !*= :yfoL a;f]af; / gful/stf============================================================!*# ● tkfO{+sf] cWofudg cj:yf ● :yfoL afl;Gbf aGg' ● lu|g–sf8{sf nflu cfj]bg ● afof]d]l6«S; ● :yfoL a;f]af;sf nflu cg'df]bg ● ha tkfO{ a;fOF ;g'{x'G5 ● ;'ljwfsf] ;Ldf ● gful/s aGg] lg0f{o ● gful/s x'g' ● cfj]bg k|lqmofsf nflu tof/L ● gful/stfsf nflu cfj]bg ● gful/s aGgsf nflu k/LIff / cGtjf{tf{ ● ljz]if kl/l:ylt, ldnfg / ckjfb ● lg0f{o k|flKt ● lg/Gt/tf / c:jLsf/ ● clwsf/ / ;x'lnotx? ● cd]l/sfdf hGd]sf afnaflnsf ● cd]l/sfaflx/ hGd]sf afnaflnsf !(= cd]l/sfaf/] hfgsf/L=====================================================================!(# ● s]xL tYo ● cd]l/sfsf] If]q©n ● hg;+Vof ● z/0ffyL{ k'g:yf{kgf ● krf; /fHox? ● ;/sf/ ● Oltxf; ● yk dxÎjk"0f{ tYox? ● kfqf] ● ldlt n]Vg] tl/sf ● /fli6«o kj{÷labfx? ● ©/s–©/s ;do ● 8]–nfO6 ;]leª ● yk hfgsf/Lsf nflu ;fj{hlgs k':tsfno m m m iv
  7. 7. Contents à Acknowledgments...................................................................xi à Uses for this Book................................................................xiv 01. The Resettlement Agency......................................................1 ● What Is a Resettlement Agency? ● You and the Resettlement Agency ●WhatWilltheAgencyProvide?●SocialSecurityCard●YourResponsibilities ● English Classes ● Employment ● Being on Time ● Education ● Self- Sufficiency ● Adjustment of Status ● Documents ● Congratulations on Your Resettlement. 02. Housing.....................................................................................7 ● Your Home ● HousingTerms ● Before Moving ● MaintainingYourApartment ● Kitchen ● Kitchen Appliances ● Counter Tops ● Garbage, Trash and Recycling ● Bed Bugs ● Housing Rights and Responsibilities ● Moving Out ● Heating and Air Conditioning ● Fire Safety 03. Education................................................................................17 ● Education ● Child Education ● Public Schools ● Immunizations ● School Structure ● School Year ● School Meals ● Attendance ● Transportation ● Subjects Taught ● English Language Learning ● Homework ● Report Cards ● Behavior ● Parent Involvement ● Parents’ Responsibilities at Home ● Adult Education ● ESL and Literacy Classes ● GED ● Higher Education ● Vocational Training ● Community Colleges ● Colleges and Universities ● Applying to College ● The Cost of College ● Paying for College ● Foreign Degree/ Certificate Equivalency ● Summary 04. Social Services & Public Assistance...................................33 ● Help for Low Income Families ● Private Assistance ● Food Stamps ● WIC ● Medicaid ● Medicare ● SSI ● TANF ● Refugee Cash Assistance ● Matching Grants ● Housing Assistance ● Energy Assistance ● Public Assistance and Fraud ● Interpreters ● Keeping Program Information Current ● Goal of Self- sufficiency 05. Health Care...........................................................................43 ● Health Services in the United States ● Scientific Methods ● First Health Screening ● Private Health Insurance ● GovernmentAssistance for Health Care ● Medicare ● Medicaid ● Applying for Medicaid ● Using Medicaid ● Limits on Receiving Medicaid ● Refugee Medical Assistance ● Health Coverage ● Doctors and Health Clinics ● Appointments ● Routine Medical Exams ● Seeing a Doctor ● Using an Interpreter ● Informed Consent ● Confidentiality ● Hospitals ● Emergency Care ● Ambulances ● Immunizations ● Medical Tests ● X-rays, MRI And CT Scans ● Discounts and Financial Assistance ● Prescriptions ● Taking Medicine ● Storing Medicine ● Dental Health and Dentists ● Mental Health ● Refugees and Mental Health ● Depression ● Other Types of Mental Illnesses ● Suicide ● Drug and Alcohol Abuse v
  8. 8. 06. Food Safety and Nutrition...................................................63 ● Keeping Your Family Healthy ● Food Preparation ● Keeping Food Safe ● Handling of Raw and Cooked Food ● Refrigerator and Freezer ● Cleaning of Dishes and Cookware ● Disposal of Garbage ● Eating Healthy ● Basic Nepali Foods ● Fruit and Vegetables ● Preparing Vegetables ● Whole Grains ● Reduce the Amount of Fat ● Reduce the Amount of Salt ● Limit the Amount of Sugar ● Healthy Children ● Solid Foods for Babies ● Healthy Meal Time ● Shop for Healthy Foods ● Food Stores ● Farmers' Markets ● Food Labeling 07. Jobs and Employment............................................................73 ● Ready for Work ● Importance of Working ● Types of Jobs ● Finding a Job ● Tips to Finding a Job ● Job Application ● Resume ● How to Prepare for a Job Interview ● Job Interview ● Post Interview Courtesy ● Starting A Job ● Tips for Success on the Job ● Men and Women in the Workplace ● Work Schedule ● Employee Rights ● Getting Paid ● Income ● How You May Be Paid ● Taxes ● Minimum Wage ● Earned Income Tax Credit ● Job Upgrading ● Losing a Job ● Unemployment Benefits 08. Personal Hygiene and Clothing..........................................85 ● Personal Hygiene ● Products for Personal Hygiene ● Germs ● Washing Your Hands ● When to Wash Your Hands ● Clean Body ● Shampoo and Conditioner for Your Hair ● Deodorant ● Brushing Teeth ● Flossing Teeth ● Laundry ● Doing Laundry ● Laundry Soap ● Clothing ● Wearing Traditional Clothing ● Clothing for School ● Clothing for Work ● Clothing for Cold Weather ● Clothing for Hot Weather ● Shoes ● Clothing Sizes 09. Local Transportation and Own Car...................................93 ● Local Transportation ● Walking ● Bicycles ● Taxis ● Buses ● Bus Stops ● Bus Schedules and Maps ● Bus Tickets and Passes ● Subways and Commuter Rail ● Buying and Owning a Car ● New or Used ● Gas Mileage ● Buying a Car ● Negotiating the Price ● Paying for a Car ● Vehicle Title ● Car Registration ● Car Insurance ● Vehicle Inspection ● Responsibilities ● Driver’s License ● Driving Laws ● Car Accidents ● Child Car Seats ● Driving and the Police 10. Money management and banking........................................107 ● Creating A Budget ● Using Your Budget ● Paying Your Bills ● Conserve Energy and Save Money ● Save Money Shopping ● Why Use a Bank? ● Bank Accounts ● Opening a Bank Account ● Bank Account Fees ● Monthly Statements ● Direct Deposit ● Debit Card ● ATM ● Loans ● IOM Travel Loan ● Credit Unions ● Individual Development Account (IDA) ● Taxes ● Credit ● Credit Report ● Credit Card ● American Money 11. Cultural Adjustment and Integration..............................121 ● Adjustment ● What Is Adjustment? ● What Is Culture? ● The Stages of Adjustment ● Stage One - Arrival ● Stage Two - Reality ● Stage Three- Adjustment ● What Can You Do? ● What Is Stress? ● Give vi
  9. 9. Yourself Time to Adjust ● Signs of Stress ● Ways to Manage Stress ● Meeting Neighbors ● Being a Good Neighbor ● Being on Time ● Privacy ● Informality and Names ● Some Questions Not to Ask ● Personal Space ● Body Language ● Changing Roles in the Family ● Men and Women ● School Age Children ● Teenagers ● Grandparents ● Integration ● Protecting Cultural Heritage ● Participate in Community Organizations ● Reading and Writing in Nepali Language 12. Rights, Responsibilities, and Laws.....................................135 ● Legal System in the United States ● Your Rights ● Your Responsibilities ● Violent Crime ● Driving Laws ● Laws Related to Sex ● Domestic Violence ● Types of Abuse ● Getting Help from Abuse ● Smoking and Alcohol ● Selective Service ● Income Taxes ● The Police ● If You Are Arrested ● Crime and Deportation 13. Safety and Emergencies......................................................145 ● Child Safety ● Street Safety ● Home Safety ● Kitchen Safety ● Fire Safety ● What Is 911? ● Calling 911 ● When Not To Call 911 ● Police ● Fire ● Ambulance ● When a Victim, Seek Help 14. Communication.....................................................................153 ● Home Telephone ● Cell Phone ● Telephone Numbers ● Telephone Etiquette ● Calling Nepal or Bhutan ● Telephone Bills ● TV ● Cable TV ● Internet ● World Wide Web (WWW) ● Safe Use of Internet ● Newspapers 15. Parents and Children..........................................................161 ● Building Good Relationships ● Be Involved ● Child Supervision ● Child Abuse and Child Neglect ● Child Protective Services ● Support ● Talking to Children 16. Family Planning, Prenatal Health, and Giving Birth....167 ● Family Planning ● Birth Control Options ● Getting Birth Control ● Pregnancy ● Prenatal Care ● Prenatal Visits with Doctor ● Do’s and Don’ts – Food ● Do’s and Don’ts – Lifestyle ● Financial Assistance and Medical Insurance ● Preparing for Delivery ● Going to the Hospital ● At the Hospital ● Taking Your Baby Home ● At Home 17. Major Life Events...............................................................175 ● Traditional Ceremonies in a New Land ● Births ● Birth Certificate ● Rice Feeding Ceremony ● Marriages ● Marriage License ● Marriage Certificate ● Deaths ● Death Certificate ● Funeral Home ● Cremation ● Mourning Period 18. Permanent Residency and Citizenship...............................183 ● Your Immigration Status ● Becoming a Permanent Resident ● Applying for a Green Card ● Biometrics ● Approval of Permanent Residency ● When You Move ● Limits on Benefits ● Deciding to Become a Citizen ● Becoming a Citizen ● Preparing for the Application Process ● Applying for Citizenship ● The Naturalization Test and Interview ● Special Circumstances, vii
  10. 10. Accommodations, and Exceptions ● Receiving a Decision ● Continuations and Denials ● Rights and Privileges ● Children Born in the U.S. ● Children Born Outside the U.S. 19. About the United States.....................................................193 ● Some Facts ● The Size of the United States ● Population ● Resettling Refugees ● The 50 States ● Government ● History ● Other Important Facts ● The Calendar ● Writing a Date ● National Holidays ● Time Zones ● Daylight Savings Time ● Learn More at a Public Library m m m viii
  11. 11. ix s[t1tf n'y/g ;f];n ;le{;]h -PnP;P;_ :jo+;]jsx?sf] Pp6f ;dlk{t k|of;df k|fof]hg ug{ kfPsf]df uj{ u5{ . of] lstfa g]kfnsf ljleGg lzlj/af6 ;g @))* b]lv cd]l/sfdf k'g:yf{lkt u/fOFb} cfPsf g]kfnL–efifL e"6fgL z/0ffyL{x?sf] lxtsf nflu tof/ kfl/Psf] xf] . w]/}hgfsf] k|of; / ;xfotfn] cjwf/0ffaf6 lstfa tof/ x'g Ps jif{eGbf sd ;do nfUof] . n'y/g ;a}k|lt s[t1tf 1fkg ug{ rfxG5 . of] k':tssf] cjwf/0ff rf/ hgf :jo+;]jsx? M 8u xn, ;tg cfrfo{, tf/f cfrfo{ / /fh]z sf]O/fnfsf] cg'ejaf6 cfPsf] xf] . 8u xnn] z/0ffyL{x?sf nflu ;g @))* df c sG;fOh O+ulnz–g]kfnL g]kfnL–O+ulnz l8Szg/L (www. nepalidictionaryproject.org) k|sflzt ug{ yfNg'ePsf] xf] . ;tg cfrfo{, pgsL kTgL tf/f cfrfo{ / /fh]z sf]O/fnfn] cfrfo{åosf] sDkgL P; PG8 6L sDo'lgs];G;af6 ;g @)!) cu:tb]lv kGw|–lbg] g]kfnL Go'hn]6/ cIfl/sf (www.aksharica.com) sf] k|sfzg yfNg'ePsf] xf] . pNn]lvt rf/} :jo+;]jsx? Go' XofD;/ /fHosf afl;Gbf x'g'x'G5 / oxL :jo+;]jL sfo{sf sf/0f Ps–cfk;sf af/]df hfGg'x'GYof] . rf/hgfsf] e]6kl5 pxfFx?n] cd]l/sfdf a;f]af;sf nflu ;xof]u ug]{ Pp6f g]kfnL / c+u|]hL lstfasf] ;+efjgfaf/] 5n©n ug'{eof] . pxfFx?n] n'y/g ;f];n ;le{;]h– nfO{ ;xfotfsf nflu cfu|x ug'{eof], xfdLn] ;xif{ l:jsf¥of}+ . Go' XofD;/ Rofl/6]an ©fpG8];g (www.nhcf.org) n] lstfa tof/ kfg]{ nfut pknAw u/fof] . oL ;a} ;+:yf :yfgLo eP/ klg of] of]hgfnfO{ k"0f{tf lbg k'¥ofPsf] of]ubfgsf] xfdL w]/} k|z+;f u5f}{+ . of] lstfasf] :yfgLo pTkfbg eP klg ljt/0f / k|efj b]ze/ x'g]5 . lstfa n]Vg'cl3 ;tg, /fh]z / 8un] Go' XofD;/ / gy{ Sof/f]nfOgfdf e"6fgL z/0ffyL{sf] nlIft ;d"xdf 5n©n cfof]hgf ug'{eof] . 5n©nsf ;xefuLx?nfO{ cd]l/sf cfPnuQ} oxfF a;f]af; ug{ s] s:tf ljifo hfGg cfjZos 5 / lstfadf s] s:tf hfgsf/L n]lvg'k5{ eg]/ ;f]lwof] . e"6fgL ;d'bfo;Fu sfd u/]sf] cg'ej ePsf ;+:yfsf sd{rf/Lx?;Fu klg lstfasf ljleGg ljifoaf/] d+yg ul/of] . oL 5n©naf6 5 ;oeGbf a9L ljifox?df n]Vg] ;'emfj kfOof] . lstfadf ;dfj]z ljleGg ljifo 5gf}6 k|lqmofdf ;xefuL ;a}nfO{ xfdL wGojfb lbg rfxG5f}+ . o; lstfadf ;d]l6Psf s]xL c+z lnleª Og b o'gfO6]8 :6]6; M nfO© l:sN; ©/ a'?G8L /]ˆo'hLhaf6 :jLs[lt;lxt lnOPsf] xf] . ;g @))* df o'P; sld6L ©/ /]ˆo'hLh PG8 Oldu|]G6; -o'P;l;cf/cfO_ åf/f k|sflzt pSt k':ts cgnfOg (www.refugees.org) pknAw 5 . a'?G8L z/0ffyL{sf] k':tsdf ePsf ;a} ljifo e"6fgL z/0ffyL{sf nflu tof/ kfl/Psf] of] lstfadf /flvPsf 5}gg . o; lstfadf ;d]l6Psf w]/}h;f] ljifox? ljleGg JolSt / :yfgdf ul/Psf 5n©naf6 lnOPsf 5g / e"6fgL z/0ffyL{x?sf nflu dfq dgfl;a 5g . k|ltlnlk–clwsf/ k|fKt cfˆgf ;fdu|Lx? k|of]u ug{ lbPsf]df xfdL o'P;l;cf/cfO;Fu w]/} cfef/L 5f}+ .
  12. 12. x :jo+;]jL ;Dkfbs tyf n]vssf ?kdf 8u xnn] o'P;l;cf/cfOsf] k':tsaf6 lnOPsf ljleGg yk ljifosf c+znfO{ qmddf ldnfpg'eof] . xnn] cltl/Qm ljifo tyf cWofosf c+u|]hL c+zx? tof/ kfg'{eof] . /fh]z sf]O/fnfn] ;a} g]kfnL c+z n]Vg'eof] . sf]O/fnfn] 8n xnåf/f ;+of]lht c+u]|hL c+zaf6 cg'jfb ug'{eof] eg] cIfl/sfsf ljleGg c+sdf k|sflzt s]xL ljifonfO{ klg lng'eof] . /fh]z;Fu g]kfnL kqsf/ tyf n]vssf ?kdf nfdf] ;do;Dd sfd u/]sf] cg'ej 5 . clg sf]O/fnf (www.koirala.com.np) of] lstfasf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ jf:tljstfdf kl/0ft ug]{ sf/s klg x'g . o;/L xfdLn] ljleGg ljifodf n]Vof}+ . clg To;} ljifo;Fu ;DalGwt ljleGg lj1 JolStnfO{ v];|fx? afF8of}+ . pxfFx?sf] k|ltlqmof / ;'emfj dfUof}+ . o; k|lqmofdf klg bh{gf}+ JolStn] ;xfotf ug'{eof] . lstfasf ;fdu|L ;l6s / tYox? ;xL /x'g eGgsf vflt/ xfdLn] pxfFx?sf ;'emfj klg ;d]6of}+ . c+u|]hL–g]kfnL efiff cg'jfbs tyf cbfntL sfjf{xLx?df g]kfnL–efiff ;xfotfsf] nfdf] cg'ej ePsf xf]d If]qLn] k':tssf k|To]s cWofosf b'j} efiffsf ;a} ljifo cIf/zM ;dLIff ug'{eof] . pxfFn] ;a} hfgsf/L / k|:t'ltx?sf ;Gbe{ efiffn] ubf{ ©/s k/]÷gk/]sf] s]nfpg'eof] . of] k|of; ;©n agfpg] ;a}k|lt xfdL s[t1 5f}+ . PdL dflr{N8g lgb{]zs, ;le{;]h ©/ Go' cd]l/sG; n'y/g ;f];n ;le{;]h c© Go' OªuNof08 @^! lzk 8]le; /f]8, ;'6 P– ! s+s8{, Go' XofD;/ )##)!
  13. 13. xi Acknowledgements Lutheran Social Services (LSS) is proud to have sponsored the efforts of a dedicated group of volunteers committed to publishing this handbook. The book is for the benefit of Nepali-speaking Bhutanese refugees who have been arriving in the United States from the refugee camps in Nepal since 2008. Transforming the idea for this book into a reality in less than one year has taken the effort and support of many. LSS would like to acknowledge all involved. The idea for the book grew out of the experiences of four volunteers, Doug Hall, Sattan Acharya, Tara Acharya and Rajesh Koirala. Doug Hall began publishing A Concise English-Nepali Nepali-English Dictionary for the refugees in 2008 (www.nepalidictionaryproject.org). Sattan Acharya, his wife Tara Acharya, and Rajesh Koirala began the publication of a bi- monthly Nepali-language newsletter, Aksharica, through the Acharyas’ company S&T Communications (www.aksharica.com). All four live in New Hampshire and had heard about each other’s volunteer efforts. Shortly after they met, they began discussing the idea of a book that would provide helpful information about living in the United States in both Nepali and English. They asked us at Lutheran Social Services if we would be interested in assisting them, and we agreed. Funding for the creation of this book was provided by the New Hampshire Charitable Foundation (www.nhcf.org). We greatly appreciate their willingness to underwrite this project even though they are a local community foundation and the distribution and impact of this book will be nationwide. Before starting the process of writing the book, Sattan, Rajesh, and Doug conducted focus groups among Bhutanese refugees in New Hampshire and in North Carolina. Participants were asked what information they thought was important to include and what they would want newly arriving Bhutanese to know about living in the United States. Brainstorming sessions were also conducted with staff of a variety of community agencies that had experience working with the Bhutanese. More than six hundred topics were suggested. We would like to thank everyone who participated in this process and helped to determine the topics included in the book. Some parts of the English content of this book were copied with permission from Living in the United States: Life Skills for Burundian Refugees, published in 2008 by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and
  14. 14. xii Immigrants (USCRI) and available online at (www.refugees.org). Many of the topics covered in that work had also been suggested by the focus groups and are just as relevant to Bhutanese refugees as they have been for Burundian refugees. We are extremely grateful to USCRI for permission to use their copyrighted material. As a volunteer editor and writer, Doug Hall organized additional topics into chapters, adapted the USCRI material, and wrote the English text for additional sections and chapters. Rajesh Koirala wrote all of the Nepali for this book. Some of it was translated from Doug Hall’s English version and the USCRI book, while some was taken from material he had previously written for Aksharica. Rajesh’s long experience as a Nepali journalist and writer was also instrumental in turning this book into a reality. (www.koirala.com.np) We circulated early drafts of chapters on particular topics to professionals knowledgeable about the identified subject and asked for their feedback and suggestions. Dozens of people helped in this regard. We have incorporated their suggestions to ensure that the material is accurate and the facts correct. Homa Chetry, an experienced Nepali court interpreter and English- Nepali translator, reviewed the combined Nepali and English texts of each chapter and made suggestions to ensure that the two languages conveyed both the same information and the same tone. Thanks to all for making this a successful effort! Amy Marchildon Director, Services for New Americans Lutheran Social Services of New England 261 Sheep Davis Road, Suite A-1 Concord, NH 03301
  15. 15. of] lstfasf pkof]lutfx? of] k':ts cd]l/sf cfO;s]sf jf cd]l/sfdf rfF8} a;f]af; ug{ yfNg] g]kfnL k9g] t/ c+u|]hL sd} k9g] g]kfnL–efifL e"6fgL z/0ffyL{x?sf nflu tof/ kfl/Psf] xf] . xfdLn] g]kfnL;Fu} c+u|]hL c+z ;dfj]z ug'{sf b'O{ sf/0f 5g . klxnf] sf/0f z/0ffyL{ k'g:yf{kgf ul//x]sf ;+:yfx?nufot w]/} ;fd'bflos ;+:yfx? cf©"n] g} ga'ˇg] efiffdf n]lvPsf] ;fdu|L afF8g tTk/ x'Fb}gg . bf];|f] sf/0f rflxF c+u|]hL efiff l;Sb} u/]sfx?n] o; lstfanfO{ z}lIfs ;fdu|Lsf ?kdf k|of]u ug{ ;Sg'x'G5 . o; k':tsdf /fVg] ljifox? 5gf}6 ubf{ xfdLn] tLg k|d'v k|fyldstfx?nfO{ s]Gb|laGb'df /fv]sf lyof}+ . klxnf] o;sf ;fdu|Lsf] cfo' sDtLdf Ps jif{sf] x'g'k5{ . lstfa 5flkPkl5 g} o;sf ;fdu|Lx? ablnxfNg'kg]{ vfnsf eP eg] lstfa pkof]uL x'Fb}g . bf];|f] k|fyldstf o;df ;dfj]z ;fdu|L ;+o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sf, e"6fg jf g]kfnsf] /fhgLlt;Fu ;DalGwt x'Fb}gg . t];|f] rflxF o;sf ;fdu|L s'g} Ps l;+uf] /fHo, zx/ jf If]qsf nflu dfq geP/ k'/} ;+o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sfe/ nfu' x'g] vfnsf x'g . oxL t];|f] k|fyldstfsf sf/0f s'g} ;/sf/L ;xfotfsf af/]df n]Vbf sl7gfO eof] lsgeg] o:tf ;xfotfaf/] /fHolkR5] lgodx? ©/s x'G5g . xfdLn] hfgLa'emL of] k':ts ;a}n] x]g{, k9g, ;fg{ jf 5fKg ldNg] u/L OG6/g]6sf] ;femf 8f]d]gdf /fv]sf 5f}+ . To;}n] of] k':tssf] k|ltlnlk–clwsf/ s;}df lglxt 5}g . o;sf] cy{ o; k':tssf] s'g} c+z ;fg{ ;lsG5 . olb s'g} k'gjf{; ;+:yf, s'g} cfjf; ;+:yf, :s"n l8l:6«S6 jf cGo :yfgLo e"6fgL ;fd'bflos ;+:yfn] o;nfO{ ;fg{, cf©"n] rfx] cg';f/sf] agfpg jf s]xL c+z yKg rfxg'eof] eg] pxfFx? :jtGq x'g'x'G5 . jf:tjdf cf©" a;]sf] zx/ jf gu/df s;}nfO{ s'g} vf; Ps ljifodf s]xL hfgsf/L rflxPdf ToxL c+z sfd nfUg ;S5 . xfdL To;f] ug{ xf};nf lbG5f}+ . of] lstfa ev{/ cd]l/sf cfPsf g]kfnL–efifLnfO{ k|lzIf0f lbg] sfo{qmddf ;Gbe{– ;fdu|Lsf ?kdf lgs} pkof]uL x'G5 . xfdL tL k|To]s g]kfnL–efifL gjcfuGt's kl/jf/nfO{ Ps k|lt k':ts ljt/0f ug{ ;Nnfx lbG5f}+ . e"6fgL z/0ffyL{ kl/jf/x?sf xh'/a'af–xh'/cfdfsf] k':tf lg/If/ 5 . pxfFx?sf nflu of] k':tsn] gofF b]z / gofF ;+:s[ltaf/] a'ˇg] 3]/f t tf]8b}g . xfdL oxL k':tssf s]xL c+zx?sf >j0f–;fdu|L -;'Gg]–;fdu|L_ agfP/ OG6/g]6df /fVg ;lsG5 ls eGg]df 5f}+ . h;n] >j0f–;fdu|L agfpF5 pxfFx?sf] xfdL ;/fxgf u5f}{+ . of] lstfasf sl/a () k|ltzt ;fdu|L c? efiffdf cg'jfb u¥of] eg] plQs} pkof]uL x'G5g eGg] xfdLnfO{ nfU5 . xfdLn] o;sf s]xL ;fdu|L o'P;l;cf/cfOn] a'?G8L z/0ffyL{sf nflu tof/ kf/]sf ;fdu|LnfO{ cfwf/ klg agfPsfn] xfd|f] c+u|]hL c+zx? ad]{nL, O/fsL jf ;f]dfnL z/0ffyL{sf nflu cg'jfb ubf{ pkof]uL x'g;S5g . o; k':tssf s]xL c+z g]kfnL–efifL e"6fgL z/0ffyL{ / pxfFx?s} ;+:s[lt;Fu ;DalGwt ePsfn] tL ;fdu|L ;fbf{ jf k|of]u ubf{ Vofn ug'{k5{ . xfdL c? :jo+;]jL jf ;fd'bflos ;+:yfx?nfO{ o; lstfasf ;fdu|Lx? c? efiffdf k|of]u ug{ xf};nf lbg rfxG5f}+ . à xiii
  16. 16. Uses for the Book This book has been written for the benefit of Nepali-speaking Bhutanese refugees who are now or will soon be living in America and who can read Nepali but can not read English well. We have also included a parallel English text for two reasons. First, we know that many community agencies, including resettlement agencies, are unwilling to distribute written material that they themselves cannot understand. Secondly, for those who are already at an intermediate level in learning to read English, the dual text can be used as instructional material. In deciding on the topics to be covered in this book we had three criteria that each needed to meet. First it had to have a “shelf life” of at least 12 months. After a book is printed, it is not useful if the information it contains is quickly out of date. Secondly, it could not contain material that would be considered political in the United States, Bhutan, or Nepal. Thirdly, it had to apply across the United States and not be specific to a single state, city, or region. This third criterion makes writing about some public assistance programs difficult because their rules are so different in different states. We are knowingly placing this book in the public domain. It is not copyrighted. That means that anyone can copy it or parts of it. If a resettlement agency, a housing authority, a school district, or a local Bhutanese community organization wants to copy, modify, or add to certain sections, they are free to do so. In fact, in many cases it will be useful to have supplemental information to hand out that gives local readers specifics about their town or city. We encourage that. This book is perfect for use in initial orientation programs for newly arriving Nepali-speakers. We suggest that one copy be given to each family at that orientation session. We know that some Bhutanese refugees, especially the grandparents’ generation, are illiterate. For them the publication of a book does not break the barrier to understanding this new country and new culture. We are considering whether to create Nepali language audio recordings of the text that could be posted on the Internet. We would applaud anyone who does this. We are sure that 90% of the material in this book could be equally useful to other refugee groups if translated into their languages. Just as we have built this book on the base of the material that USCRI published for Burundi refugees, our English may be useful for Burmese, Iraqi, or Somali refugees when translated. There are some parts, however, that are somewhat particular to the Nepali-speaking Bhutanese and their culture, so care should be given in considering what to copy or use. We strongly encourage other volunteers and community agencies to take on a task of making this material available in other languages. à xiv
  17. 17. cWofo ! : k'gjf{; ;+:yf Chapter 1 : The Resettlement Agency k'gjf{; ;+:yf eg]sf] s] xf] < k'gjf{; ;+:yfx?n] cd]l/sL ;/sf/;Fu ldn]/ jif]{lg ljZje/sf xhf/f}+ z/0ffyL{x?nfO{ cd]l/sfdf k'g:yf{lkt u5{g . tkfO{+nfO{ k'g:yf{lkt u/fpg] k'gjf{; ;+:yfn] cd]l/sf cfPsf] ;'?sf s]xL dlxgf tkfO{+nfO{ vfg]–a:g] h:tf cfwf/e"t cfjZostf / ;d'bfodf 3'nldn x'g] ;]jf–;'ljwfx? lbnfpF5g . What is a ‘Resettlement Agency’? Resettlement agencies work with the United States government to resettle thousands of refugees a year from all over the world. Your resettlement agency will make sure during your first months that you receive the services you need to live and join your new community. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― tkfO{+ / k'gjf{; ;+:yf tkfO{+sf] :yfgLo k'gjf{; ;+:yfsf] lhDd]jf/L s] xf] / k'gjf{; k|lqmofdf tkfO{+sf lhDd]jf/L s] s] x'g eGg] rflxF tkfO{+n] a'ˇg cfjZos x'G5 . cd]l/sf cfOk'u]kl5 k'gjf{; ;+:yfsf Ps sd{rf/L, tkfO{+s} kl/jf/sf Ps ;b:o÷gft]bf/ jf tkfO{+n] lrg]sf] s;}n] tkfO{+nfO{ ljdfg:yndf :jfut ug'{x'g]5 . You and the Resettlement Agency It is important for you to understand what your local resettlement agency is responsible for and what you are responsible for in your resettlement. Upon arriving in the United States, a staff person from the resettlement agency, a family member, or other person you know will pick you up at the airport. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― k'gjf{; ;+:yfn] s] s] pknAw u/fpg] 5g < • cd]l/sf cfPkl5 sDtLdf #) lbgsf nflu a:g Ps ;'/lIft tyf ;©f cfjf;sf] Joj:yf u5{g . a;f]af;sf] Joj:yf cNksfnLg -5f]6f] ;dosf nflu_ jf bL3{sfnLg -nfdf] ;dosf nflu_ x'G5 . cNksfnLg eGgfn] :jo+;]jL kl/jf/sf ;fy jf gft]bf/sf ;fy a:g] Joj:yf / bL3{sflng aGbf]a:t eGgfn] tkfO{+sf] cfˆg} ckf6{d]G6sf] Joj:yf x'g;S5 . • cTofjZos ©lg{r/sf] Joj:yf M o;df ;f]©f, 6]a'n, s';L{x? / la5of}gfx? ;+nUg x'G5g . ©lg{r/x? gofF jf k'/fgf x'g;S5g . • cd]l/sf cfPkl5 vfgfsf] aGbf]a:t . 1
  18. 18. • ©"8 :6ofDk ;]jf, d]l8s]8, ;f];n ;]So'l/6L sf8{ kfpg / of]Uotf k'u]sfnfO{ ;]n]lS6e ;le{;df gfd btf{ ug{ ;xfotf . • :jf:Yof]krf/df ;xfotf M 8fS6/sxfF hfg / vf]ksf] Joj:yf . • kof{Kt n'ufx?sf] aGbf]a:t . n'ufx? gofF jf bfg ul/Psf x'g ;S5g . • tkfO{+sf gfgLx?nfO{ :s"n egf{ ug{ ;xfotf . • /f]huf/;DaGwL kl/ro lbg] k|lzIf0f tyf ;xfotf, h:tf] M hflu/sf nflu cfj]bg lbg ;xof]u . • s]xL /sdsf] Joj:yf . pSt /sd Psk6s dfq e'Stfg x'g;S5 . • jf;:yfg, oftfoft, lzIff, /sd Joj:yfkg, clwsf/ / ;f+:s[lts ;dfof]hgaf/] cltl/Qm tflnd . What Will the Agency Provide ? • Safe and clean housing for no less than thirty days after you arrive in the United States. This may be a short-term situation, such as living with a volunteer family or a relative, or long-term, such as your own apartment. • Essential furniture. This includes a couch, table, chairs, and beds. Furniture may be either new or used. • Food when you first arrive. • Assistance applying for the Food Stamp program, Medicaid, your social security card, and selective service (if appropriate). • Assistance getting health care, seeing a doctor, and getting immunizations. • Assistance getting adequate clothing. Clothing may be new or donated. • Help enrolling your children in school. • Employment orientation and support, such as helping you fill out job applications. • A limited amount of cash. This may only be a one time payment. • Additional orientation on housing, transportation, education, health, money management, rights, and cultural adjustment. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― ;f];n ;]So'l/6L sf8{ k'gjf{; ;+:yfsf] ;xfotfn] tkfO{+ / kl/jf/sf k|To]s ;b:on] ;f];n ;]So'l/6L gDa/ n]lvPsf] ;f];n ;]So'l/6L sf8{ kfpg'x'G5 . o;df n]lvPsf] gDa/ / sf8{ b'j} dxÎjk"0f{ x'G5g . Tof] gDa/ tkfO{+sf] hLjge/ sfd nfUg] gDa/ xf] . k|To]s JolStsf] ;f];n ;]So'l/6L gDa/ ©/s x'G5g . Ps–csf{;Fu k6Ss} ldNb}gg . of] sf8{ hflu/ kfpg, a}+sdf vftf vf]Ng, ckf6{d]G6 ef8fdf lng / c? w]/} k6s rflxG5 . of] sf8{ x/fpg' x'Gg . kl/jf/sf ;a} ;b:osf] sf8{ ;'/lIft 7fpFdf /flvlbg'xf]; . of] 2 The Resettlement Agency
  19. 19. sf8{ cgfjZos ?kdf s;}nfO{ glbg'xf]; . cfˆgf] ;f];n ;]So'l/6L gDa/ sG7 ug'{– xf]; . of] gDa/ :jf:Yonufot c? w]/} ;/sf/L ;]jf–;'ljwfx? kfpg el/g] ©f/ddf n]Vg' k5{ . Social Security Card With the help of your resettlement agency, you and each member of your family will receive a Social Security number printed on a Social Security card. The numbers and cards are very important. Your number will identify you for your life. No other person will have the same number. You will need your card to obtain a job, to open a bank account, to rent an apartment, and for many other things. Do not lose your card. Keep all of your family’s cards in a safe place. Do not give your Social Security card to anyone else. Memorize your number. You will need to write it on many forms to receive health care and many government services. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― tkfO{+sf lhDd]jf/L tkfO{+ / tkfO{+sf] kl/jf/nfO{ ;©n agfpg cd]l/sfdf ug'{kg{] w]/} sfdx? x'G5g . o:tf sfd s'g s'g x'g eg]/ Vofn ug{' lgs} cfjZos x'G5 . tL sfddWo] 3/ef8f / lanx? k|To]s dlxgf ltg'{kg]{ x'G5 . tkfO{+ c?sf 3/df a;]jfktsf] /sd g} 3/ef8f xf] . lanx?df lah'nL, kfgL, 6]ln©f]g, UofF; / cGt/f{li6«o cfk|jf; ;+u7g -cfOcf]Pd_ sf] ofqf–vr{sf] C0f k5{g . Your Responsibilities There are many things that are important for you and your family to do to succeed in the United States. These are very important things to remember. Pay your rent and bills every month. Your rent pays for your housing. Your bills may include paying for electricity, water, telephone, gas, and IOM travel loan. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― c+u|]hL sIffx¿ c+u|]hL sIffx? lng'xf]; . k'gjf{; ;+:yfn] tkfO{+nfO{ c+u|]hL sIffdf egf{ x'g d2t u5{g . :yfgLo ;d'bfox?n] o:tf sIff lbgsf s'g} ;dodf klg Joj:yf ug{ ;S5g . k'gjf{; ;+:yfn] tkfO{+sf] ;do;Fu ldNg] c+u|]hL sIff kQfnufpg d2t u5{g . /fd|f] hflu/ kfpg / ;d'bfodf 3'nldn x'g ;lhnf] x'g] ePsfn] c+u|]hL l;Sg h?/L x'G5 . English Classes Take English classes. The resettlement agency can help you enroll in classes. Classes in local communities are offered at various times of day. k'gjf{; ;+:yf 3
  20. 20. The resettlement agency will do its best to help you find classes that fit your schedule. Learning English is important because it will help you get a better job and communicate more easily with people in your community. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― /f]huf/L tkfO{+n] hflu/ vfg cfjZos x'G5 . sfd u/]kl5 tkfO{+n] 3/ef8f / lanx? ltg'{ x'G5, vfg]s'/f / sk8f lsGg'x'G5 . Psflt/ k'gjf{; ;+:yfn] lbg] ;xfotf ;Lldt x'G5g eg] csf{lt/ ;/sf/L ;'ljwf tkfO{+ / kl/jf/sf nflu sd x'g ;S5g . hflu/ vfof] eg] cfTdlge{/ x'g ;lsG5, clg ;Lk l;lsG5 / cg'ej a6'lnG5 . Employment You will need to work. Working is necessary so you can pay your rent and bills, and buy food and clothes. Assistance from the resettlement agency is limited and public benefits may not provide enough for what you and your family need. Having a job will help you be self-sufficient and gain skills and experience. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― ;dosf] Vofn ug'{ hflu/sf nflu s;}nfO{ e]6g' 5 eg] jf hflu/ vfg yfNg'eof] eg] hlxn] klg l7s ;dodf k'Ug'xf]; . cd]l/sfdf ;dodf k'Ug lgs} h?/L x'G5 . ca]nf ug'{ /fd|f] dflgFb}g . sfddf l9nf] k'Ug' eof] eg] tkfO{+sf xflsd l/;fpF5g / o;n] ubf{ tkfO{+sf] hflu/ hfg ;S5 . :jf:Yo k/LIf0fsf nflu tkfO{+ 8fS6/sxfF l9nf] k'Ug'eof] eg] 8fS6/n] tkfO{+nfO{ ghfFRg ;Sg'x'G5 . pxfF;Fu csf{]k6s hfFRgsf nflu ;do ldnfpg lgs} ufx|f] klg x'G5 . Being on Time Arrive to appointments and work ON TIME. In the United States, being on time is very important. If you arrive late to work, your boss will not be happy and it could cause you to lose your job. If you are late to a doctor’s appointment, your appointment may be canceled and it may be hard to reschedule it. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― lzIff tkfO{+n] 5f]/f5f]/L :s"n k7fpg' k5{ . cd]l/sfdf sfg'gcg';f/ gfgLx? :s"n hfg} k5{ . gfgLx? ;dodf :s"n k'Ug}k5{ . gfgL :s"n k'Ug l9nf] jf uon x'g] eP :s"ndf va/ u/]/ l9nf] x'g' jf ghfg'sf] sf/0f v'n:t kfg'{xf]; . :s"naf6 k7fOPsf ;a} ;"rgf k9g'xf]; . To:tf ;"rgf k9g hfGg' x'Gg jf a'ˇg' ePg eg] c? s;}nfO{ k9g cg'/f]w ug'{xf]; . 4 The Resettlement Agency
  21. 21. Education Make sure your children attend school. In the United States, all girls and boys are required by law to go to school. Children must arrive at school on time. Call the school to explain if your children are going to be late or absent. Read all notices sent to you by the school. Get assistance if you cannot read them or do not understand them. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― cfTdlge{/ sfd ubf{ cfTdlge{/ x'g / cfˆgf cfjZostf k"/f ug{ ;lsG5 . cfTdlge{/ x'g' eg]sf] ;/sf/, k'gjf{; ;+:yf, :jo+;]jsx? jf c? JolStdfly e/ gkg'{ xf], h:tf] M tkfO{+n] sfd ug'{eof] eg] cf©"nfO{ vfBfGg / nQfsk8f lsGg ;Sg'x'G5 . Self-Sufficiency Work towards being independent and providing for yourself. Being independent means not relying on the government, the resettlement agency, volunteers, or other people for assistance. For example, when you have a job, you can buy your own food and clothing. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― cWofudg sfg'gsf] kfngf ug'{ cWofudg sfg'gcGtu{t /xg'xf]; . cd]l/sf cfPsf] Ps jif{ ePkl5 tkfO{+n] sfg'gL ?kdf :yfoL afl;Gbfsf ?kdf /xg -jf …lu|g–sf8{Ú_ sf nflu xf]dNof08 ;]So'l/6L ljefudf cfj]bg lbg'k5{ . eljiodf cd]l/sL gful/stf k|fKt ug{sf nflu cWofudg sfg'gsf kfngf ug'{ clgjfo{ x'G5 . Adjustment of Status Adjust your immigration status. After you have lived in the United States for one year, you need to apply for an adjustment of status to legal permanent resident (or “green card”) with the Department of Homeland Security. Adjusting your immigration status is an important step to becoming a U.S. citizen in the future. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― sfuhkq ;a} sfuhkqx? htg ug'{xf]; . tL sfuhkqx? dxÎjk"0f{ x'G5g . To;}n] ldnfP/ /fVg'xf]; . ;'/lIft /fVg'xf]; . htg ug'{kg]{ To:tf sfuhkqx?– 3/ef8f lnFbf 3/a]6L / tkfO{+aLrsf] ;Demf}tf–kq, vf]k nufPsf k|df0fx?, cf}ifwf]krf/sf sfuhkq, cfO– ($ sf8{, ©f]6f];lxtsf] kl/ro–kq tyf ©"8 6ofDksf] ;"rgf / d]l8s]8 kfpg of]Uo 7x/fOPsf] sfuh cflb x'g . o:tf sfuhkq x/fP eg] k'gjf{; ;+:yfnfO{ tTsfn hfgsf/L lbg'xf]; . k'gjf{; ;+:yf 5
  22. 22. Documents Take care of all of your documents and paperwork. Keep your important papers organized and in a safe place. These include your apartment lease, immunization records, medical reports, I-94 card, photo ID, and notices of food stamp and Medicaid eligibility. Let your resettlement agency know immediately if your lose any of them. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― k'g:yf{kgfsf nflu awfO{ cd]l/sfdf a:b} hfFbf ;lhnf] dx;'; ug{ ;do nfU5 . z/0ffyL{sf ?kdf tkfO{+ olt 6f9f cfO;Sg'ePsf] 5 / gofF b]zdf a;fOF ;g{] lxDdt klg b]vfpg' eO;s]sf] 5 . cd]l/sfdf ;©n x'g tkfO{+;Fu cfTdan 5 . gofF 7fpFdf ;©n x'g ;Sg'xf]; / hLjgofkg ;lhn} ug{ ;Sg'xf]; – xfd|f] z'esfdgf 5 . Congratulations on Your Resettlement As hard as it may be at times to adjust to living in the United States, as a refugee you have already come far and shown a lot of courage to move to a new country. You have the resilience and strength to succeed in the United States. We wish you the best of luck in moving forward and making a life for you and your family in your new community. m m m 6 The Resettlement Agency
  23. 23. cWofo @ : cfjf; Chapter 2 : Housing tkfO{+sf] 3/ jf ckf6{d]G6 tkfO{+ / kl/jf/sf nflu :jR5, ;©f / ;:tf] -cfDbfgLcg';f/sf]_ cfjf; cTofjZos x'G5 . cf©" a:g] 3/ jf ckf6{d]G6nfO{ ;©f / /fd|f] cj:yfdf /fVg' tkfO{+sf] lhDd]jf/L xf] . Your Home A safe, clean, and affordable home for you and your family is very important. It is your responsibility to keep your apartment clean and in good condition. ―――― ᴥ ᴥ ―――— 3/;DaGwL zAbx¿ 6]GofG6 -ls/fofbf/÷ef8fjfn_ M c?sf] 3/ jf ckf6{d]G6df a;]jfkt /sd ltg]{ JolSt jf JolStx?nfO{ ls/fofbf/ elgG5 . tkfO{+ ls/fofbf/ x'g'x'G5 . NofG8nf]8{ -3/a]6L÷3/wgL_ M 3/ jf ckf6{d]G6sf] dflns -3/a]6L_ xf] . pxfFn] tkfO{+nfO{ ef8f ltg]{ u/L s'g} 7fpF pknAw u/fPsf] x'G5 . pxfF, tkfO{+ a;]sf] 3/sf] dflns -3/a]6L_ x'g'x'G5 . lnh -s/f/÷;Demf}tf_ M lnh eg]sf] ls/fofbf/ / 3/a]6LaLr ul/g] sfg'gL sfuh xf] . ls/fofbf/n] o:tf] sfuhdf ;xL u/]kl5 dlxgf–dlxgfdf ef8f ltg'{k5{ / To;df n]lvPsf] cjlwe/ dfq To; 3/df a:g ldN5 . ;]So'l/6L l8kf]lh6 -w/f}6L_ M w/f}6Ljfkt s]xL /sd ls/fofbf/n] 3/a]6LnfO{ lt/]sf] x'G5 . ls/fofbf/ a;]s} a]nf s]xL 6'6©'6 eP jf eTs]÷lau|]df oxL /sdaf6 dd{t ul/G5 . slxn]sfxLF 3/ef8fafkt /sd ltg{ afFsL /x] klg oxL /sdaf6 e'Stfg ul/G5 . Housing Terms Atenant is the person or persons paying money to live in the apartment or house. You are a tenant. A landlord is the person who owns the apartment or house, rents the space to you, and is in charge of the building. A lease is a legal document between a tenant and a landlord. When the tenant signs a lease he or she agrees to pay a monthly rent and live in the apartment for a certain period of time. A security deposit is money the tenant pays the landlord. This money covers damages that may occur while the tenant is renting or covers any unpaid rent the tenant owes the landlord. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― 7
  24. 24. a:g' jf ;g'{cl3 tkfO{+ s'g} ckf6{d]G6df a:g' jf ;g'{cl3 tkfO{+ jf tkfO{+sf s]; d]g]h/n] 3/a]6L;Fu pSt ckf6{d]G6sf] rf]6f–sf]7f x]g'{kg]{5 . lau|]÷eTs]sf] eP, dd{t ug'{kg]{ 7fpF jf ;/;fdfg ©]nf kfg'{x'G5 . o;f] ug'{eof] eg] tkfO{+nfO{ 3/ ;g]{ a]nfdf w/f}6L l©tf{ ug{ d2t u5{ . Before Moving Before you move in, you or your case manager should walk through the apartment with your landlord to identify any damage or things that need fixing. This will help you get your security deposit back when you move out. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― ckf6{d]G6sf] /]vb]v sDtLdf xKtfsf] Pslbg cfˆgf] ckf6{d]G6 Eofs'd lSng/n] ;©f ug'{xf]; . sfk]{6 gcf]5ofOPsf] e'OFnfO{ s"rf] / n'F8f]n] ;©f ug'{xf]; . s]xL kf]lvP t'?Gt ;fa'g / kfgLn] ;©f ul/xfNg'xf]; . sfk]{6 / e'O“ M sfk]{6 / e'OF ;©f /fVg cfˆgf] ckf6{d]G6leq k:bf h'Qf aflx/} vf]Ng] ug'{xf]; . cfˆgf] ckf6{d]G6 ;©f /fVgfn] ls/f -p8';_ / d';f cfpFb}gg . o;af6 tkfO{+sf] kl/jf/ :j:y /xG5 eg] csf]{ 7fpFdf ;bf{ w/f}6L l©tf{ kfOG5 . afy?dsf] ;/;˚fO M ;ftfsf] Psk6s afy?d ;©f ug}{k5{ . afy?d eGgfn] o;sf] e'OF, 6jfOn]6sf] leq–aflx/, xft–d'v w'g] efF8f] -l;Í_, g'xfpg] 8'F8 -afy6a_ / zfj/ eGg] a'lemG5 . 9n 6flnlbg ;Sg] skfn jf cGo o:tf j:t' kfgL;Fu gaufpg'xf]; . afy6a / l;Ídf n'uf gw'g' xf]nf . o;f] ug'{eof] eg] aflx/ kfgL kf]lvg ;S5 / e'OF lr;f]–lrKnf] x'G5 . 6jfOn]6sf ;d:ofx¿ M 6jfOn]6sf] leqL efu ;©f ug{ a'?; k|of]u ug'{xf]; . 6jfOn]6 ;©f ug]{ a'?; c? 7fpF ;©f ug{ k|of]u gug'{xf]; . g5'g] -dlxgfjf/L_ ePsL dlxnfn] nufpg] :oflg6/L 6fjn, vfg]s'/f jf w]/} 6jfOn]6 k]k/ 6jfOn]6df gˆofFSg'xf]; . o:tf j:t' ˆn; -kfgLn] aufpg]_ gug'{xf]; . 6jfOn]6 el/of] jf 6flnof] eg] 3/a]6LnfO{ va/ ug'{xf]; . kfgL r'lxP–kf]lvP M zfj/sf] kfgL aflx/ cfpg glbg afy6adf kbf{ -zfj/ s6]{g_ xfNg'xf]; . e'OFsf] kfgL ;w}F k'5g'xf]; . kfgLaflx/ cfpg glbg'xf]; lsgeg] o;n] e'OF lrKnf] x'G5 / e'OFdf k|of]u ePsf] sf7 jf cGo j:t' kfgLn] ;8fpF5 . Maintaining Your Apartment At least once a week, clean your apartment with a vacuum cleaner. Use a broom and mop to clean floors that do not have carpet. Clean up spills with soap and water immediately. Carpets and Floors: Remove shoes when you enter your apartment to 8 Housing
  25. 25. help keep the carpets and floors clean. Keeping your apartment clean will help prevent attracting bugs and mice. It will also help your family stay healthy and help you get your security deposit back when you move out. Cleaning the Bathroom : The bathroom must be cleaned weekly. This includes the floor, the inside and outside of the toilet, sink, and bathtub and/or shower. Do not allow hair or other items to go down the drain or the drain may get clogged. Do not use the bathtub or sink to wash clothes because water will spill onto the floor. Toilet Problems: Use a brush to clean inside the toilet. Do not use the toilet brush for anything else. Never flush female sanitary products, food, or large amounts of toilet paper down the toilet. If the toilet overflows, call your landlord immediately. Water Leaks and Spills : Keep the shower curtain inside the bathtub and always clean up water on the floor. Do not allow water to escape onto the floor because it can cause flooding and water damage. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― efG;f tkfO{+sf] ckf6{d]G6df ;©f /fVg'kg]{ dxTjk"0f{ If]q eg]sf] efG;f xf] . efG;fdf w]/} ;/;fdfgx? x'G5g . tLdWo] s'g} tkfO{+sf nflu gofF x'g;S5g . Kitchen An important area of your apartment to keep clean is the kitchen. The kitchen has many appliances, some that may be new to you. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― efG;fsf ;/;fdfg :6f]e / cf]eg -r'nf]_ M :6f]edf vfgf ksfpFbf ;w}F sd jf dWod vfnsf] tftf]df ksfpg ;'? ug'{xf]; / clg lj:tf/} rflxFg] tftf] 36L jf a9L u/]/ ldnfpg'xf]; . ;aeGbf tftf]df vfgf ksfpg' eof] eg] efF8f] jf vfgf 89g ;S5 . cf]egdf vfgf, jf df;' jf kfp/f]6L ksfpg' kbf{ tfkqmd #%) b]lv $)) l8u|L ©x/]– gxfO6 /fVg'xf]; . …a|fOnÚ ;+s]t eg]sf] rflxF vfgf ksfpFbf Hjfnf k|of]u x'G5 . of] lgs} tftf] x'G5 / vfgf rfF8f] 895 . tkfO{+sf] r'nf] UofF;af6 rNg] vfnsf] 5 eg] of] /fd|/L an]sf] 5 jf 5}g Vofn ug'{xf]; . olb UofF; /fd|/L gan]sf] / s'lxPsf] c08f h:tf] uGxfPsf] 5 eg] c?sf] d2t lng'xf]; . :6f]e / cf]egsf] ;/;˚fO M cf]eg / :6f]edf kf]lvPsf vfg]s'/f ;]nfpgf;fy ;©f ul/xfNg'xf]; . :6f]e lbgx'F ;©f ug'{xf]; . kf]lvPsf jf 89]sf vfg]s'/f / lrNnf] vt/gfs x'G5g . Ps t g/fd|f] uGxfpF5g, clg o;}sf sf/0f ls/f, d';f / 5'r'Gb|f cfpF5g . /]lk|mlh/]6/÷lk|mh/ M vfg]s'/f lr;f] / tfhf /fVg efG;fdf Pp6f /]lk|mlh/]6/ cfjf; 9
  26. 26. x'G5 . o;df b"w, t/sf/L, bxL, df;' / c08f /fVg'xf]; . lk|mh/ rflxF /]lk|mlh– /]6/sf] Pp6f efu xf], hf] cem lr;f] x'G5, h;df kfgL hd]/ a/© aG5 . hdfOPsf] cj:yfd} lslgPsf vfg]s'/f lk|mh/df /fVg'xf]; . olb tkfO{+n] o;df df;' /fVg' eof] eg] Tof] hD5 / s8f x'G5 . o;nfO{ w]/} ;dosf nflu /fVg ;lsG5 . ksfPsf vfg]s'/f a§fdf jf kf]sf] kf/]/ /fVg'k5{ . klxnf h] vfg]s'/f NofP/ /flvPsf] xf], klxnf ToxL vfg', ksfpg' jf k|of]u ug'{k5{ . emf]n vfg]s'/f kf]lvof] eg] ;+ej eP;Dd rfF8} ;©f ul/xfNg'k5{ . l8;jf;/ -ef“8f df‰g] pks/0f_ M l8;jf;/n] sfF6f–rDrf / efF8fjt{gdf ePsf sL6f0f'x?nfO{ df5{ . o;n] efF8f df‰b}g jf 6fFl;Psf] vfgf ;©f ub}{g . l8;jf;/df efF8fjt{g xfNg'cl3 yfn–srf}/fdf 5fl8Psf vfgf hlxn] klg ©f]xf]/ xfNg] jt{gdf xfNg'xf]; / efF8f kvfNg'xf]; . l8;jf;/sf nflu dfq elgPsf] ;fa'g o;df k|of]u ug{'xf]; . xft jf n'uf w'g agfOPsf emf]n–;fa'g l8;jf;/df k6Ss} k|of]u gug'{xf]; . l;° / ˚f]xf]/ Joj:yfkg M efG;fdf x'g] s'g} l;Ídf ;8g;Sg] ©f]xf]/ ˆofFSg] Joj:yf -ufa]{h l8:kf]hn_ ul/Psf] x'G5 . of] lah'nLn] rNg] x'G5 . o;leq uPsf vfgfaf6 lgl:sPsf ©f]xf]/ 6'lqmG5g / kfOk x'Fb} hfG5g . l;Íglhs} o;nfO{ vf]Ng] / aGb ug]{ l:jr x'G5 . kfgL alu/x]sf a]nfdf dfq of] ufa]{h l8:kf]hn vf]Ng'xf]nf . ufa]{h l8:kf]hndf wft', xf8, c08fsf af]qmf, ©n©"nsf aLp, Kofh, ;]n/L jf vfgf– afx]s cGoqaf6 cfPsf j:t' gxfNg'xf]nf . ufa]{h l8:kf]hn 6flnof] eg] kfgL el/P/ l;Í;Dd cfOk'U5 . l8:kf]hnleq xft gxfNg'xf]nf, rf]6 nfU5 . olb efG;fsf] l;Ísf] ufa]{h l8:kf]hn lah'nLn] rNb}g eg] o;df s'g} ©f]xf]/ xfNg' x'Fb}g . Kitchen Appliances Stove and Oven : When cooking food on top of the stove, always begin on low or medium heat and then adjust. If you begin on high heat, you may burn the food or pan. To use the oven to cook food, or bake meat or bread, place the dial on 350 to 400 degrees Fahrenheit. The “broil” setting uses flames to cook food. It becomes very hot and can quickly burn your food. If you have a gas stove or oven, be sure that the flame lights right away. If you smell an odor like rotten eggs, turn off the gas immediately and seek help. Cleaning the Oven and Stove : Clean any spilled food in the oven and on the stove as soon as they have cooled. Clean your stove daily. Spilled or burned food and grease are dangerous. They smell bad and attract bugs, rats, and mice. Refrigerator/Freezer : Your kitchen has a refrigerator to keep food cold and fresh. Keep milk, vegetables, yogurt, meat, and eggs in the refrigerator. The freezer is the part of the refrigerator that is much colder 10 Housing
  27. 27. and freezes water to ice. Keep in the freezer any foods that are already frozen when you buy them. If you put meat in the freezer, it will become hard and frozen and you can keep it longer. Cooked food should be kept after wrapping tightly. Use the First In, First Out (FIFO) method when getting food from the refrigerator. Clean any spills as soon as possible. Dishwasher : A dishwasher kills germs on dishes and silverware. It does not scrub dishes or take the place of a garbage disposal. Always put food scraps into the garbage and rinse the dishes before putting them into the dishwasher. You must use a special soap designed for the dishwasher. Never use liquid hand soap or laundry detergent in the dishwasher. Sink and Garbage Disposal : Some kitchen sinks have electric garbage disposals that shred food waste so it can pass through the plumbing. There is an on/off switch next to the sink. You should only turn the garbage disposal on when the water is on. Never put metal, bones, egg shells, fruit pits, onions, celery, or non-food items down the garbage disposal. If your garbage disposal becomes stuck, water may back up in the sink. Never put your hands inside the disposal or you may injure yourself. If your kitchen sink does not have an electric garbage disposal, do not put garbage down the drain. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― efG;fsf] l8n c+u|]hLdf …sfpG6/ 6kÚ eg]sf] r'nf] jf l;Ídf hf]l8Psf] ;tx -vfnL l8n_ xf] . r'nf]sf] vfnL l8ndf tftf] efF8f] ;Lw} g/fVg'xf]; . l8n 89g glbg tftf] efF8f] /fVg agfOPsf Kof8 jf tftf] efF8f]sf nflu agfOPsf tf}lnof k|of]u ug'{xf]; . Counter Tops Never put a hot pan directly on a counter top. Use a hot pad or dish towel under the hot pan to avoid burning the counter. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― ˚f]xf]/ ;8g] ˚f]xf]/ M ;8g] ©f]xf]/ cfˆgf] ckf6{dG6df ePsf] ©f]xf]/ xfNg] efF8f]df ©fNg'xf]; . ©f]xf]/ ©fNg] efF8f]leq Knfl:6ssf] y}nf] xfn]kl5 dfq ToxL y}nf]df kg]{ u/L ©f]xf]/ ˆofFSg'xf]; . ©f]xf]/sf] y}nf] lbgx'F 3/aflx/ nfg'xf]; / ©f]xf]/ xfNg] 7"nf] efF8f]df ˆofFSg'xf]; . o;f] ubf{ d';f / ls/f 3/leq cfpgaf6 /f]lsG5g . ©f]xf]/nfO{ ckf6{d]G6sf] sl/8/ -;a}sf sf]7faflx/sf] cf]xf]/bf]xf]/ ug]{ 7fpF_ df slxNo} g5f8g'xf]; . g;8g] ˚f]xf]/ M g;8g] ©f]xf]/x? h:t}– /2L sfuh, sfuhsf afs;, af]tn / 8Aafx?nfO{ tf]lsPsf a]Unfa]Un} efF8f jf 7fpFdf /fVg'k5{ . gu/kflnsfn] o:tf cfjf; 11
  28. 28. 3/fozL ©f]xf]/ lglZrt lbg / ;dodf p7fpg] u5{g . tkfO{+sf 3/a]6Ln] ©f]xf]/ slxn] / sxfF nfg'k5{ eGg] atfpg' x'g]5 . k'gMk|of]u M w]/}h;f] zx/df ©f]xf]/sf k|sf/sf cfwf/df 5'6ofP/ ©/s efF8f]df /fVg] ul/G5 . ;fdfGotofM Knfl:6ssf af]tn, Pn'ldlgodsf 8Aafx?, l;;f, sfuh / wft'nfO{ vfgfaf6 cfPsf ©f]xf]/eGbf 5'§} /flvG5 . tkfO{+sf 3/a]6Ln] cfˆgf ;d'bfodf s] ug'{k5{ eGg] l;sfpg' x'g]5 . k'gMk|of]u–ljlwn] o:tf j:t'nfO{ ©]l/ sfddf NofpF5 / jftfj/0fsf] /Iff u5{ . Garbage, Trash and Recycling Garbage : Place garbage in the garbage bins in your apartment. Line garbage bins with plastic garbage bags. Take the garbage out of your apartment every day to a garbage can or dumpster to prevent attracting bugs and mice. Never leave garbage in the hallway of the apartment building. Trash: Trash such as old papers, boxes, bottles, and cans should also be placed in designated containers or locations. Usually there is a certain day and time when the city will take the trash away. Your landlord should tell you where and when to put your trash and garbage outside for pickup. Recycling: Many cities require trash to be separated by type and be placed in special containers. Usually plastic bottles, aluminum cans, glass containers, paper, and metal are separated from wet food garbage. Your landlord can tell you what you must do in your community. Recycling helps the country reuse some of these materials and protects the environment. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― p8'; p8'; ;fgf ls/fx? x'g . logLx? tfhf /ut r';]/ afFR5g . logLx? p8b}gg, s'bb}gg jf pk|mb}gg . p8'; w]/}h;f] la:t/f, Dof6«]; -u2fjfn 8;gf_, l;/fgL, lunf s';L{ / ;f]©fdf n'S5g . laxfg p7bf 5fnfdf st} ;fgf] bfu b]Vg'eof] eg] of] p8';n] 6f]s]sf] x'g;S5 . la:t/fdf st} ;fgf yf]Knf h:tf b]lvP eg] oL p8'; x'g;S5g . To;}n] af6f]5]pdf /flvPsf k'/fgf Dof6«];, tof/L l;/s -ANofGs]6_, l;/fgL jf cGo cf]5ofgdf rflxg] ;/;fdfg gp7fpg'xf]nf . To:tf j:t' 3/ gNofpg'xf]nf . Psk6s p8'; tkfO{+sf] ckf6{d]G6 jf 3/df cfP eg] lognfO{ k"/} lgd"{n kfg{ lgs} sl7g x'G5 . p8';sf] ;d:of b]lvPdf 3/a]6LnfO{ eGg'xf]; . Bed Bugs Bed bugs are tiny insects and they feed on fresh blood. They do not fly, hop, or jump. They often live in bedding, mattresses, pillows, and soft chairs and couches. If you find small bites on your skin in the morning, it may be from bed bugs. If you see tiny dark spots on your bedding you may 12 Housing
  29. 29. have bed bugs. Never bring used mattresses, blankets, pillows, or other used bedding into your home. Once bed bugs are in your apartment, they are very difficult to get rid of. Tell your landlord immediately. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― 3/ef8f ln“bfsf clwsf/ / lhDd]jf/L e]befj M 3/ef8fdf lng vf]Hbf tkfO{+nfO{ hflt jf /+u, cfPsf] b]z, tkfO{n] dfGg] wd{, tkfO{+sf] lnªu, zf/Ll/s ckfªutf, kfl/jfl/s cj:yf, h:t}– tkfO{+ ljjflxt xf] jf xf]Og cflb cfwf/df 3/a]6Ln] leGg Jojxf/ u/], To:tf] e]befj cd]l/sL sfg'glj?4 x'G5 . tkfO{+n] cf©"nfO{ plrt Jojxf/ gu/]sf] kfpg' eof] eg] o:tf 36gf slxn] slxn] eP / To;a]nf s] s] eof] lnlvt ?kdf /fVg'k5{ . k|To]s /fHo jf sfpG6Ldf o:tf] e]befj x'Fbf d2t ug]{ …©]o/ xfplhªÚ sfof{no x'G5g . cg'/f]w M ckf6{d]G6df s]xL dd{t ug'{k¥of] eg] 3/a]6Ln] tkfO{+nfO{ dd{tsf nflu cg'/f]w lnlvt ?kdf dfU5g . 3/a]6Laf6 dd{t cg'/f]w ©f/d dfu]/ cfˆgf] cg'/f]w n]Vg'xf]; . tkfO{+nfO{ ls/f, d';f, 5'r'Gb|f / kfgL lgsf; cflbsf] ;d:of eP t'?Gt 3/a]6LnfO{ va/ ug'{xf]; . ef]urngsf] lgod M s'g} Ps ckf6{d]G6df a:g] dflg;sf] ;+Vof lglZrt /xg] lgod x'G5 . o:tf] lgod–kfngf ug'{ / 3/df a:b} cfPsf dflg;sf] ;+Vofaf/] 3/a]6LnfO{ hfgsf/L lbg' tkfO{+sf] bfloTj xf] . tkfO{+n] lgod–kfngf gu/]sf] v08df 3/a]6Ln] tkfO{+nfO{ …3/ vfnL ug'{xf];Ú eGg ;S5g . Housing Rights and Responsibilities Discrimination: It is against the law for a landlord to treat you differently because of your color, nationality, caste, religion, disability, sex, or marital status. If you feel you are being treated unfairly, you should keep a record of what has happened. There is a “fair housing” office in each state or county that can try to help you. Request : Landlords often require a written request before they will make repairs in your apartment. Use a repair request form from your landlord to write this request. Inform your landlord immediately if you are having problems with bugs, rats, mice, or plumbing. Occupancy Rule : There are rules on how many people are allowed to live in an apartment. It is your responsibility to follow the rules and let your landlord know how many people are living in your home. The landlord can tell you to leave your home if you do not follow this rule. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― 3/ ;bf{ ;do k"/f ug'{xf]; M s/f/df tf]lsPsf] ;do;Dd ckf6{d]G6÷3/df a:g' dxÎjk"0f{ x'G5 . s'g} 3/÷ckf6{d]G6df sDtLdf Ps jif{ a:g s/f/df ;do–;Ldf tf]lsPsf] cfjf; 13
  30. 30. x'G5 . cf©" ;g'{eGbf Ps dlxgfcl3 3/a]6LnfO{ 3/ ;g]{ lnlvt–;"rgf lbg'xf]; . s/f/–cjlwsf] cGTodf, olb tkfO{+ a:bf s]xL geTs]÷glau|]sf] / ef8fjfktsf] ;a} /sd r'Stf ePsf] eP 3/a]6LnfO{ a'emfPsf] w/f}6L l©tf{ kfpg'x'G5 . 7]ufgf abnL M gofF 3/÷ckf6{d]G6df ;/]kl5 w]/} JolSt jf sfof{nodf hfgsf/L lbg'k5{ . tkfO{+ cd]l/sfsf] gful/s eO;Sg' ePsf] 5}g eg] …o'P;l;cfOP;Ú nfO{ …Pcf/– !!Ú gfds ©f/d e/]/ cf©" 7fpF ;/]sf] hfgsf/L clgjfo{ ?kdf lbg}k5{ . x'nfs sfof{nosf] …7]ufgf kl/jt{g;DaGwL ©f/dÚ k"/f eg{'kg]{5 . of] ©f/d glhs}sf] x'nfs sfof{no uP/ jf OG6/g]6df eg{ ;lsG5 . To;kl5 x'nfsn] tkfO{+sf] gofF 7]ufgfdf kq NofpF5 . dfl;s lan k7fpg] sfof{nox? h:t} M lah'nL, kfgL, UofF;, 6]ln©f]g, ;]n©f]g, 6]lnlehgsf] s]a'n÷l8; ;]jf lbg] sDkgL cflb x'g . cfˆgf] 7]ufgf ©]l/Psf] hfgsf/L tkfO{+n] sfd ug{] 7fpF÷sfof{no, a}+s, 8fS6/sf] sfof{no / gfgL–afa'x? k9g] :s"ndf klg lbg'k5{ . ˚lg{r/ M gofF ckf6{d]G6df ;bf{ cfˆgf ©lg{r/ n}hfg'k5{ . 3/a]6Lsf ©lg{r/ jf cGo ;/;fdfg 5f8g'k5{ . cfˆgf k'/fgf ©lg{r/ To;} 5f8g'x'Gg . tL ©lg{r/ kG5fpg nfUg] vr{ 3/a]6Ln] lnG5g . Moving Out Complete your lease : It is important to complete your lease. Most leases ask that you agree to live in the apartment or house for twelve months. Give your landlord a month’s notice in writing before moving out. At the end of the lease, the landlord will return the security deposit only if the apartment is in good condition and if the rental payments are current. Change of Address : When you move to a new apartment, you should inform many people. If you are not yet a citizen of the US, you must inform the USCIS of your change of address on form AR-11. You should also complete a form to change your address with the post office. You can do that at the nearest post office or on the Internet. The post office will deliver your mail to the new address. You should also change your address with any company that sends you a monthly bill: electric, water, gas, telephone, cell phone, cable TV etc. You should also report your new address to your employer, bank, doctors’ offices, and childrens’ schools. Furniture : When you move to a new apartment you should take the furniture that you own. You must leave any furniture or appliances that belong to the landlord. If you leave any old or broken furniture that you do not want, the landlord may charge you a fee to take it away. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― 3/df tftf]–lr;f]sf] k|aGw tkfO{+sf] ckf6{d]G6df hf8f]df tfKgsf nflu lx6/ x'G5 . tfk pTkfbg ug{ lah'nL jf ©g{];sf] k|of]u ul/G5, h;n] tftf] xfjf jf tftf] kfgL ckf6{d]G6sf sf]7fx?df 14 Housing
  31. 31. k7fpF5 . tftf] sd–a];L ug{ Pp6f ydf{]:6]6 /flvPsf] x'G5 . hf8f]df tfkqmd ^% b]lv &@ l8u|L ©x/]gxfO6;Dd /fVg'xf]; . hlt a9L tftf]sf nflu ydf]{:6]6 3'dfof], Tolt g} tftf]sf nflu k};f ltg'{k5{ . tkfO{+sf] ckf6{d]G6df Po/–slG8;g klg x'g;S5, h;nfO{ af]nLrfnLsf] efiffdf …P;LÚ elgG5, o;sf] k|of]u udL{df x'G5 . o;df tfkqmd &@ b]lv *) l8u|L ©x/]gxfO6;Dd /fVg'xf]; . P;Ldf hlt sd tfkqmd /fVg'x'G5, k};f Tolt g} a9L ltg'{k5{ . Heating and Air Conditioning Your apartment has a heater for use during cold weather. The heat may come from electricity or from a furnace that sends hot air or hot water to the rooms in the apartment. There should be a thermostat that let’s you set the temperature for your apartment. In the winter you should set it between 65 and 72 degrees. The higher you set the temperature, the more the heat will cost.Your apartment may also have air conditioning, sometimes called AC, for use during hot weather. You should set its temperature between 72 and 80 degrees. The lower you set the AC temperature, the more it will cost. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― cfuf]af6 ;'/Iff w'jf“;"rs oGq M of] oGqn] tkfO{+sf] 3/df w'jfF cfPsf] yfxf kfpF5 / ;+efljt cfunfuLsf] ;"rgf lbG5 . o;n] 7"nf] :j/df l;6L ahfpFb} tkfO{+ / kl/jf/nfO{ w'jfFsf] ;"rgf lbP/ ;fjwfg u5{ . o:tf oGq kvf{n jf l;lnªdf h8fg ul/Psf x'G5g . 3/a]6Ln] tkfO{+ a:g] ckf6{d]G6df o:tf w'jfF;"rs oGq pknAw u/fOlbg'k5{ . o:tf oGq ;w}F rfn" cj:yfdf x'g'k5{ lsgeg] olb cfuf] nfUg nfUof] eg] o;n] ;fjwfgL u/fpF5g / Hofg arfpg d2t u5{g . o;df Aof6«L xfNg'k5{ . cfjZos kbf{ o;df Aof6«L ©]g]{ sfd rflxF tkfO{+sf] lhDd]jf/L xf] . o:tf ;a} oGqx? dlxgfsf] Psk6s hfFRg'xf]; . o;sf] hfFr ug{, o;sf] cuf8Lsf] a6g lyRg'xf]; . olb o;n] l;6L jf ;+s]tsf] 306L lbPg eg] Aof6«L jf oGq g} tTsfn ©]g]{ a]nf ePsf] x'G5 . of] oGq vf]n]/ g/fVg'xf]nf jf o;sf Aof6«L glemSg'xf]nf . o;nfO{ Knfl:6s cflbn] g9fSg'xf]nf . cfunfuLaf6 aRg 9f]sf M s'g} ckf6{d]G6df d"n9f]sfaf6 l5/]kl5 sf]7fx?df hfg] 7fpF jf e¥ofªsf] 6'Kkf] / ©]bdf wft'sf] Pp6f 9f]sf x'g;S5 . o:tf 9f]sfn] lalN8ªsf] Pp6f ckf6{d]G6af6 csf{] ckf6{d]G6df cfuf] ©}ng lbFb}gg . o:tf 9f]sf aGb 5g eg] dfq cfunfuLdf sfd u5{g . tkfO{+ / kl/jf/sf] ;'/Iffsf nflu oL 9f]sf slxNo} v'nf g5f8f}+ . v'nf b]lvof] eg] aGb ul/xfnf}+ . clUg;"rs oGq M of] oGq cfuf] nfu]sf] ;"rgf lbg] 306L xf] . of] oGq d"n– 9f]sfaf6 l5/]kl5 sf]7fx?df hfg] 7fpF jf s'g} ;lhnf] 7fpFdf h8fg ul/Psf] cfjf; 15
  32. 32. x'g;S5 . o:tf oGq ;fdfGotM /ftf /+usf x'G5g / ;a} ef8fjfnfn] ahfpg ;Sg] 7fpFdf /flvPsf x'G5g . cfunfuL ePsf] cj:yfdf dfq of] oGq ahfP/ c? ef8fjfnf 5/–l5d]sLnfO{ / cfuf] lgefpg] ljefu -clUg–lgoGq0f ljefu_ nfO{ va/ ug'{xf]nf . cfuf] lgefpg] pks/0f M oL pks/0fn] cfuf] lgefpg jf cfuf]–lgoGq0f u5{g . 3/a]6L;Fu of] pks/0f k|of]u ug{] tl/sf l;Sg'xf]; . o:tf pks/0f ckf6{d]G6 jf 3/sf s'g s'g 7fpFdf /flvPsf 5g, Vofn ug'{xf]; . Fire Safety Smoke Alarms/smoke detector : A smoke alarm is a device that detects smoke and a possible fire in your home. It will beep loudly to alert you and your family if there is smoke or fire. Smoke alarms are usually mounted on a wall or ceiling. Landlords must provide a smoke alarm in your apartment. The smoke alarm must always be working because if there is a fire, it can alert you and save your life. You are responsible for replacing batteries in your smoke alarm when needed. All smoke alarms should be tested once a month. To test it, touch the small “test” button on the front. If it does not make a beep or alarm sound, the batteries or alarm should be replaced immediately. Never take the smoke alarm down permanently or leave the battery out of it. Do not cover it in any way. Fire Doors : Some apartment buildings may have metal doors in the hallways or at the top and bottom of stairs. These doors help prevent a fire that might start in one apartment from spreading to other apartments in the building. But they only help if they are kept closed. For the safety of you and your family, never leave fire doors open. If you find one open, close it. Fire Alarms : An apartment building might have a fire alarm in the hallway or other convenient location. These are usually painted red and placed where tenants can sound the alarm. Use the alarm only when there is a fire and you want to let other tenants know that there is a fire and to call the fire department. Fire Extinguishers : A fire extinguisher is a device used to put out or control fires. Ask your landlord to show you how to use a fire extinguisher. Know where the fire extinguishers are in your apartment or building. m m m 16 Housing
  33. 33. cWofo # : lzIff Chapter 3 : Education lzIff cd]l/sfdf afnaflnsf / jo:s -pd]/ k'u]sf] JolSt_ b'j}sf nflu lzIff lgs} dxÎjk"0f{ x'G5 . of] cWofodf ePsf hfgsf/Ln] tkfO{+nfO{ cd]l/sfsf] lzIff k4lt / :s"nsf] jftfj/0f s:tf] x'G5 eg]/ a'ˇg d2t ug]{5g . of] cWofon] afnaflnsfsf] lzIffdf cleefjssf] e"ldsfsf] dxÎjaf/] :ki6 kfg{'sf ;fy} jo:sx?sf] lzIffaf/] hfgsf/L klg lbg]5 . Education Education is very important in the United States for both children and adults. The information in this topic will help you understand the educational system in the United States and the school environment for children. It will also explain the important role parents play in their children’s education and provide information on adult education. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― afnlzIff /fHosf] sfg'gcg';f/ k|foMh;f] kfFrb]lv !^ jif{sf] pd]/;Ddsf ;a} afnaflnsf :s"n hfg} k5{ . kfFrb]lv !* jif{;Ddsf afnaflnsfn] lgMz'Ns ;fj{hlgs lzIff kfpF5g . k|To]s /fHon] slt pd]/ k'u]sf afnaflnsfn] :s"n hfg ;'? ug'{k5{ / xfO{:s"n hfgsf nflu slt pd]/ rflxF a9L x'G5 eGg] JofVof u/]sf 5g . s]xL /fHon] PSsfO; jif{x'Gh]n ;fj{hlgs :s"n hfg] lgod agfPsf 5g . k9g ;d:of ePsf jf zf/Ll/s ckfªu afnaflnsf clgjfo{ ?kdf :s"n hfg'k5{ . :yfgLo :s"nn] tkfO{+;Fu ldn]/ afnaflnsfsf cfjZostfcg';f/ ;a} k|aGw ldnfpF5g . tkfO{+n] cfˆgf gfgLnfO{ s:tf] :s"ndf k9fpg] eg]/ 5fGg ;Sg'x'G5 . ;/sf/L :s"nx? lgMz'Ns x'G5g . s]xL cfly{s ;xfotf pknAw kfP klg lghL :s"nx?df z'Ns ltg'{k5{ . s]xL lghL :s"nx? wfld{s x'G5g . k'gjf{; ;+:yfn] tkfO{+sf gfgLnfO{ :yfgLo ;/sf/L :s"n egf{ ug{ d2t ug]{5g . Child Education State laws require that all children go to school, usually between the ages of five and sixteen. Free public education is available for children ages five to eighteen. Each state decides how old children must be to start school and when they are too old to be in high school. Some states allow students to attend public school until age twenty-one. Children with learning or physical disabilities must go to school. The local school will 17
  34. 34. work with you to address your child’s needs. You can choose what kind of school you want your child to attend. Public schools are free. Private schools cost money, although some financial assistance may be available. Some private schools are religious. Your resettlement agency will assist you register your children with your local public school. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― ;/sf/L :s"nx¿ ;/sf/L :s"nx?sf] Joj:yfkg …:s"n l8l:6«S6;Ú gfds lgsfon] u5{g . u|fdL0f If]qx?df :s"n l8l:6«S6 w]/} ;fgf x'g;S5g / Pp6f dfq :s"n x]/]sf x'g;S5g . 7"nf zx/df :s"n l8l:6«S6n] ;of}+ leGgfleGg} :s"nx?sf] Joj:yfkg u/]sf x'g;S5g . cd]l/sfsf ;/sf/L :s"nx?df ljleGg hflt / wd{sf gfgLx? Pp6} sIffdf x'G5g, ;Fu} k95g / ;fy} v]N5g . ;a}h;f] ;/sf/L :s"nx?df 5fq / 5fqfnfO{ Pp6} sIffdf /fv]/ k9fOG5 . Public Schools Public schools are managed by “school districts.” In rural areas, a school district may be very small and operate only one school. In a large city the school district may operate hundreds of different schools. In American public schools, children from different races and religions attend class, study, and play sports together. Boys and girls are taught together in almost all public schools. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― vf]kx¿ -ODo'gfOh];G;_ gfgLx?n] :s"ndf xflh/ x'g yfNg'cl3 s]xL /f]ulj?4 vf]k nufPsf] x'g'k5{ . :s"nn] gfgLnfO{ vf]k nufPsf] k|df0fkq jf lrlsT;sn] n]v]sf] sfuh dfU5g . :s"nnfO{ gfgLsf] :jf:Yo;DaGwL ;a} k'/fgf hfgsf/L klg rflxg ;S5 . k'gjf{; ;+:yfn] tkfO{+sf gfgLnfO{ vf]k lbnfpg / :s"nnfO{ lbg'kg{] sfuh–kqsf] aGbf]a:t ug{ d2t u5{g . Immunizations Schools require children to be immunized against certain diseases before they can attend classes. Your child’s school will require a copy of your child’s immunization records or a doctor’s written statement. The school may also require other medical history information. Your resettlement agency will help you arrange the necessary immunizations and papers to give to the school. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― 18 Education
  35. 35. :s"nsf ljleGg tx gfgLx?nfO{ pgLx?sf] pd]/ / pgLx?n] kfO;s]sf] lzIffsf cfwf/df Pp6f lglZrt sIff -u|]8_ df egf{ ul/G5 . s]xL :s"nn] gfgL s'g sIffdf k9g ;S5 eGg] hfFRgsf nflu k/LIff klg lng ;S5g . sd c+u|]hL af]Ng] ;fgf gfgLx?nfO{ ;'?df cln tNnf] sIffdf /fVg klg ;lsG5 . ;fdfGotM cd]l/sL :s"nsf txcg';f/ sIff / gfgLx?sf] pd]/ o;k|sf/ x'G5g M • lk|–:s"n -P]lR5s_ – # b]lv $ jif{sf] . • lsG8/uf6{g – % jif{sf] . • Plnd]G6/L :s"n, w]/}h;f] sIff ! b]lv % ;Dd, gfgLx?sf] pd]/ ^ b]lv !! jif{ . • ld8n :s"n, ;fdfGotM sIff ^ b]lv * ;Dd / gfgLx?sf] pd]/ !! jif{b]lv !$ jif{ . • xfO{:s"n, ;fdfGotM sIff ( b]lv !@ ;Dd / gfgLx?sf] pd]/ !$ jif{b]lv !* jif{ . 7ofSs} pd]/ / sIffx? tkfO{+sf] :s"n l8l:6«S6df ©/s kg{ ;S5g . School Structure Children are placed in a certain grade level depending on their age and how much education they have already received. Some schools may test a student to determine what grade level is best. Younger children who speak little English may be placed in a lower grade level at first. Usually, the different grade levels and ages are: • Pre-school (optional) – 3 to 4 years old. • Kindergarten – 5 years old. • Elementary School, usually grades 1 to 5; students are usually 6 to 11 years old. • Middle School, usually grades 6 to 8; students are usually 11 to 14 years old. • High School, usually grades 9 to 12; students are usually 14 to 18 years old. The exact ages and grades may be different in your school district. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― z}lIfs jif{ z}lIfs jif{ cu:t dlxgfsf] cGTolt/ jf ;]K6]Da/ dlxgf nfu] nuQ} ;'? x'G5 / d] dlxgfsf] cGTo jf h"g dlxgfdf ;lsG5 . gfgLx? ;f]daf/b]lv z'qmaf/;Dd :s"n hfG5g . :s"ndf k9g] ;do ;f9] kfFr 306fb]lv ;ft 306f;Ddsf] x'G5 . of] ;do gfgL s'g txsf] :s"ndf k'u]sf] 5, To;}df e/ k5{ . ;fj{hlgs labfx?, udL{ labf -j;Gt Ct'sf] labf_ / hf8f]sf] 5'§L, / lzIfssf] tflndsf nflu 5'6ofOPsf lbg gfgLx? :s"n hfFb}gg . c+u|]hL ljifodf lgk'0f x'g g;s]sf jf sIffdf sdhf]/ lzIff 19
  36. 36. dflgPsf ljBfyL{n] cfˆgf] k|ultsf nflu udL{sf] 5'§Ldf klg :s"n hfg'kg]{ x'g– ;S5 . cleefjsn] sIff–lzIfs÷sIff–lzlIfsf jf :s"n;Fu :s"nsf] jflif{s kfqf] -Sofn]G8/_ dfUg'k5{ . School Year School years typically begin in late August or early September and end in late May or in June. Children are in school Monday to Friday. The school day is between five and a half to seven hours long, depending on what school the child attends. Students do not attend school on national holidays, during spring and winter breaks, and on days reserved for teacher training. Students who need to improve their English or catch up academically may have to attend summer school as well. Parents should ask their child’s teacher or school for a school calendar. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― :s"ndf vfgf gfgLx?n] lbpF;f]sf] vfgf -nGr_ :s"ndf vfG5g . a'af–cfdfn] agfOlbg] eP gfgLx?n] nGr 3/af6 nfg ;S5g jf geP :s"ndf lsGg ;S5g . cfˆgf] cfDbfgL sd eP lgMz'Ns jf ;x'lnot b/df :s"n] nGr kfpg lgj]bg lbg'k5{ . nGr lgMz'Ns jf ;x'lnot b/df lbnfpg] ljifodf yk a'ˇg' k/] :s"ndf ;Dks{ /fVg'xf]; . s'g}–s'g} :s"nn] laxfgsf] vfhf -a|]s©f:6_ klg VjfpF5g . School Meals Children eat lunch at school. Children can bring a lunch from home that parents prepare for them, or buy lunch at school. Parents can apply for children to receive free or reduced price school lunches, depending on the household income. Parents should contact their child’s school for information on how to apply. Some schools also offer morning breakfast for students. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― xflh/L ljBfyL{sf] xflh/L dxÎjk"0f{ x'G5 . ljBfyL{n] ;dodf :s"n k'Ug'k5{ . cfˆgf] gfgL :s"n k'Ug l9nf] x'g] eP jf uon x'g] eP ©f]g u/]/ pm lsg l9nf] jf uon ePsf] xf] eGg] hfgsf/L lbg'k5{ . w]/} :s"nx?nfO{ gfgL uon x'g] jf ePsf] hfgsf/L lnlvt ?kdf rflxG5 . cf©" uon ePsf] lbg 5'6]sf] k9fO ljBfyL{n] k"/f u5{g eGg] cfzf ul/G5 . Attendance School attendance is very important. Students must arrive at school on time. You should always call the school to explain if your child is going to be late or absent for any reason. Many schools also require a written 20 Education
  37. 37. explanation for any absence. Students are expected to make up any school work they missed when they were absent. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― oftfoft tkfO{+sf] a;f]af; :s"nglhs} 5 eg] gfgLx? lxF8]/ hfg–cfpg ;S5g . :s"n 6f9f 5 eg] :s"n–l8l:6«S6n] lgMz'Ns a; pknAw u/fpF5 . pSt a;n] gfgLx?nfO{ tf]lsPsf] 7fpFaf6 n}hfG5 / :s"nkl5 NofP/ 5f85 . ;fgf gfgLsf cleefjsn] laxfg a; r9g] 7fpFdf a; gcfpGh]n a:g'k5{ . gfgLx?nfO{ a; r9fpg'k5{ . a]n'sf ;'/lIft ?kdf 3/;Dd Nofpg gfgLx? cf]n{g] 7fpFdf cleefjs k'Ug'k5{ . Transportation If the school is near to where you live, children can walk to and from school. If the school is far away, the school district will provide a free bus that will pick your child up at a designated location and time and then drop your child off after school. Parents of young children should always wait with them at the bus stop in the morning and be at the stop to greet them and take them home safely in the afternoon. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― :s"ndf k9fOg] ljifo k|To]s /fHo / :s"n l8l:6«S6n] cfˆgf] If]qsf :s"nx?df s'g s'g ljifo k9fpg] eGg] lg0f{o u5{g . ;fdfGo ?kdf ;a}h;f] ljBfyL{n] ul0ft, ;fdflhs lzIff, c+u|]hL, lj1fg / zf/Ll/s lzIff k9g'k5{ . rfxg]n] snf, ;ªuLt / ljb]zL efiffx? klg k9g kfpF5g . xfO{:s"n / s]xL ld8n :s"nx?n] ljBfyL{x?nfO{ s'g} vf; ljifosf] uxg cWoog ug{ rfx] w]/} ljsNkx? lbG5g . tkfO{+n] cfˆgf 5f]/f– 5f]/L;Fu To:tf ljsNkx?af/] 5n©n ug'{k5{ / pgLx?nfO{ To:tf ljifox? 5fGg d2t ug'{k5{ . w]/}h;f] :s"ndf :s"n–;dokl5 v]ns'b / Snax? agfO u}/–z}lIfs lqmofsnfk -k9fOafx]ssf lqmofsnfk_ x'G5g . Subjects Taught Each state and school district decides what subjects will be taught in its schools. In general, most students study mathematics, social studies, English, science, and physical education. Classes in art, music, and foreign languages are also usually offered. High schools and some middle schools give students many choices about what classes they will take within the broad subject areas. You should discuss those choices with your children and help them decide what subjects to select. Most schools also have non- academic activities such as sports and clubs after school hours. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― lzIff 21
  38. 38. c+u|]hL efiff l;sfO cfk|jf;L afnaflnsfnfO{ /fd|f] c+u|]hL cfpFb}g . pgLx?sf d'Vo r'gf}tLx?dWo] c+u|]hLsf] kof{Kt 1fg gx'g' Pp6f xf] . c+u|]hL sdhf]/ x'gfn] pgLx?sf] k9fO /fd|f] x'Fb}g . ;fgf gfgLx?n] 7"nf afnaflnsf / jo:sx?eGbf rfF8f] efiff l;S5g . w]/} :s"ndf cd]l/sfsf gofF afl;Gbfsf nflu efiffsf ljz]if sIff rnfOG5g . o:tf sIffx?nfO{ OPnPn -O+uln; Nofªj]h nlg{ª, c+u|]hL efiff l;sfO_ jf OP;Pn -O+uln; Oh P ;]s]G8 Nofªj]h, bf];|f] efiffsf ?kdf c+u|]hL_ klg elgG5 . o:tf sIffx? ePsf a]nf tkfO{+n] 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ k7fpg'eof] eg] pgLx?n] efiff l;Sg ;S5g . English Language Learning One of the biggest challenges for immigrant children is learning sufficient English to be successful in all of their school work. Younger children usually learn more quickly than older children and adults. Many schools have special classes for new arrivals. These classes may be called ELL(English Language Learning) or ESL(English as a Second Language). Your child can benefit from these classes when they are provided. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― u[xsfo{ -xf]djs{_ lzIfslzlIfsfn] :s"nsf sfd 3/df NofP/ ug{ lbO/xG5g . 3/df ug]{ o:tf sfdnfO{ u[xsfo{ -xf]djs{_ elgG5 . …u[xsfo{Ú ugf{n] gfgLx?nfO{ :s"ndf k9fOPsf kf7x? a'ˇg ;lhnf] x'G5 . tkfO{+n] pgLx?nfO{ u[xsfo{x? s] s:tf x'g eg]/ a'ˇg d2t ug{ ;Sg'x'G5 . t/ pgLx?sf] u[xsfo{ cf©}Fn] eg] k6Ss} ul/lbg' x'Fb}g . Homework Teachers often assign school work to be completed at home. Doing “homework” helps your children understand what they are learning in school. You can help your children understand the assignment, but you should never do their homework for them. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― nAwf°–kq -l/kf]6{–sf8{_ tkfO{+sf gfgLn] :s"ndf s] s:tf] ul//x]sf 5g eGg] n]lvPsf] sfuh l/kf]6{–sf8{ xf] . :s"nx?n] k|foMh;f] jif{sf] rf/k6s l/kf]6{–sf8{ k7fpF5g . s'g} l/kf]6{–sf8{df lzIfslzlIfsfn] gfgLsf] k|ultaf/] n]v]sf] l6Kk0fL x'G5 . sf8{df gfgLn] u/]sf] k|ult / l;ls/x]sf ljz]if ;Lk tyf 1fgsf] d"NofÍg c+sdf lbPsf] x'G5 . l/kf]6{–sf8{df cIf/ n]v]/ pgLx?sf] k|ultsf] :t/ lbPsf] x'g;S5 . leGg :t/sf nflu leGg cIf/ x'G5g . olb cIf/df :t/ tf]lsPsf] 5 eg] tL cIf/x?sf] cy{ w]/}h;f] o:tf] x'G5 M 22 Education
  39. 39. • P – pTs[i6 k9fO . • aL – /fd|f] k9fO . • ;L – cf};t k9fO . pgnfO{ k9fOdf ;xfotf cfjZos kg{ ;S5 . • 8L – sd;n k9fO . pgnfO{ cltl/St ;xfotf lbg h?/L 5 jf pgL ©]n x'g ;S5g . • P© – cg'QL0f{ -©]n_, pgn] csf]{ ;fn klg oxL sIff k9g'k5{ ._ cfhsn s]xL :s"nn] gfgLsf l/kf]6{–sf8{ OG6/g]6df x]g{ ;lsg] agfpF5g . Report Cards A report card is a piece of paper that tells you how well your child is doing in school. Schools usually send home report cards four times each year. Some report cards have written comments from teachers. Others provide a score that evaluates the child’s progress and success in gaining specific skills and knowledge. Your child’s report card may have letters on it. If so, the letters usually mean: • A : Excellent work • B : Good work • C : Average work; child may need help with studies • D : Poor work; child needs extra help or will fail • F : Fail; child will have to take the class again Some schools now also provide report cards for parents to see on the Internet. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― cfr/0f :s"ndf gfgLx? cfˆgf ;fyLx?;Fu ldng;f/ x'g'k5{ . lzIfslzlIfsf tyf lk|lG;knsf] cf1fsf/L x'g'k5{ . lk|lG;kn eg]sf] :s"nsf k|d'v x'g . :s"nx?df gfgLx?n] kfngf ug{'kg{] dxÎjk"0f{ lgodx? x'G5g . o:tf lgodx?sf] kfngf ugf{n] ;fx|f]–ufx|f]af6 6f9} /lxG5 / k9fO /fd|f] x'G5 . ljBfyL{n] kfngf ug{] s]xL lgodx? o:tf 5g M • ;dodf sIffdf k'Ug] . • sIffdf s]xL ;f]Wg' jf af]Ng'cl3 xft p7fpg] . • sIffsf]7faflx/ hfg cg'dlt lng] . • u[xsfo{ ;dodf k'/f ug]{ . • emu8f gug]{ . tkfO{+sf gfgLn] :s"nsf lgodx? kfngf u/]gg eg] pgLx?n] :s"n–;dokl5 klg ToxLF a:g' kg{] x'g ;S5 . pgLx?n] :s"nsf] lgod tf]8] eg] pgLx?nfO{ s]xL ;dosf nflu :s"n hfg gldNg] u/L 3/ k7fpg ;lsG5 jf pgLx? ;w}Fsf nflu :s"n hfg gkfpg] klg x'g ;S5g . lzIff 23
  40. 40. Behavior At school, your child should be respectful to his classmates and obey his teacher and principal. The principal is the head of the school. Schools have important rules that children need to obey to stay out of trouble and do well in class. Some classroom rules for students are: • Arrive to class on time. • Raise your hand before you speak in class. • Ask permission to leave the classroom. • Complete homework on time. • Do not fight. If your children break a rule, they may have to stay after school. If they behave very badly, they may be sent home from school for a period of time or not be allowed to attend that school anymore. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― cleefjs ;+nUg cd]l/sLx? cfˆgf ;Gtfgsf] z}lIfs–ultljlwdf cleefjs ;xefuL x'g'k5{ eGg]df ljZjf; u5{g . cleefjsx?sf] o:tf] ;xeflutfn] :s"ndf gfgLx?nfO{ k9fO, v]ns'b cflbdf /fd|f] ug{ xf};nf ldN5 . :s"nn] gfgLx?sf] k9fOaf/] afa'cfdfnfO{ a'emfpg] sf]lzz u5{g . c+u|]hL ga'ˇg] cleefjsx?nfO{ cem a9L ;xof]u ug{ :s"nx? g} cl3;5{g . gfgLx?sf] k|ultaf/] Ps z}lIfs jif{df sDtLdf b'O{ k6s cleefjs / lzIfs– lzlIfsfaLr 5n©n x'G5 . o;sf nflu :s"nn] cleefjsnfO{ af]nfpF5g . o;afx]s s]xL k|Zg jf rf;f] eP, lzIfslzlIfsf;Fu ;do ldnfP/ s'g} klg a]nf :s"ndf e]6g ;Sg'x'G5 . ;+ej eP;Dd :s"ndf x'g] ;ªuLt, gf6s jf v]ns'b cflbsf ljz]if sfo{qmddf klg cleefjs pkl:yt x'g'k5{ . Parent Involvement Americans believe that parents should be involved in their children’s education because this helps their children succeed in school. Schools try to help parents understand their children’s education and many offer information specifically for parents who do not speak English. At least twice each year the school will ask you to meet with teachers to discuss your child’s progress. In addition, you can ask to meet with your child’s teachers any time that you have questions or concerns. When possible, parents should also attend special school events such as music concerts, plays, or sports. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― 24 Education
  41. 41. 3/df cleefjssf] e"ldsf 3/df gfgLx?nfO{ k9g] /fd|f jftfj/0f agfOlbg cleefjsx?n] klg w]/}yf]s ug{ ;Sg'x'G5 . gfgLx?nfO{ k9g jf xf]djs{ ug{ zfGt 7fpFsf] aGbf]a:t ul/lbg'– xf]; . o:tf] zfGt 7fpF eg]sf] ;'Tg] sf]7fdf Pp6f 6]a'n jf ;fgf] 8]:s x'g;S5 jf vfgf vfg] 6]a'n klg x'g;S5 . Pp6f lgoldt ;dodf pgLx? Wofg lbP/ k9g] Joj:yf ul/lbg'xf]; . k9g] a]nfdf 6]lnlehg jf lel8of] u]D;x? gvf]lnlbg'xf]; . a]nfa]nf gfgLx?nfO{ sIffsf af/]df ;f]Wg'xf]; / pgLx?n] xf]djs{ rflxF lgoldt u/]sf] x'g'k5{ . :s"n hfg] gfgLx?n] kof{Kt ;do ;'Tg'k5{, g'xfpg'k5{, laxfgsf] vfhf vfPsf] x'g'k5{, df};dcg';f/ n'uf nufPsf] / xf]djs{ ;s]sf] x'g'k5{ . Parents’ Responsibilities at Home Parents can also do several things to make the home a better place for children to study and learn. Provide a quiet place for your child to read or do homework. This can be a table or small desk in a bedroom or even the dining table. Create a regular quiet time when no television or video games are allowed and your child can concentrate and study. Ask your children often about their classes and make sure that they do their homework. Before your children go to school make sure they get enough sleep, shower, eat breakfast, wear clean clothing appropriate for the weather, and have their homework done. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― jo:ssf nflu lzIff gfgLx?sf nflu :s"n clgjfo{ xf] eg] jo:ssf nflu P]lR5s xf] tf klg jo:ssf nflu oxfF lzIff kfpg] w]/} cj;/x? 5g . jo:sx?n] ;fFemdf lnOg] sIffx?, Jofj;flos :s"n, sn]hx? / ljZjljBfnodf egf{ eP/ k9g ;Sg'x'G5 . w]/} k9]/ k|foM /fd|f] hflu/ kfpg d2t k'U5 / a9L cfDbfgL ug{ ;lsG5 . k'gjf{; ;+:yfn] tkfO{+sf] ;d'bfodf o:tf lzIff kfpg] cj;/ vf]Hg ;xfotf u5{g . Adult Education While school is required for children, it is optional for adults. However, there are many educational opportunities for adults. Adults can attend evening classes, vocational school, colleges, and universities. Getting more education can often help you get a better job and make more money. Your resettlement agency can help you find educational opportunities in your community. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― c+u|]hL efiff l;sfO / ;fIf/tf sIffx¿ w]/} ;d'bfox?n] jo:sx?sf nflu c+u|]hL sIffx? lbG5g . o;/L w]/}h;f] c+u|]hL sIff rnfpg] ;+:yfx?– sDo'lg6L sn]h, rr{ jf ljz]if :s"n x'g . s]xL lzIff 25
  42. 42. t lgMz'Ns x'g ;S5g . c? o:tf ;+:yfx?n] eg] z'Ns lnG5g . Pp6} sIffdf k|foMh;f] ljleGg pd]/ / hfltsf k'?if tyf dlxnfx? ;Fu} a;]/ k95g . ;'?sf sIffx?df b}lgs af]nLrfnLdf rflxg] c+u|]hL l;sfOg'sf ;fy} ;fwf/0f c+u|]hL k9g / n]Vgdf hf]8 lbOG5 . cln dflyNnf] :t/sf] c+u|]hL sIffx?df z'4 c+u|]hL Jofs/0f, lj:t[t zAbx? l;Sg tyf cln pRr:tl/o k9fO / n]vfOdf hf]8 lbOG5 . ESL and Literacy Classes Most communities offer English classes for adults, often at community colleges,churches,orspecialschools.Somemaybefree.Otherswillcharge a fee. Usually men and women of different ages and ethnic backgrounds will attend these classes together. In beginning level classes, emphasis will be on daily English conversation and reading and writing simple English. In more advanced classes the emphasis will be on correct English grammar, learning a larger vocabulary, and more advanced reading and writing. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― lhO8L xfO{:s"n g;s]sf jf To; :t/sf] k9fO k"/f gug{]n] ToxL txsf] 1fg 5 egL b]vfpg Pp6f 6]:6df ;xefuL x'g kfpF5g . pSt 6]:6nfO{ …hg/n Ph's];gn 8]enkd]G6 6]:6Ú jf …lhO8LÚ elgG5 . pSt 6]:6df kfFr ljifodf tkfO{+sf] Ifdtf hfFlrG5 . tL kfFr ljifox?– k9fO, n]vfO, Oltxf;, lj1fg / ul0ft x'g . lhO8L lbg rfxg]nfO{ :s"n jf ;fd'bflos ;+:yfx?n] tof/Lsf nflu sIff klg rnfpF5g . tkfO{+ lhO8L lbg of]Uo x'g'x'G5 eg] slt j6f sIff lng'k5{ / slt z'Ns ltg'{k5{ eGg] kSsf ug'{xf]; . z'Nsdf s]xL 5'6 kfOG5 ls eg]/ ;f]Wg'xf]; . lhO8L pQL0f{ ug'{eof] eg] /fd|f] hflu/ kfpg d2t x'G5 . rf/ jif{] sn]h jf ljZjljBfno k9gsf nflu lhO8L jf xfO{:s"n l8Knf]df k"/f u/]sf] x'g'k5{ . GED People who did not finish high school can take a test to show that they have the same knowledge as someone who graduated from high school. This test is called the General Educational Development Test or GED. The GED tests your understanding of reading, writing, history, science, and math. GED classes may be offered by schools or community organizations to help you prepare for the test. Make sure you find out how much the classes and the GED test cost, and see if you are eligible for reduced prices. Passing the GED can help you get a better job. The GED or a high school diploma is also required to attend a four year college or university. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― 26 Education
  43. 43. pRrlzIff jo:ssf] lzIffsf nflu tkfO{+n] oxfF lgDg tx k9g ;Sg'x'G5 -z}lIfs ;+:yf / tx k"/f ug{ nfUg] cjlw_ M • k|df0fkq -;l6{l©s]6_ tx M sDo'lg6L sn]h, 6«]8 jf Jofj;flos :s"nx? – 5 dlxgfb]lv b'O{ jif{ . • Pzf]l;o6; l8u|L M sDo'lg6L sn]h – b'O{ jif{ . • :gfts tx -Aofrn;{ l8u|L_ M sn]hdf rf/ jif{ jf ljZjljBfno M rf/ jif{ . • :gftsf]Q/ tx -df:6;{ l8u|L_ M Aofrn;{ l8u|L ;lsPkl5 Ps jf b'O{ jif{ . • ljBfjfl/lw -8S6/]6_ M ljZjljBfno – df:6;{ l8u|L ;lsPkl5 b'O{b]lv * jif{ . Higher Education These are the different levels of adult education you can receive (institution and time to complete) : • Certificate: Community college, trade or vocational school – six months to two years • Associate’s degree: Community college - two years • Bachelor’s degree: Four year college or university - four years • Master’s degree: University – one or two years after bachelor’s degree • Doctorate: University - two to eight more years after master’s degree ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― Jofj;flos tflnd jo:sx?n] Jofj;flos jf k|fljlws :s"nx?df s'g} ljz]if k]zfsf nflu tflnd lnP/ k|df0f–kq k|fKt ug{ ;Sg'x'G5 . o:tf Jofj;flos jf k|fljlws tflnddf wf/fsf] kfOksf] sfd, l;sdL{, uf8L d]sflgS;, sDKo'6/, lrlsT;f ;xfos / cGo Jofkf/;DaGwL sfd cflb k5{g . s'g} hflu/ kfpg tkfO{+n] /f]huf/bftfnfO{ s'g} ljz]if If]qdf tflnd lnP/ cf©";Fu k|df0f–kq ePsf] b]vfpg' kg]{ x'g ;S5 . o:tf ljz]if ;Lksf tflnd– Jofj;flos :s"n, Jofkfl/s :s"n, k|fljlws sn]h jf sDo'lg6L sn]hx?af6 kfOG5g . Vocational Training Adults can earn certificates from vocational or technical schools to show theyaretrainedforparticularskilledoccupationssuchasplumbing,carpentry, auto mechanics, computers, medical assisting, and other trades. For some jobs you need a certificate to show your employer that you are trained in a specific skill. Schools that provide training in a specific skill are vocational schools, trade schools, technical colleges, or community colleges. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― lzIff 27
  44. 44. ;fd'bflos -sDo'lg6L_ sn]hx¿ sDo'lg6L sn]hx? klg :s"nx? x'g, ToxfF k9]/ tkfO{+n] Pzf]l;o6 l8u|L kfpg ;Sg'x'G5 . pSt l8u|L k"/f ug{ tkfO{+nfO{ ;fdfGotM b'O{ jif{ nfU5 . s]xL sDo'lg6L sn]hn] /ftL jf ;KtfxfGt -zlgaf/–cfOtaf/_ sIff rnfpg] ePsfn] cfˆgf] lgoldt sfd u/]/ ljBfyL{ sIffdf xflh/ x'g ;S5g . Pzf]l;o6 l8u|Ln] tkfO{+sf] cfDbfgL a9fpg d2t ug{ ;S5 . of] tx ;lsPkl5 tkfO{+ rf/ jif{sf nflu o'lgel;{6L -ljZjljBfno_ klg hfg ;Sg'x'G5 . Community Colleges Community colleges are also schools where you can earn anAssociate’s degree. It usually takes two years to earn this type of degree. Some community college courses are offered at night or on weekends so that a student can work a regular job and attend classes. An Associate’s degree can help you earn more money in your job. You can also transfer to a four- year university after earning your Associate’s degree. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― sn]h / ljZjljBfnox¿ sn]h jf ljZjljBfnodf :gfts tx -Aofrn;{ l8u|L_ k"/f ug{ rf/ jif{ nfU5 . of] tx ;'? ubf{ ;a} ljBfyL{n] tf]lsPsf]÷clgjfo{ vfnsf] kf7oqmd k'/f u/L cfwfl/t 1fg lng'k5{ . To;kl5 pgLx?n] rfx]sf] If]qdf ljz]if1tf xfl;n ug{ k9g'k5{ . :gfts txdf ljz]if1tf xfl;n ug{ ;lsg] If]qx? M Joj;fo Joj:yfkg, hLj lj1fg, Oltxf;, ul0ft, lzIf0f jf OlGhlgol/ª cflb x'g . sn]h / ljZjljBfnox?df k9g c+u|]hL efiffdf ljz]if Ifdtf x'g'k5{ . s'g} klg pd]/sf] jo:s dflg; sn]h hfg ;S5g . sf]xL dflg; xfO{:s"n ;lsg] lalQs} sn]h hfG5g eg] sf]xL s]xL jif{ sfd u5{g, cln kfsf] pd]/sf x'G5g, clg sn]h hfG5g . Colleges and Universities At a college or university, you can earn a Bachelor’s degree in four years. Students are usually required to complete a general curriculum before specializing in a field such as business management, biology, history, mathematics, teaching, or engineering. Colleges and universities require a high level of English ability. Adults of any age can go to college. Some people go to college right after they graduate from high school and other people go when they are older and have worked for some years. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― sn]hdf cfj]bg sn]h jf ljZjljBfno egf{sf] cfj]bg lbg tkfO{+n] xfO{:s"n Uo|fh'o6 x'g]–x'g] a]nf ePsf] jf lhO8L u/]sf] x'g'k5{ . tkfO{+n] Pp6f cfj]bg–©f/d eg'{k5{ / …P;P6LÚ 28 Education
  45. 45. jf …Pl;6LÚ h:tf 6]:6dWo] s'g} Ps 6]:6 lbg'kg{] x'g;S5 . of] 6]:6 lng'sf] cy{ Pp6f ljBfyL{;Fu ljleGg ljifodf s], slt / s:tf] 1fg 5 eGg] hfFRg' xf] . sIff !! df k9g] ljBfyL{n] xfO{:s"ndf ePsf ;Nnfxsf/;Fu Jofj;flos tflnd / sn]haf/] 5n©n ug{ yfNg'k5{ . ljBfyL{ / cleefjsn] klg pRrlzIff -sIff !@ kl5sf] lzIff_ af/] cfk;df 5n©n ug'{k5{ . sn]hsf nflu cfj]bg k|foMh;f] ljBfyL{ sn]h hfg'eGbf ^ b]lv !@ dlxgfcl3 g} k]z ug]{ ul/G5 . sn]hn] cfj]bg lbg] ;a} ljBfyL{nfO{ egf{ ub}{gg . s]xL sn]hn] Psbd} yf]/} dfq ljBfyL{ egf{ lnG5g . h'g sn]hx?df cf©"n] egf{ kfpg ;S5' h:tf] nfU5 tL ;a} sn]hdf cfj]bg lbg' /fd|f] x'G5 . Applying to College To apply to a college or university you need to be close to graduating from high school or have a GED. You will need to fill out an application and may be required to take a standardized test such as either the “SAT” or “ACT” test. These tests evaluate your knowledge in several different subjects. Students in 11th grade should begin to talk about vocational training and colleges with their high school guidance counselor. Students and their parents should discuss together the choices for higher education. College applications must usually be submitted six to twelve months ahead of the time when the student will enroll. Colleges do not accept all students that apply. Some accept only a small percentage. It is important to apply to some colleges that are most likely to accept you. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― sn]hsf] k9fO vr{ sn]h jf ljZjljBfnodf k9g z'Ns ltg'{k5{ . sn]hdf ltg]{ z'NsnfO{ 6o"Ozg elgG5 . ©/s sn]hdf 6o"Ozg ©/s x'G5 . sn]h jf ljZjljBfnocg';f/ Ps jif{sf nflu pSt z'Ns jflif{s $ xhf/ 8n/b]lv *) xhf/;Dd x'G5 . tkfO{+n] lstfa / cGo z'Ns klg a'emfpg' kg]{ x'G5 . rf/ jif]{ ljZjljBfnoeGbf Jofj;flos tflnd jf sDo'lg6L sn]hx? ;:tf x'G5g . ;/sf/L ljZjljBfnox? gLlheGbf ;:tf x'G5g . tkfO{+ cf©" a;]sf] /fHosf] ;/sf/L ljZjljBfno hfg'eof] eg] tkfO{+nfO{ ;:tf] k5{ . cGo /fHosf] ljZjljBfnodf k9g hfg'eof] eg] dxFuf] x'G5 . 3/af6 sn]h jf ljZjljBfno gwfpg] xf] eg] 5fqfjf;df a:bf sf]7f / vfgfsf nflu cltl/Qm z'Ns ltg'{k5{ . The Cost of College You must pay a fee to attend a college or university. The attendance fee is called tuition and may be as little as $4,000 per year to as much as $80,000 per year depending on the college. You also have to pay for books and other school fees. Vocational training or community colleges cost lzIff 29
  46. 46. less than four-year universities. Public universities cost less than private universities. If you attend a public university in your own state, you pay less than if you went to a university in a different state. Students who do not live at home when going to college will have to pay additional fees for a dormitory room and meals. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― sn]hsf nflu e'StfgL ev{/ k'gjf{; ePsf kl/jf/x?n] sn]hsf] k'/} z'Ns r'Stf ug{ ;Sb}gg . sn]hsf] z'Ns ltg{ slxn]sfxLF tkfO{+n] s]xL ;xfotf kfpg ;Sg'x'G5 . cg'bfg, 5fqj[lQ jf cfly{s ;xfotfsf nflu lgj]bg lbg'k5{ . tkfO{+n] ljBfyL{–C0fsf nflu klg lgj]bg lbg ;Sg'x'G5 . ljBfyL{–C0fdf lnPsf] /sd cf©" :gfts -Uo|fh'o6_ ePkl5 ltg{ ;'? ug'{k5{ . sn]h–z'Nsdf ykyfk /sd h'6fpgsf nflu lbgsf] jf xKtfsf] s]xL 306f sfd ug{ ;Sg'x'G5 . sn]hsf] cfly{s zfvf / xfO{:s"ndf ePsf ;Nnfxsf/;Fu z'Ns ltg{] jf 5'6 kfpgsf nflu s] s:tf pkfo x'g;S5g eGg] hfGg 5n©n ug{ ;Sg'x'G5 . w]/} ljBfyL{nfO{ sn]h z'Ns ltg{ ;+3Lo cg'bfg, C0f, / …sfd ub}{ k9g]Ú h:tf cj;/ pknAw 5g . …;+3Lo ljBfyL{ ;xfotfsf nflu lgMz'Ns cfj]bgÚ ©fˆ;f -k|mL clKns];g ©/ ©]8]/n :6o'8]G6 P8, P©PP©P;P_ df©{t o:tf ;'ljwf kfOG5g . cleefjs / ljBfyL{ ldn]/ o;sf nflu lgj]bg lbg'k5{ . lgj]bg lbP/ dfq k'Ub}g, cleefjssf] cfDbfgL / hfoh]yf x]/]kl5 dfq ljBfyL{nfO{ k9fO{sf nflu cfly{s ;xfotf pknAw x'g] jf gx'g] lg0f{o x'G5 . Paying for College Most recent immigrant families will not be able to pay the full cost of college. You can sometimes find assistance to help pay for college. You can apply for a grant, scholarship, or financial aid. You can also apply for a student loan, money that you borrow to pay for school and then start repaying after you graduate. You can also seek part-time jobs to earn money that will help pay for college. You can talk to the financial office at the college and to your high school guidance counselor to find out what options you have to help pay tuition. Federal grants, loans, and work-study opportunities are available for many students to help pay for college. These must be applied for using the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). Parents and student must complete this application cooperatively because parents’ incomes and assets are important in determining whether a student will be eligible for any type of aid. ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― 30 Education
  47. 47. ljb]zL l8u|L÷k|df0fkqsf] dfGotf cfˆgf] b]zdf gl;{ª, lzIf0f, n]vf, Joj;fo Joj:yfkg, / OlGhlgol/ª h:tf Jofj;flos If]qsf ljifodf k|fKt l8u|L / k|df0fkqnfO{ cd]l/sfdf ToxL :t/sf] dflgb}g . oxfF ToxLcg';f/sf] z}lIfs of]Uotf k|fKt ug{ 6]:6x? lbg'k5{ jf sn]hdf yk kf7oqmddf s]xL ;do k9g'k5{ . cfˆgf] z}lIfs of]UotfnfO{ cd]l/sL of]Uotf– a/fa/ agfpg ul/g] oL pkfox? dxFuf x'g;S5g / o;sf nflu w]/} ;do nfUg ;S5g . cf©" cfPsf] b]zdf cf©"n] ul//x]sf] k]zfdf hfg rfxg]n] cd]l/sfsf] k|df0fkq gkfpGh]n k|foMh;f] l;sf?sf ?kdf sfd ;'? ug'{k5{ . oxfF s]xL ;+:yfx? 5g, h;n] tkfO{+n] cfˆgf] b]zdf kfPsf] z}lIfs–of]Uotfsf] dfGotf cd]l/sf / Sofg8fdf s] xf] eg]/ t'ngf ul/lbG5g . To;dWo] …jN8{ Ph's];g ;le{;]hÚ Pp6f xf] . Foreign Degree/Certificate Equivalency People with degrees and certificates from their native country in professional areas such as nursing, teaching, accounting, business management, and engineering will find that their credentials are not accepted in America. They may have to prove their competency through tests or enroll in additional college courses before they will be granted an equivalent American credential. This process can be expensive and take a long time. Immigrants seeking to reenter their professions must often take an entry level job while preparing for American certification. There are some organizations which provide credential evaluations for international students and immigrants planning to continue their studies or work in the U.S. and Canada. One of them is World Education Services (WES). ――― ᴥ ᴥ ――― ;+If]kdf cd]l/sfdf lzIff lgs} dxÎjk"0f{ x'G5 . afnaflnsfn] ljleGg ljifo k9g / cfjZos ;Lk l;Sg clgjfo{ :s"n hfg}k5{ . cfˆgf gfgLx?nfO{ /fd|f] ljBfyL{ ag'g eGg] cleefjsn] 5f]/f5f]/Lsf] lzIffdf rf;f] lbg' / ;xefuL x'g' lgs} /fd|f] x'G5 . jo:sx?n] cfˆgf] k9fO lgoldt ug{ …lhO8LÚ sIff lng ;Sg'x'G5, Jofj;flos k|df0f–kq xft kfg{ ;Sg'x'G5 / sn]h jf ljZjljBfnodf k9g ;Sg'x'G5 . lzIffsf sf/0f tkfO{+n] rfx]cg';f/sf] hflu/ kfpg / cfDbfgL a9fpg ;Sg'x'G5 . cd]l/sfdf ;a}nfO{ w]/} z}lIfs cj;/x? 5g . Summary In the United States, education is very important. Children are required to go to school to learn about different subjects and develop useful skills. It lzIff 31

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