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Engineering and Entrepreneurship

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  1. 1. The Engineering Entrepreneur: Driving innovation, Engineering the engineer Rajesh Gupta Computer Science and Engineering [email_address]
  2. 2. Messages <ul><li>Engineering Education is transforming in fundamental ways: IT, Entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>Our societal infrastructure is at the threshold for disruptive changes </li></ul><ul><li>Enormous economic implications and role of engineering education in this environment </li></ul><ul><li>UCSD at the forefront of leading this change through consortia, centers. </li></ul>
  3. 3. #1 Evolving Engineering Education Engineering has had a transformative impact on society As a consequence the education has evolved Tightly integrated with IT and Entrepreneurship
  4. 4. Transformational Influence of Engineering on Society <ul><li>Materials and Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding of properties, behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manipulation at gross level to create artifacts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convergence of information (data) and communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also “ultimate tool of free speech” (Vinton Cerf) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Biotechnology/Genetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New ‘computational microscopes’ driving life sciences. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Information Technology influences <ul><li>How we communicate, interact, and share </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collaboration is the default mode of interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do we build things and commerce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Market of one, mass customization, new economics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do we conduct the business processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walmart inventory control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verizon billing system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do we conduct science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explosion in data sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic, learning, inferencing, and validation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… and so on. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Information infrastructure has become a fundamental enabler of Science <ul><li>Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Data management systems </li></ul><ul><li>The World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Visualization systems </li></ul><ul><li>Communication systems </li></ul>Fran Berman, SDSC Life Sciences Physics Geosciences Data Management and Mining Astronomy
  7. 7. Where Computing is Done streaming information to/from physical world David Culler, Berkeley
  8. 8. Affecting the way we live and do things Shooter Localization - Vanderbilt, BBN Sensor Augmented Fire Response Healthcare Asset Management Manufacturing David Culler, Berkeley Smart Vivarium 800-900 m/sec t A B C HIT t-176.5 20.8 t-117.6 13.9 t-58.8 6.9 msec t 2 t 1 t 4 t 3 ? d 1 d 2 d 3 d 4 f(x,y)
  9. 9. #2 Embedded Systems and IT in Societal Context <ul><li>While Embedded Systems continue to proliferate their impact on societal infrastructure in a meaningful way is yet to be seen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent transportation networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power distribution and delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthcare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly distributed, complex ‘systems of systems’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Societal integration challenges: legacy, scalability, policy goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Engineering Goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combat fragility, devise robust and adaptable solutions to societal applications. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Coming IT-enabled Societal Changes
  11. 11. #3: ‘The Engineer’ circa 24 th Century <ul><li>JAMES DOOHAN a.k.a. Montgomery 'Scotty' Scott </li></ul><ul><li>He played the quintessential engineer that was able to work miracles. Hence the name 'The Miracle Worker '. He appeared in all seven of the Star Trek movies with an appearance on Star Trek The Next Generation in the episode 'Relics'. One of the more memorable lines from that episode is Scotty talking to the holodeck computer saying: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;N-C- C-1-7-0-1. No bloody A, B, C, or D&quot;. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Engineer <ul><li>The quintessential engineer, circa 1970 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculus, material properties, fluid/thermo dynamics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time variant, time invariant systems, signals and circuits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to quantify, parameterize problem space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practiced and practical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The quintessential engineer, circa 2010 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering at the interfaces: vanishing ‘middle-of-the-roader’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design processes, Innovative, Entrepreneurial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to gather insight from data and make it part of virtual experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model based reasoning, abstraction and reuse of technology solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to constantly relearn, changing material/technological realities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation-enabled and ‘virtually’ equipped </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Some sobering thoughts <ul><li>Half-life of an engineering degree </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Varies from 7 years to 18 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50% of knowledge acquired by an engineer finishing a CS/E degree is obsolete in 2 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In some case, we are already teaching obsolete material. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>80% of the jobs current high school students will apply do not exist today </li></ul><ul><li>80% of new employees leave their employer in first 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation in applications is increasingly an off-shore activity. </li></ul>
  14. 14. ABET Certification Criteria, 2004/2005 Engineering Facilities Ceramic Engineering Chemical Engineering
  15. 15. IT competency across the engineering discipline Mechanical Engineering Industrial Engineering Materials Engineering
  16. 16. Information Technology in Engineering <ul><li>Driven by the need to ensure… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalability of solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational efficiency of methods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>... across the engineering disciplines. </li></ul><ul><li>Key movements in skills: </li></ul>Programming Statistics Files Optimization Algorithms Statistical learning Data organization Pareto optimization
  17. 17. Changing Life, Living, Science, Society
  18. 18.  Systems have a place in major human endeavors <ul><li>Communications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless, Sensor networks, open spectrum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Entertainment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual worlds, education, multimedia delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medicine and Biology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lab-on-chip, devices & disability assists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transportation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>automotive, avionics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Sciences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>big science, life sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exploration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>space, oceanic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These innovations require significant marketplace participation. </li></ul>Instrumented wide-area spaces Personal area spaces Internet end-points In-body, in-cell, in-vitro spaces
  19. 19. Engineers as Entrepreneurs <ul><li>Entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological success intimately tied to its acceptance in the marketplace </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship is about combination of resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation is at the heart of entrepreneurship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creativity drives innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological change provides the opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(sustaining or disruptive) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To succeed, invention needs co-invention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>supporting technology adoption, proliferation, network effects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP, Organization, Privacy, Policy implications, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological advance intimately tied to its acceptance in the marketplace </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Question for JSOE/UCSD <ul><li>How should engineering education be structured now to produce engineering talent best prepared for 2010 and beyond? </li></ul><ul><li>Research initiatives at the interfaces of life, society and science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IT & creative/business processes, large scale systems, assistive technologies, data and knowledge management, crisis response. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proactively prepare engineering talent for innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative element shift from pure technology to applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Science of Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IT skills: algorithms, learning, organizing data, communicating. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to model and navigate complex, adaptive systems with emergent behaviors. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Measures of Success <ul><li>Spur a culture of innovation across broad spectrum of engineering disciplines driven by new technology, tools, and cognitive capabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As evidenced by at scale collaborative efforts, new programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As evidenced by demand for our engineering graduates. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steps in that direction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cal-IT2 samples: Urban crisis response (RESCUE), WIISARD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Center for Networked Systems (CNS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Center for MicroSystems Engineering (CMSE) with emerging effort on assistive technologies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A school-wide program on basic abstractions of IT, technologies and trends, requirements, co-inventions, design principles, economic and social aspects. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-3 courses as a minor to the undergraduate program </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. #4 The New R&D Ecosystem A dramatic shift in progress in institutional infrastructure for R&D
  23. 23. The Evolving Ecosystem of R&D
  24. 24. On going Activities at CalIT2 <ul><li>Application focii </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy and Power Distribution Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automotive and Transportation Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple technical efforts seeded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PCES : Engineering of Physically-Coupled Distributed Embedded Systems for Societal Scale Applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAESERS : Advanced Embedded Systems for Robust Societal Scale Applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ACCESS : Adaptable Cyber-Coupled Engineering Systems for Autonomous Response to Unexpected Events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SHM : Structural Health Monitoring for Damage Prognosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASWD : Automotive Software Workshop at San Diego, March 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ESLD : System-level Design Workshop at IIT Delhi, February 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CPS : Multiple and Broader Community building on Cyber-Physical Systems, July, October, 2006 </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Adaptable Cyber-Coupled Engineering Systems for Autonomous Response to Unexpected Events (ACCESS) Distributed Embedded Systems, Storage & Data Architecture, Structural Health Monitoring, Resource Planning Grand Challenge: Models and methods to build coupled cyber-physical systems that are able to autonomously respond to unexpected events through highly available IT infrastructure, accurate and timely situational awareness and key reconfigurabilities for resource repurposing. <ul><li>Research Components </li></ul><ul><li>Provably correct composable models of CP components </li></ul><ul><li>Situational awareness through continuous structural monitoring for dynamic decision support </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic synthesis of adaptive and reflective middleware for dynamic resource management </li></ul>Awareness Applications MetaSim: simulation environment for crisis response situations. Impact & Testbed
  26. 26. TRUST-IT VISION Urban lifeline systems in the future will more effectively cope with the impacts of disasters, rapid population growth and aging infrastructure by adopting reconfiguration strategies and information technology (IT) applications and research. VISION DRIVERS The demands on urban infrastructure will increase disproportionately relative to infrastructure capacities, thus resulting in over-burdened systems Information technology has exploded in its reach and impact on society, yet it’s integration into infrastructure operations and design has been slow. Adaptive and Reconfigurable technologies have been successfully employed in designing computational and communication systems; its application to large societal-level systems will have significant long-term benefits to society and to the environment KEY CHALLENGES Existing approaches to reconfiguration are limited in scope, scalability, and extensibility. Current engineering pedagogy does not adequately support a holistic approach to solving complex engineering system problems, especially in environments where social issues are often paramount Methodologies to understand and quantify system interdependencies in large-scale lifeline systems are non-existent or lack sophistication Reconfiguration as mitigating tool cannot be evaluated without strong consideration of social, economic and political issues
  27. 27. <ul><li>Infrastructure fragilities & </li></ul><ul><li>restoration </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanics of interdependency </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptivity constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Physics-based multi-flow </li></ul><ul><li>models </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder security & privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Short- & long-term benefits and </li></ul><ul><li>costs </li></ul>Fundamental Knowledge Base <ul><li>Infrastructure performance </li></ul><ul><li>measures </li></ul><ul><li>Sensing requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Calibration of models </li></ul><ul><li>Validation of technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Models for lifeline control </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware specs for adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Intra- and inter-dependent </li></ul><ul><li>retrofit strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Scenarios for urban planning </li></ul><ul><li>Topologies for urban systems </li></ul>Technology Base Urban system vulnerability and reliability assessment Principles for design and control of societal scale reconfigurable systems IT-enabled controls for lifelines Privacy and anonymization technologies Organizational models and interoperability among lifeline industries Data-driven infrastructure interdependency quantification Socio-economic impacts and policy analysis for urban systems DeviceWeb : Societal scale middleware to connect lifelines Multi-scale simulation methods Retrofit strategies to enable reconfiguration and evolution Innovative Graduates, Well-tested Technologies (e.g., customizable UrbanSys packages), and Small Innovation Firms System Requirements Fundamental insights Integrated Technology Elements Future needs of urban society (population growth, disasters, aging infrastructure) Adaptivity and reconfigurability technologies CogCity : Multi-lifeline platform for risk assessment on UrbanSys Technology Integration Methodologies, Urban Models, Algorithms, Data gaps, System Requirements Prototype Reconfiguration Technologies, Empirical & Experimental Data, Reflective Architectures Common Service Model (CSM) CitySim: Meta- simulation tool for long-term adaptation Distributed Power Generation Demonstration Study Tools, Mechanisms, Methodologies, Standards & Policy for Planning, Risk Assessment & Real-time Control System Architecture UrbanSys: Scalable IT platform to drive reconfigurable lifelines UCI Sensing and Dynamic Reconfig. Testbed Orange County Regional Lifeline Testbed
  28. 28. Damage Prognosis in SHM <ul><li>Supported through UCSD/LANL Engineering Institute </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: Monitoring Technologies for Large Scale Structures through sensing, computational modeling and predictive analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Field prototypes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrument large scale structures for continuous monitoring of structural health. </li></ul></ul>Dasgupta, Gupta, Rosing, CSE, Michael Todd, MAE and Chuck Farrar, LANL
  29. 29. Messages <ul><li>Engineering Education is transforming in fundamental ways: IT, Entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>Our societal infrastructure is at the threshold for disruptive changes </li></ul><ul><li>Enormous economic implications and role of engineering education in this environment </li></ul><ul><li>American universities are at the forefront of leading this change through consortia, centers. </li></ul>