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Seminar dt 28.12.2013 at kolkata


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Seminar dt 28.12.2013 at kolkata

  1. 1. HIGH SPEED RAIL – CHALLENGES & OPTIONS: INDIAN PERSPECTIVE Rajesh Prasad, IRSE High Speed Rail Corporation of India Ltd. A subsidiary of RVNL
  2. 2. CONTENTS I. Need of High Speed Rail in India II. Key Issues, Challenges and Few experiences III. Implementation Options
  3. 3. WHAT IS HIGH SPEED RAIL?  As per UIC definition, trains running at speed of 200 kmph on upgraded track and 250 kmph or faster on new track are called High Speed Trains.  These services may require separate, dedicated tracks and "sealed" corridors in which grade crossings are eliminated through the construction of highway underpasses or overpasses.
  4. 4. HIGH SPEED LINES IN EUROPE Country In service (Length) Spain (Adif) 2,869 KM (1,783 miles) Under project/ Planned (Length) construction (Length) 2050 KM (1,274 miles) 238KM (148 miles) France 2,036 KM (1,265 miles) 210 KM (130 miles) 2,616 KM (1,626 miles) Germany 1,285 KM (798 miles) 378 KM (235 miles) 670 KM (416 miles) Italy 923 KM (574 miles) - 395 KM (245 miles) Turkey 538 KM (334 miles) 815 KM (50-6 miles) - Belgium 209 KM (130 miles) - - United Kingdom 113 KM (70 miles) - 204 KM (127 miles) Switzerland Netherlands 35 KM (22 miles) 120 KM (75 miles) 72 KM (45 miles) - - Portugal - - 1,006 KM (625 miles) Sweden Poland Russia Total 8.128 KM (5,051 miles) 3.525 miles) KM 750 KM (466 miles) 712 KM (442 miles) 650 KM (404 miles) (2,190 7,241 KM (4500 miles)
  5. 5. COMMERCIAL VS SOCIAL • Railway has social obligation to run transport service for all the area of country irrespective of profit motive. It can not close uneconomic lines • It can not increase fare due to adverse political impact even though fuel cost mounting • It has to generate enough resources for efficient maintenance & replacements of assets on its own
  7. 7. ENERGY EFFICIENCY High Speed saves Energy Costs and reduces Greenhouse Gases Plane 51.1 Private Car 29.9 Bus 18.3 Classic Train 17.6 High Speed Railway 12.1 0 10 20 30 40 50 “Fuel equivalent grams” per passenger-kilometer 60
  8. 8. LAND REQUIREMENT Land requirements are Smaller A HSR-line allows more passengers than an six lane highway per hour Elevated rail corridors reduce the hassle of Land Acquisition. 35 m
  9. 9. DECONGESTION AND CAPACITY ADDITION High Speed Rail Motorway Double Track 2x3 Lanes 12 Trains per hour per Direction 4500 Cars per hour per direction 1000 Pax/Train 1.7 (Average) Passengers per car Capacity = 12000 Passengers Capacity = 7650 Passenger per per hour Hour Reduction in commuting time between cities and added capacity gives an excellent opportunity for decongestion of the mega urban centers and growth of smaller towns and other cities.
  10. 10. INCREASING URBANIZATION The major challenges faced are:  Major Urban centers are severely congested:  Dramatic growth in vehicle ownership in the past decade.  Accessing jobs, education becoming increasingly timeconsuming.  Billions of man-hours are lost with people stuck in traffic. 700 590 600 473 500 377 400 300 285 200 100 0 2001 2011 2021 2030 Urban Population in India (in Million)
  11. 11. INCREASING URBANIZATION Explosion in Inter City Travel India’s urban population - 285 million reported in the 2001 census and 377 million in 2011 census. McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) projects - 590 million by 2030 (40% of India’s total projected population). The rapid urbanization in the country has triggered a growing demand for inter city traffic between metropolitan cities and 2nd and 3rd tier cities. In absence of HSR, passenger traffic of Airlines/ Car users is growing at 1520%
  12. 12. DECONGESTION of Metropolitan cities Tier II city Tier I Tier II City Tier I City Tier II city Tier I City Small towns and Tier II & III Cities
  13. 13. TRAVEL TIME ( Trigger for modal shift) Journey time for air travel involves travel to airport, away from city centers and waiting time at Airports. Distance between DELHI to CHANDIGARH is 245 Km. Chandigarh Airport (city centre) Delhi Delhi Airport (city centre) Plane .75 hr 1.25 hrs at Terminal + 1 hr Flying time 30 min Total time: 3.5 hrs Chandigarh (city centre) Delhi (city centre) Total time: 1 hr High Speed Railway
  14. 14. NEED FOR HSR IN INDIA HSR is energy efficient and is less polluting than Road/Air travel. Indian imports about 80% of its oil requirement. HSR will use indigenous energy resources like thermal/hydel/nuclear based energy Economically as well environmentally, Rail based Transport system is ideally suited for India.
  15. 15. DECREASING MODAL SHARE India became a decidedly road-dominant economy in the beginning of the eighties with the railways losing out in respect of both freight traffic and passenger traffic. 100 90 80 70 Modal share (%) Road 60 50 Modal share (%) Railway 40 30 Modal share (%) Airline 20 10 0 1950-51 1960-61 1970-71 1980-81 1990-91 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05
  16. 16. IMPACT OF INTRODUCTION OF HSR Introduction of TGV service in 1981-83  Existing long distance rail services have difficulties in competing with road and air modes of transport,  The new HSR lines can stop the decline of the railway’s share on the long distance transport segment along those corridor.  It provides an attractive transport offer in terms of reduced travel times and comfortable journey.  Despite the high investment cost it is economically sustainable and need of the hour. Evolution of first Class rail traffic in France Before and after opening of the first HSR line
  17. 17. PROJECTS WITH RVNL Ministry of Railways has transferred 110 projects     Strengthening of Golden Quadrilateral and Diagonals Provision of Port connectivity and corridors to hinterland Kolkata Metro Rail Workshops & Others 58 projects 34 projects 4 projects 14 projects Projects completed upto March’2013 36 Projects yet to be sanctioned 03 Project under implementation 71 Total Cost of Project in hand ~ 45000 cr.
  18. 18. RVNL & HIGH SPEED RAIL • Ministry of Railways has directed RVNL to form a SPV for implementation of High Speed Rail projects. • High Speed Rail Corporation of India Ltd. (HSRC) incorporated on 25th July, 2012 as a 100% subsidiary of RVNL. • HSRC will undertake: – project activities for Mumbai-Ahmedabad corridor such as preparation of project related studies – preparation of the technical standards for High Speed Rail – providing support to Ministry of Railways and Government of India in finalizing financial and implementation models. – carry out similar activities for any other corridor decided by the Government.
  20. 20. KEY ISSUES & CHALLENGES (7) Selection of Technology (6) Policy Framework (1) Political Will (2) Selection of Project Corridor(s) System Integration (3) Economic & Financial Viability (5) Land Acquisition (4) Financing HSR Project(s) High Speed Rail Development
  21. 21. (1) POLITICAL WILL  Each HSR corridor will have a long gestation period and will be highly capital intensive, so, strategic thinking is required at the Apex level for implementing in a programmed manner  Coordination among Central Government Ministries, State Governments and Government Agencies Success stories- National Highways, Airport upgradation, Yamuna express-way
  22. 22. (2) SELECTION OF PROJECT CORRIDOR(S) FOR IMPLEMENTATION  Vast country – Many potential corridors - Selection of pilot Project;  Economically/financially viable projects to be given priority;  Willingness of local governments to participate in the project by way of land and funding support.
  23. 23. (3) ECONOMIC & FINANCIAL VIABILITY OF THE PROJECT  High capital cost will impact viability  HSR will be a dedicated line; High demand risk due to higher tariffs as compared to conventional rail.  Emphasis on other alternative revenue sources like Real estate revenues, carbon credits, cross-subsidy from road/air travelers.
  24. 24. (4) FINANCING OF THE PROJECT(S)  The high capital costs of HSR makes it a financing challenge.  GOI may not fully fund the corridors.  Most state governments will have to raise finances by extra levies, real estate etc. even for part funding  Private sector may not have adequate financing capability to fund the large HSR projects. Proper project structuring by unbundling the projects into smaller packages may be essential. Funding by multilateral and bilateral funding agencies
  25. 25. (5) LAND ACQUISITION  Critical due to stringent alignment requirements  HSR corridors pass through conurbations or sensitive land;  Strong public protests adversely affecting large number of projects. Mix of alignment choice- grade/ elevated/ tunnels
  26. 26. (6) POLICY FRAMEWORK  Robust policy framework for:  Seamless implementation of projects  Assurance for attracting International investors  Creation of National High Speed Rail Authority
  27. 27. (7) SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGY Choice of Technology: A) Fixed Infrastructure:  Mix of Embankment/Elevated/ Underground Structures and their dimensional control;  Construction Gauge;  Fencing of the complete track/elevated track;  Electrical Installations. B) Fast Upgrading Technology  Rolling Stock  Signaling and Communication  Train Control  Fare Collection
  29. 29. TGV, FRANCE The rolling stock for the TGV lines is procured by SNCF and is funded through lease commitments French Govt. The first opened in 1981 between Paris and Lyon (480 Km) and now total network 1887 km. French govt. plan to have new 2000 km HSR lines by 2020. Borrowing from the international markets to enable it to undertake major projects but not on a particular project basis. This funding is supported by government guarantee but is restricted to the amount that RFF can repay from the access fees Access Charges (for use of rail infrastructure) SNCF - French national rail operator Réseau Ferré de France (RFF) – State owned
  31. 31. IMPLEMENTATION OPTIONS Considering the case studies, following could be the implementation options  Non – PPP Option: The project are implemented by the Government on EPC basis  PPP Options   Option 1: Design, Build, Finance, Operate and Transfer (DBFOT) of the entire project by a single Private Developer Option 2: Unbundling the project into different components, so as to make the project components attractive to private players from the perspective of affordability in terms of size and risk allocation:  B&T (Fixed infrastructure)  DFOT (Train operations)
  32. 32. IMPLEMENTATION OPTIONS  Whether project is implemented through PPP or partial Government funding route, pre-construction activities should be started in a programmed manner – Government guidelines  MOR has already created a company named High Speed Rail Corporation of India as a subsidiary of RVNL.
  33. 33. FUNDING OPTIONS  Project Development Activities  A separate fund may be created    To be recovered from viable projects along with additional fee Rolling fund for further project development activities Funding Support for PPP projects:  Viability Gap Funding  Multilateral/Bilateral loans by providing Centre government guarantees  Centre government guarantee for Long term Bonds of Project SPVs
  34. 34. FUNDING OPTIONS  Funding Support for Non-PPP Projects  Directly funded by Centre/State Governments  Other Sources of Funds  Revenue share from Concessionaires (train operators)  Contribution from State Governments  Real Estate Development
  35. 35. STATUS OF PREFEASIBILITY STUDIES Project Corridors Status of Prefeasibility Studies Pune – Mumbai - Ahmedabad Final Report submitted. Delhi – Agra-Lucknow-VaranasiPatna Final Report submitted. Howrah –Haldia Final Report submitted. Hyderabad-Dornakal-VijaywadaChennai Draft Final Report submitted. Chennai-Bangalore-CoimbatoreThirvanantpuram Draft Final Report submitted. Delhi – Chandigarh - Amritsar Consultant yet to be engaged Delhi-Jaipur-Ajmer-Jodhpur Consultant yet to be engaged
  36. 36. MUMBAI-AHMEDABAD HIGH SPEED RAIL State: Maharashtra/Dadra-Nagar-Haveli (UT)/ Gujarat Main Features Route length 546 km Maharashtra -176 km Dadra-Nagar-Haveli (UT) 6 km Gujarat -364 Km
  37. 37. MUMBAI-AHMEDABAD : MAIN FEATURES Stations and Terminals: 2 Main Terminal Stations in Mumbai, and Ahmedabad 3Intermediate Stations in Navi Mumbai, Surat and Vadodara. 1 Depot : Main Depot in Ahmedabad (Geratpur)
  38. 38. MUMBAI-AHMEDABAD : MAIN FEATURES Speed: The operation speed has been assumed to be 350kmph. The best travel times at this speed (without stops)1’52”. (Avg commercial speed will be 286 kmph) At the horizon year 2021, this operation speed will be the worldwide standard. A 350 Km/h operation speed provides 12 minutes time savings between Mumbai and Ahmedabad compared to a 300 Km/h speed although energy consumption increases by 27%
  39. 39. INVESTMENT COST • Construction - @ Rs.80 Cr per route Km ˜ Rs 800 Million/Km • Estimated – Rs 45,000 Cr (year base 2009) • Rolling stock – Rs 5000 Cr for 2021 HSR offer
  40. 40. TALGO MODEL
  41. 41. TALGO TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS       1942 TALGO I Speed: 130 km/h in tests       1950 TALGO II 1968 TALGO III 2001 TALGO 350 First commercial Talgo service in Spain Aluminium construction High comfort level for passengers Open gangway between cars On-board services and AC equipment Talgo Maintenance services Speed: 120 km/h in comercial servicies           Revolutionary concept Lightweight construction Articulated union between cars Low floor coaches Independent wheels Aerodynamic design TRAVCA Speed : 260 km/h  Seats and Night Couches  Tourist, 1st Class, 1st Class PMR, Etc., Couches  Bistro and Restaurant Couches  Tourist , 1st Class, 1st Class PMR, Etc., Cabins  Super Reclining Seats Couches PASSENGERS COACHES  Natural Tilting  Pneumatic suspension  Increased speed to 30% while maintaining a high level of comfort  Munich test bench: 500km / h. Speed: 220 km / h 1980 PENDULAR TRAIN Speed: 350 km/h  High Speed  100% Spanish Technology  First locomotive with variable gauge system  Dual voltage Guidance system Automatic variable gauge system in ’69 Night and day services Quality in manufacturing and maintenance (more than 45 years of commercial service) Speed: 200 km / h Very High Speed Lowest energy consumption in HS Lowest noise emissions in HS Lowest weight in HS Great interior space Best in the world in accessibility TALGO 250, 250 Hybrid Speed: 160-220 km / h         High Speed Interoperability Change width Low energy consumption Low noise Accessibility T250: Dual Voltage Hybrid: two diesel engines (1800, vel 220 km /h) Speed: 250 km / h     Push-Pull Diesel Intercity train Automatic variable gauge system in power heads Multiple possible configurations World Record in traction diesel 256 km / h Speed: 220 km / h 1998 TALGO XXI 2012 NEW TALGO HIGH SPEED PLATFORM “AVRIL”       Low consumption High capacity 3+2 Modularity Flexibility Use of recyclable materials TSI European Standards Speed: 380 km / h
  42. 42. THEIR TRAINS PORTFOLIO Very High Speed High Speed Intercity Locomotives
  43. 43. PRINCIPLES OF TALGO TECHNOLOGY Lightweight construction Lower traction cost and higher acceleration Articulated union Higher acceleration and increased safety Guided axles Higher acceleration, increased safety and lower maintenance cost Independent wheels Increase comfort, decrease noise and track adaptability Natural tilting Higher speed on curves and higher confort
  44. 44. ADVANTAGES OF THEIR TRAINS LIGHTWEIGHT CONSTRUCTION ADVANTAGES: • Lower traction cost • Higher acceleration ARTICULATED UNION BETWEEN CARS ADVANTAGES: • Lower track interaction • Less aerodynamics drag •Higher passive security •Guidance facility • Lower maintenance and higher reliability
  45. 45. ADVANTAGES OF THEIR TRAINS ADVANTAGES: • Higher acceleration • Increased safety • Increases comfort • Decreases noise • Lower maintenance cost • High track adaptability GUIDED AXLES INDEPENDENT WHEELS
  46. 46. ADVANTAGES OF THEIR TRAINS NATURAL TILTING SYSTEM •Zero energy consumption •Maximum reliability due to its simplicity •Zero maintenance and manufacturing cost •Improved passenger comfort •No additional investment on infrastructure needed •Higher speed in curves
  53. 53. SPAIN DISASTER: TRAIN JUMPS OFF THE TRACKS ON APPROACH TO NORTH-WESTERN CITY OF SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA SPAIN KILLING 80 PASSENGERS In Spain there is a provision of refund of 100% fare if the train is late by more than 5 min. In this case destination was about 5 kms and only 5 min was left to reach platform at destination. European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) is normally available for High Speed route to take care of such eventuality. In this case it was about to be provided in next few days. The conventional system AFSA by Dymetronics was discontinued only few days back and the new system ERTMS was not in place. The driver was under pressure to reach destination within the permitted time and Technology was not there to check and control. It seems to be Human Error with System Failure and gives a feeling as if it had happened in India.
  54. 54. THANK YOU
  55. 55. TGV, FRANCE  In addition to borrowings, the TGV lines have also been developed with grant funding from local sources. Funding pattern for three TGV lines are: Funding by Source French State Regional funding RFF SNCF EU Luxembourg Switzerland TGV Est 39% 24% 22% 2% 10% 4% n/a East Rhine Rhone 31% 29% 26% 4% 8% n/a 3% Concession model ► Rail operators pay an access charge based on their actual use of the infrastructure ► Demand risk lies with the concessionaire Brittany loire 32% 35% 33% n/a n/a n/a n/a Partnership contract Forms of PPP models followed by RFF to create Infrastructure ►RFF pays a rental or availability fee based on the performance of the private sector partner ► Demand risk remains with RFF
  56. 56. HSL ZUID, NETHERLAND Dutch govt – 6 D&C contractors Substructure Rail Systems Infraspeed Consortium: Fluor Daniel BV, Koninklijke BAM/NBM Amstelland NV, Siemens Nederland NV, Siemens Transportation Systems, Innisfree Limited and Charterhouse Project Equity Investment Limited 30 years Concession on DBFM (PPP) basis • 125 km line between the Netherlands (Amsterdam) and Belgium border (Schiphol). • This lines provides connectivity of Amsterdam to Brussels and Paris Passenger Transport HSA Network Connections One D&C contractor
  57. 57. HSL ZUID, NETHERLAND The PPP did not include the transfer of any demand risk. Infraspeed is remunerated on an availability basis, subject to deductions for unavailability of the infrastructure. The Dutch government finances:  The substructure of the HSL  The PPP infrastructure payments to Infraspeed  These are partly financed by revenue from HSA Total costs: €7.2bn. The value of the PPP element of the project was approximately £1bn. The £1bn project financing for the PPP includes:  €605m syndicated term loan (comprised of two Senior loans with a term of approximately 27 years)  €119m subordinated debt bridge facility  €15m working capital facility .
  58. 58. TAIWAN • The link Taipei to Kaohsiung - total length of 345km. • The project had a construction value of approximately US$18bn. Taiwan Govt. • A concession to finance, construct, and operate the High Speed Rail System for a period of 35 years and a concession for HSR station area development for a period of 50 years. • Demand risk transferred to the private sector operator 10 % of yearly earnings to government for further HSR development during the HSR operating concession period regardless of the performance of the concession company. The accumulated amount could not be less than US$3.4bn. Consortium led by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Procurement of Rolling Stock Taiwan High Speed Rail Corporation: Alstom Transport SA of France and Siemens AG of Germany