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  2. 2.  Define Prototyping  Prototyping Objectives  The Prototyping Process  Advantages of prototyping  Disadvantages of prototyping
  3. 3. Prototyping is the process of quickly putting together a working model (a prototype) in order to test various aspects of a design, illustrate ideas or features and gather early user feedback.-
  4. 4. Kendall & KendallCopyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc. 8-4  Prototyping is an information-gathering technique  Prototypes are useful in seeking user reactions, suggestions, innovations, and revision plans  Prototyping may be used as an alternative to the systems development life cycle
  5. 5.  The objective of evolutionary prototyping is to deliver a working system to end-users  The development starts with those requirements which are best understood.  The objective of throw-away prototyping is to validate or derive the system requirements  The prototyping process starts with those requirements which are poorly understood
  6. 6. Outline of the prototyping process 1. Identify basic requirements  Determine basic requirements including the input and output information desired. Details, such as security, can typically be ignored. 2. Develop Initial Prototype  The initial prototype is developed that includes only user interfaces.
  7. 7. 3. Review  The customers, including end-users, examine the prototype and provide feedback on additions or changes. 4. Revise and Enhance the Prototype  Using the feedback both the specifications and the prototype can be improved. Negotiation about what is within the scope of the contract/product may be necessary.
  8. 8. Note: If changes are introduced then a repeat of steps #3 and #4 may be needed.
  9. 9.  Reduces development time.  Reduces development costs.  Requires user involvement.  Developers receive quantifiable user feedback.  Facilitates system implementation since users know what to expect.  Results in higher user satisfaction.  Exposes developers to potential future system enhancements.
  10. 10.  This method can be used to avoid documenting the requirements of the system.  Management is required  Long term maintenance can be expensive  Uncertain design idea’s  Information can be lost through so many improvement changes