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Sustainable Restaurant Design Strategies

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Learn how to transform an existing restaurant into a sustainable operation. This presentation outlines various ways restaurant owners can use interior design strategies to become more efficient with their energy, water, food waste and building materials.

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Sustainable Restaurant Design Strategies

  1. 1. SUSTAINABLE RESTAURANT DESIGN© Rebecca Jensen. 2013. All Rights Reserved.No part of this presentation or any of its contents may be reproduced, copied, modified or adapted, without the prior written consent of the author, unless otherwise indicated for stand-alone materials.
  2. 2. It has been stated that 40% of food in the United States is thrown away – mostly in a food service environment – and that burdens all food delivered with up to 80% more environmental impact. Thisstatistic alone is incredibly daunting, which is what inspired me to renovate and redesign a restaurant into a more sustainable establishment in Monterey, California. My approach to this renovation is to focus on air circulation, water, energy, material and waste reduction in both short and long term occasions.My design philosophy will revolve around continual life cycle assessments (LCA), where I will consider a broad range of environmental impacts a product can have throughout its entire life cycle. This includes raw material extraction, sourcing, transport, use and disposal.
  3. 3. TODAY’S CONVENTIONAL RESTAURANT INDUSTRY TODAY’S CONVENTIONAL RESTAURANT INDUSTRY Global warming is a real issue, as air and water temperature are indisputably increasing. Climate change has negative environmental consequences, and it can displace people, threaten the food supply, diminish biodiversity, and reduce quality of life. Various scientists speculate that at the rate we’re going, the earth could reach an average temperature of 250 degrees Celsius, which is hot enough to destroy all human, animal and plant life. The commercial sector is a large contributor this destruction, and the restaurant industry uses 5 times more energy than other retail, office or lodging industries. There are nearly a million commercial eating facilities in America, and Americans spend 40% of their food budget on food consumed away from home. That is nearly half of their food budget. Meanwhile, a restaurant can easily produce 50,000 – 100,000 pounds of garbage each year, where 95% could be recycled or composted. ENERGY In addition to large amounts of food and material waste, the restaurant industry also overuses large amounts of energy. For example, 1 piece of typical food service equipment can use as much electricity as an entire household. WATER Americans use 7 times more gallons of water per capita than the rest of the world. That means that on average, Americans use about 300,000 gallons a year. With food service operations in particular, the direct cost of heating water for sanitary uses is obvious, but indirectly energy is also consumed to pump water from treatment facilities to the local area. FOOD WASTE Food waste has great potential to be turned into fertile growing soil, but restaurants often send them to landfills where they will never be recouped. In addition, landfills don’t get smaller; they only grow larger over time. BUILDING MATERIALS Many synthetic materials in chairs, tables, cutlery, cleaning supplies and kitchenware won’t decompose and many of them contain toxic substances, contaminating through their production, daily use, and disposal. Some materials have high-embodied energy or chemicals, and as a result, they may emit harmful gases during production and/or throughout their existence.© Rebecca Jensen. 2013. All Rights Reserved.No part of this presentation or any of its contents may be reproduced, copied, modified or adapted, without the prior written consent of the author, unless otherwise indicated for stand-alone materials.
  4. 4. SUSTAINABLE RESTAURANT CERTIFICATIONS SUSTAINABLE RESTAURANT CERTIFICATIONS In response to the restaurant industry’s negative contribution to our environmental crisis, several organizations have created sustainable restaurant certifications. Two large organizations, the Green Restaurant Association (GRA) and the Sustainable Restaurant Association (SRA) both have green restaurant certifications based on a point rating system. SRA CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS 1. Energy: Equipment & Services Air-conditioning and heating, ovens and appliances, boilers, refrigeration, lighting, dishwashers, toilet hand dryers, tariffs, metering and contract negotiation 2. Water: Equipment & Services Equipment, toilets and taps, utility services & meters 3. Waste: Management & Services Food waste, glass, oil & grease, packaging, disposables (eg take-away coffee cups), electronic waste and batteries, waste contracts and regulations 4. Supply Chain: Non-Food Laundry, uniforms and table linen, cleaning fluids & equipment, cookware, front of house tableware and accessories, office supplies 5. Supply Chain: Food Food and beverage sourcing, right questions to ask potential suppliers, menu planning, food transport options, food eco-labels descriptions 6. Furniture, Fit-Out & Building Design Windows, insulation, paint and finishes, furniture purchase 7. Grants & Regulations Environmental certifications, environmental regulations 8. Community Engagement Employment, community engagement 9. Responsible Marketing & Publicity Communicating your marketing message responsibly© Rebecca Jensen. 2013. All Rights Reserved.No part of this presentation or any of its contents may be reproduced, copied, modified or adapted, without the prior written consent of the author, unless otherwise indicated for stand-alone materials.
  5. 5. GREEN RESTAURANT ASSOCIATION GRA CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS 1. Environmentally positive farming helps to protect the landscape, reduce pollution and biodiversity. 2. Local and seasonal food is essential to eating sustainably. 3. Sustainable fish choices are important since stocks of some fish are seriously at risk. 4. Ethical meat and dairy form a cornerstone of responsible sourcing. 5. Fair trade or fairly traded, it’s important that we buy products from communities in the developing world that haven’t disadvantaged the producers. 6. Water saving means less money going down the drain needlessly and thinking about the additional resources our water consumption uses up. 7. Workplace resources in a restaurant is everything from paper products and cleaning materials right down to the materials the building is made of. 8. Supply chain practices have economic and social effects, as well as environmental ones. 9. Waste management should involve reducing, reusing and recycling what we can and avoiding the lure of easy landfilling. 10. Energy efficiency is about combating climate change by keeping our carbon footprint on the small side. 11. Community engagement to include local involvement, through business, charity or employment, reaps rewards. 12. Treating people fairly means doing the decent thing by staff, suppliers and customers. It’s nice to be nice! 13. Healthy eating is something that’s increasingly on the agenda at national level and restaurants have a part to play in helping people make good choices. 14. Responsible marketing means a ban on ‘greenwash’!© Rebecca Jensen. 2013. All Rights Reserved.No part of this presentation or any of its contents may be reproduced, copied, modified or adapted, without the prior written consent of the author, unless otherwise indicated for stand-alone materials.
  6. 6. CASE STUDIES CASE STUDY - MIXT GREENS, SAN FRANCISCO Mixt Greens is a seven-location, chain restaurant across the US designed by William McDonough and Partners. With a focus on the cradle to cradle concept, Mixt Greens in San Francisco has accomplished the following: • Packaging is 100% compostable and biodegradable, including napkins, cups, utensils, lids, bags, and straws. • Through a comprehensive recycling and compost program, Mixt Greens is able to divert 90% of its waste from landfill. • Mixt Greens uses renewable energy credits from Renewable Choice to offset energy consumption. All their restaurants use CFL lighting (set on timers to increase efficiency) and utilize natural daylight as much as possible. • All wood products are certified by the Forest Stewardship Council. • Dual-zone HVAC is used, utilizing natural ventilation as much as possible. • Recycled and rapidly renewable materials are used where possible, such as tables made from 100% recycled detergent bottles. • All of Mixt Greens’ spaces are designed by LEED certified architect William Duff of WD Arch • Use of zero-volatile organic compound (VOC) paint and concrete flooring with high-fly ash content is used throughout. • Mixt Greens uses non-toxic and biodegradable cleaning products from Method, a local manufacturer of green cleaning supplies. • Dry cleaning of uniforms and chef jackets is done by SF Green Clean. Primarily geared to the “consumer” market, Mixt Greens recently reached out to SF Green Clean to offer a commercial contract. Swallow says that after a about a month of service, both Green Clean and Mixt Greens are very satisfied with the arrangement.© Rebecca Jensen. 2013. All Rights Reserved.No part of this presentation or any of its contents may be reproduced, copied, modified or adapted, without the prior written consent of the author, unless otherwise indicated for stand-alone materials.
  7. 7. CASE STUDIES CASE STUDY - RED STAG, MINNEAPOLIS Red Stag is the first LEED-CI registered restaurant project in Minnesota. According to Red Stag, restaurants use more energy and water than any other small business, costing them 30-40% of their entire operating budget. Through using new technologies in the build out of the Stag: • Water use was cut by approximately 70% • Energy use cut almost in half. • Red Stag is the first facility in the country entirely lit by LED lights, which use 90% less electricity than incandescent bulbs. • Eureka! Recycling assists them with composting their waste.© Rebecca Jensen. 2013. All Rights Reserved.No part of this presentation or any of its contents may be reproduced, copied, modified or adapted, without the prior written consent of the author, unless otherwise indicated for stand-alone materials.
  8. 8. COMPROMISES “Take, for instance, the paper versus plastic bags debate. Retailers such as Whole Foods and even entire cities such as San Francisco have banned the non-biodegradable plastic variety in the name of saving the environment. But according to Schenck, who sits on the executive committee of theAmerican Center for Life Cycle Assessment, a non-profit organization that seeks to build capacity andknowledge of LCAs, that’s not necessarily such a good thing. An LCA conducted on non-recycled paperbags shows that because they require the cutting down of trees for materials, are heavier to transport, and release greenhouse gases when they decompose in landfills, they can actually be worse for the environment than plastic bags, which are made from an already-existing byproduct of petroleum, are lighter to transport, and don’t release greenhouse gases in landfills.” - Rita Schenck, Executive Director of the Institute for Environmental Research and EducationFor my restaurant vision, I plan on taking several concepts demonstrated by the Mixt Greens and Red Stag case studies. While I appreciate the guidance that the varying green restaurant certifications provide, I do not find the point rating system to be entirely cohesive. I would like my concept to be more “full circle,” where the system’s big picture is greater than the individual parts.
  9. 9. MONTEREY RESTAURANT BACKGROUND MONTEREY RESTAURANT BACKGROUND The restaurant site is located in downtown Monterey, California near the wharf. A restaurant currently exists in the space, but the current owners are selling their space, and a new type of restaurant will move in. Upon moving in, the new owners would like to renovate to make the space more eco-effective. The concept behind the new restaurant is to create a space inspired by casual California hiking trails. The space will be modern, with subtle elements inspired by nature. The space will not be blatantly “rugged” but rather it should reflect the overall sense of California’s healthy, active and nature-friendly lifestyle. The new restaurant will serve a lunch and dinner cuisine, serving food items only grown and raised in the California state. As the designer, I will do my best to make this space as eco-effective as possible. Throughout the design process, I will focus on renovating the space to reflect sustainable air circulation, energy, water and material use.© Rebecca Jensen. 2013. All Rights Reserved.No part of this presentation or any of its contents may be reproduced, copied, modified or adapted, without the prior written consent of the author, unless otherwise indicated for stand-alone materials.
  10. 10. AIR CIRCULATION AIR CIRCULATION The kitchen’s mechanical equipment will require the most power and electricity. Kitchen equipment requires more conditioning of air from heat rejection of equipment use. The following efforts will be made to increase efficiency in air circulation. 1. Integrate natural cross ventilation into dining rooms and kitchen by use of extra windows and doors With grease cooking, exhausted air requires additional air to be supplemented to the space to be made up. Integrating natural ventilation into dining rooms in temperate climates in certain parts of the year can reduce energy costs of conditioning air as well. 2. Geothermal Energy – Install a Synergy3D Radiant Heat System Radiant floor systems utilize a series of tubing encased in the floor. By circulating warm water through the tubing, the room is comfortably conditioned. Since the entire floor acts as a giant radiator, you’ll experience warm floors and consistent comfort throughout the room, literally from head to toe. Floors covered in tile, wood, vinyl or stone are kept toasty warm, even on the coldest days. Heating is also accomplished using forced air through the duct system. Just below the surface, the ground contains vast amounts of energy that can be used to provide the heating and cooling. During heating, the system extracts the energy from the earth, compresses it to a higher temperature, and distributes it through the site. During cooling, the system extracts the heat from the restaurant and deposits it into the earth.© Rebecca Jensen. 2013. All Rights Reserved.No part of this presentation or any of its contents may be reproduced, copied, modified or adapted, without the prior written consent of the author, unless otherwise indicated for stand-alone materials.
  11. 11. AIR CIRCULATION 3. Install Eco-Effective Solarshade Cloths MechoSystems’ award-winning SunDialer® automatically adjusts shade positions according to solar penetration/BTU loads and real- time microclimatic sky conditions. In addition, the AAC/PC SolarTrac is a building-wide control system which tames the sun’s energy by optimizing the position of the shades across the building for comfort, view, and energy efficiency 24 hours a day and 365 1/4 days a year. This is accomplished by measuring the micro-climatic conditions around the building and adjusting the shades with reference to the building’s geodetic location and the calculated angle of incidence, imposed solar heat gain, and the programmable penetration of the sun’s energy. MechoSystems EcoVeil is a Cradle to Cradle certified product that is 100% recyclable, FR and PVC free. It is fully reclaimable, recyclable and designed for a closed-loop system. It is also Greenguard Indoor Air Quality certified. EcoVeil C2C Production Process Advantages include: • Minimizes solar heat gain and reduces annoying glare. • Operates to turn on, off, or dims lights, based on the amount of natural light that the shades allow into the space. • Saves energy by maximizing the amount of daylight in a space and thereby minimizes the need for electric light.© Rebecca Jensen. 2013. All Rights Reserved.No part of this presentation or any of its contents may be reproduced, copied, modified or adapted, without the prior written consent of the author, unless otherwise indicated for stand-alone materials.
  12. 12. WATER REDUCTION WATER REDUCTION Restrooms, prep sinks, hand sinks, bar sinks, mop sinks, ice makers, dish washing systems, and water lines are just a few areas that uses fresh water. To minimize water waste, the following tactics will be placed into the restaurant design. 1. Install a Sloan AQUS Grey Water Recycling System The system takes the water that goes down the bathroom sink, filters and disinfects it, and uses it to flush the toilet. It does not cross connect to the fresh water system nor does it inhibit the backflow prevention. It simply uses reused water as the primary source for flushing the toilet then supplements it with fresh water, as needed. The system can save up to 6,000 gallons of fresh water per year and requires only annual maintenance. 2. Install Energy Star Steam Cookers Energy Star rated units use 90% less water than standard machines. That can equate to $10,000 in water bill costs. 3. Install Energy Star Dish Washers Qualified machines are on average 25% more water efficient than standard machines. 4. Install Low Flow Spray Valves and Aerators Standard spray valves on industrial faucets in the dishwasher area can use up to 3 gallons of water per minute. Replacing those with new 1.2 gallon valves can save as much as 90,000 gallons of water. A properly designed low-flow spray valve hits dirty plates with a higher velocity than the high-flow valve so the cleaning performance can be as good or better than the high- flow units. In addition to water savings, the restaurant will also save energy on heating the water that sprays through these valves.© Rebecca Jensen. 2013. All Rights Reserved.No part of this presentation or any of its contents may be reproduced, copied, modified or adapted, without the prior written consent of the author, unless otherwise indicated for stand-alone materials.
  13. 13. WATER REDUCTION 5. Add Low Flow Faucet Aerators to Hand Sinks Specifying low flow plumbing fixtures and water efficient equipment can assist in reduced water use. 6. Install Sloan Waterless Urinals Sloan Waterfree Urinals do not use water, saving the precious resource as well as sewage and water supply line costs; reducing maintenance and repair bills; and creating hygienic, odor-free restrooms. 7. Install Solar-Powered Dual Flushometers The Sloan SOLIS® Collection of solar-powered plumbing fixtures includes a dual-flush squat toilet Flushometer model. These Flushometers use light to charge a highly efficient capacitor, providing power even in rooms with occupancy-controlled lighting. All Sloan flushometers are made from a high level of recycled material and are 100 percent recyclable. Sloan is also the first and only plumbing company to have products – the dual-flush UPPERCUT and the Royal flushometers, certified Cradle-to-Cradle. 8. Serve Water Only Upon Request There are nearly 70,000 restaurant meals served each day, and if only a quarter of restaurant consumers declined water, we’d save millions of gallons of fresh water everyday.© Rebecca Jensen. 2013. All Rights Reserved.No part of this presentation or any of its contents may be reproduced, copied, modified or adapted, without the prior written consent of the author, unless otherwise indicated for stand-alone materials.
  14. 14. ENERGY EFFICIENCY ENERGY EFFICIENCY Refrigeration, cooking equipment and food preparation equipment can draw substantial power and require a lot of energy. There are a few fundamental decision decisions I plan to make to significantly reduce energy consumption. 1. Install Energy Star Compact Fluorescent (CFL) Lights Lighting accounts for about 13% of restaurant energy usage. Energy Star CFLs use 75% less energy than the conventional incandescent light bulbs. 2. Install Motion Sensors Throughout The Restaurant Add motion sensors to restrooms, storage rooms, managers office and other low occupancy rooms. 3. Purchase Energy Star Kitchen Products Purchasing ENERGY STAR qualified CFS equipment as a package for new kitchen construction or as a replacement for aging equipment, can save significant amounts of money and energy on food service operators’ electric, gas, water and sewer bills. 4. Create a Low Energy Menu Because cooking, refrigeration and food preparation can require a lot of energy, I will work with the chef to develop a menu that minimizes substantial use of kitchen equipment. 5. Turn Off Appliances When Not In Use Train staff to turn off ventilation hoods, dishwashers, lights, cookers, ovens, etc when not in use.© Rebecca Jensen. 2013. All Rights Reserved.No part of this presentation or any of its contents may be reproduced, copied, modified or adapted, without the prior written consent of the author, unless otherwise indicated for stand-alone materials.
  15. 15. WASTE WASTE 40% of food in the United States is thrown away – mostly in a food service environment – and that burdens all food delivered with up to 80% more environmental impact. The restaurant industry is one of the most wasteful industries in terms of food and equipment, and the following tactics will be an integral part of the restaurant. 1. Install a Living Permaculture Green Roof The kitchen will use herbs and vegetables harvested from its rooftop whenever possible. In addition to food plants, I will work with a landscaper to also plant native species to create landscape diversity. Living roofs reduce energy use, create habitat, and capture storm water runoff that might otherwise flood the sewer system. They also cool the air, cutting down on the heat island effect of urban areas, a phenomenon caused by sunlight and heat reflecting off of asphalt and concrete. There are also air-cleansing benefits of green roofs as well because plants absorb particulate matter, contaminants, and excess CO2 out of the air, and birds, bees, and insects are attracted to the new habitat. 2. Compost All Extra Food This will include separating organic materials with inorganic materials. I will also purchase a compost system and worm system that can convert food waste into fertilizer for the living green roof.© Rebecca Jensen. 2013. All Rights Reserved.No part of this presentation or any of its contents may be reproduced, copied, modified or adapted, without the prior written consent of the author, unless otherwise indicated for stand-alone materials.
  16. 16. WASTE 3. Collect and Recycle Cooking Oil Work with a recycling company to convert cooking oil into renewable fuel. 4. Use Compostable Take Out Materials and Napkins Use 100% compostable containers for all To-Go orders. 5. Adjust Menu Options Offer different portions and sizes so that consumers can choose how much food they’d like to order. This can significantly reduce food waste.© Rebecca Jensen. 2013. All Rights Reserved.No part of this presentation or any of its contents may be reproduced, copied, modified or adapted, without the prior written consent of the author, unless otherwise indicated for stand-alone materials.
  17. 17. SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS Sustainable furnishings and building materials are slowly becoming more popular, so these items are a bit more accessible. In order to minimize waste as well impact on the environment, the following efforts will be made. 1. Use Reclaimed Materials Whenever Possible During the construction phase, I plan to reuse construction scrap pieces for the interior decor. Approximately 70% of all waste arises in the construction sector from activities such as excavation, demolition, road construction, and site waste. I also plan to browse flea markets, garage sales and other second-hand locations to find restaurant chairs, tables and other decor items. 2. Use Reclaimed and FSC Timber The FSC Trademark enables companies to choose timber with the confidence that they are not contributing to the destruction of the world’s forests. By buying from certified sources they provide an incentive in the marketplace for good forestry practice. 3. Leverage Local Artists Support the local community by purchasing art pieces and other interior items from local artists and craftsmen. 4. Use Non-Toxic, Low VOC Paints Safecoat Paints have zero VOC, and they also eliminate other potentially harmful solvents that haven’t been classified yet, as well as formaldehyde, ammonia and acetone. The products are said to create a “safe coat” on surfaces, sealing in emissions. Conventional paints are made from petrochemical-based solvents, which off-gas toxic indoor air pollutants called volatile organic compounds that smell funny and may lead to long-term problems over time.© Rebecca Jensen. 2013. All Rights Reserved.No part of this presentation or any of its contents may be reproduced, copied, modified or adapted, without the prior written consent of the author, unless otherwise indicated for stand-alone materials.
  18. 18. SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS 5. Use Cradle to Cradle Certified Products a. IceStone for Countertops IceStone is the only gold level Cradle to Cradle® certified surface in the world. Since our founding in 2004, IceStone has diverted millions of tons of glass from the landfill, and upcycled that glass into a highly valued, beautiful product. Surface iQ b. Surface iQ for Wall Coverings Surface iQ is not an alternative to vinyl wall covering. It is the result of a commitment to sustainable design, building on our PVC free policy to offer clients viable performance solutions. c. Tarkett Linoleum for Kitchen Floor Tarkett’s Linoleum xf is the first linoleum in the world awarded with the Cradle to Cradle® Silver Certificate, as it is made from renewable raw materials like linseed oil, resin, jute, wood and corks flour. Linoleum is a renewable material, and does not emit VOCs or other toxic gases. d. EKO-Flor for Seating Area EKO-FLOR™ is significantly stronger, lighter and more durable than wood. The product possesses superior quality and performance characteristics including complete resistance to stains, odors, absorption of oil or liquid chemicals, microbial and insect attack.© Rebecca Jensen. 2013. All Rights Reserved.No part of this presentation or any of its contents may be reproduced, copied, modified or adapted, without the prior written consent of the author, unless otherwise indicated for stand-alone materials.
  19. 19. Throughout the restaurant renovation process, my goal was to consider the entire life cycle of each product, operation and function as it relates to air circulation, water, energy, material and waste reduction. With the ultimate goal of “zero waste,” I believe my efforts were a great first step towards a more eco-effective design. With an integrated design approach, I tried to include differentstakeholders such as working with a landscaper for the living roof, the restaurant operator for kitchen design decisions, electrician for proper placement of energy-efficient lighting, architect and aircirculation specialist for proper window placements, staff members for proper training and more. More importantly, I wanted to include these stakeholders in all meetings, from the very first day all the way until the end of the project. Today’s conventional restaurant industry is still learning what it means to be sustainable. However, a major benefit of renovating this restaurant space is that it will be spreading awareness of thesustainable movement. The more we continue to “practice what we preach” as well as showcase thebenefits of living sustainably, the greater the chance we’ll have at creating a better, healthier world for all living people, animals and plants for all of time.
  20. 20. REFERENCEShttp://www.ted.com/talks/arthur_potts_dawson_a_vision_for_sustainable_restaurants.htmlhttp://dinegreen.weebly.com/http://www2.qsrmagazine.com/articles/exclusives/0808/sustainability-1.phtmlhttp://www.qsrmagazine.com/news/sustainable-san-fran-concept-moving-dchttp://www.daviswince.com/2012/03/what-is-a-sustainable-restaurant/http://www.starchefs.com/features/trends/green_restaurant_design/html/index.shtmlhttp://www.thesra.org/what-we-offer/sustainability-rating/http://www.dinegreen.com/restaurants/standards.asphttp://www.redstagsupperclub.com/about-red-stag-supper-club-northeast-minneapolis-restauranthttp://www.mcdonoughpartners.com/projects/view/mixt_greenshttp://www.waterfurnace.ca/

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