Criminal cases in court- how to handle criminal case in court of law

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this is about defending crimial case particularly CBI case in coutr of LAW arising out of decision making or otherwise. thes detail can be helpful in preparation of defense

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  • i am a victim of criminal case - a politically motivated and corrupt politician trying to revenge because his corrupt demands were not fulfilled. the article here was good to read
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Criminal cases in court- how to handle criminal case in court of law

  1. 1. <ul><li>How to handle criminal cases in the court of Law </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of experience </li></ul>
  2. 2. After all ,Why this lecture ? <ul><li>99% of Railway employee have no criminal cases against them. </li></ul><ul><li>99% of Railway employee also not have any vigilance case. </li></ul><ul><li>This indicate that , Railway employee & officers are generally straight forward irrespective of perception of public </li></ul><ul><li>But even most straight forward person can land in problem if his star are bad </li></ul><ul><li>How </li></ul>
  3. 3. Professional Hazards <ul><li>During course of duty , an officer is exposed to situation where several vested intrests are involved & his decision affect adversally some body or other . </li></ul><ul><li>Such disgrunteled element try to level score with such officer by reporting various action either to vigillence or to CBI </li></ul><ul><li>This results in many false complaints against officers </li></ul><ul><li>In enquiry of any decision ,always two views can be taken as only thin line exist between Railway intrest & self interest </li></ul><ul><li>As such officer is subjected to harrasment </li></ul>
  4. 4. Few Recent headlines of Newspapers <ul><li>Nation-wide Raids against corruption in June 2009 , </li></ul><ul><li>XEN & Dy CE con convicted by CBI court Madurai on 9 th june in Southern Railway </li></ul><ul><li>An Executive Engineer of Northern Railways arrested by CBI 15 th july 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>The divisional engineer arrested by CBI in Tinsukia division of NF Railway 10 th july 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>CBI arrests a Senior Inspector of Railway Protection Force 22 nd july 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>CBI probing supply of escalators, elevators for MRTS stations 25 th july Hindu </li></ul>
  5. 5. Few News paper reports of last one year <ul><li>Nation wise raids by CBI on central govt officer including one RRB Chairman. </li></ul><ul><li>CBI Registered case againt 2 oficer in SR </li></ul><ul><li>CBI register case against a officer in RCF </li></ul><ul><li>CBI register fraud case in Danapur divn </li></ul><ul><li>CBI registered a case against Rly officer in BMRCL , NWR ,SWR,ECR ,WR ,CR & NER </li></ul><ul><li>All this result in harrassment </li></ul>
  6. 6. A Press Report (source- Railway Board Vig Directorate) http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report_over-8500-railway-officers-booked-for-fraudulent-practices_1239563 Monday, March 16, 2009 <ul><li>New Delhi: In a drive to check corruption and bring in transparency in its administration, Vigilance Directorate of the Railway Board stated that, 8,638 officers including 117 gazetted ones , were booked for various charges </li></ul><ul><li>Of the staff booked for fraudulent practices, a maximum number of them -- 1,403 -- including 1,395 non-gazetted and eight gazetted officers were from South Western Railway, f ollowed by 1,334 in Northern Railway, 760 in Southern Railway and 728 in North Eastern Railway zone . </li></ul><ul><li>Railways, in line with the instructions of Ministry of Home Affairs, every year prepare two lists -- Agreed and Secret list -- </li></ul><ul><li>The Agreed List, prepared in consultation with CBI, includes names of officers whose integrity are doubtful. While, the Secret List are of those officers of doubtful integrity on the basis of accepted inquiry reports or proved charges of corruption. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Persons in Agreed and Secret List are not assigned any sensitive posts and their working is kept under constant surveillance, </li></ul>
  7. 7. Case refered by Govt to CBI This information was given by the Minister of State in the Ministry of Personnel, Public in Rajyasabha on 10 th july 2009 26 25 51 2008 12 31 43 2007 2 21 23 2006 Invest pending Case investigated Case refered Year
  8. 8. CBI CASES <ul><li>Fraud cases - complainant is department </li></ul><ul><li>Disproportionate Asset case – source observation – either from vigillence or from way of living.General survey for Nationby Raids – No arrest in such cases </li></ul><ul><li>Trap cases – complainant is a person who has a grudge with you </li></ul><ul><li>All these case comes under PC act 1988 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Common mistakes done by most of us <ul><li>Fraud - In our zeal ,sometime we take out of way decision to expedite some work without recording proper reason in detail on file </li></ul><ul><li>Fraud- Very innocent action like depositing license fee by railway staff instead of by licensee resulted in a CBI case on WR </li></ul><ul><li>Fraud- Slackness in ensuring quality in Level xing work resulted in CBI case </li></ul><ul><li>Asset - We do’ not keep proper record of our financial assets resulting difficulties in case of problem. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Common mistakes done by most of us - Assets <ul><li>We conviniently forget to keep proper record of </li></ul><ul><li>i) Marriage gifts </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Maturity value of NSC or other financial instruments </li></ul><ul><li>iii) Sale proceeds of any assets like flats etc </li></ul><ul><li>iv) Gains from share Market </li></ul><ul><li>v) Any awards ,honrarium etc </li></ul><ul><li>vi) Gift received by children or spouse on birthday ,marriage anniversary & their investments </li></ul><ul><li>vii) We habitually preserve all cash memo of our expenditure & feel elite in using credit cards on entertainment expenditures </li></ul>
  11. 11. Management of Money is essential <ul><li>All above aspects results unknowingly in converting white money in black money </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore </li></ul><ul><li>Always keep record of your income & pay your tax so that hard earned money does not get converted in black money for petty saving in tax </li></ul><ul><li>Always prepare a balance sheet along with tax return even if it is not mandatory </li></ul><ul><li>Declare your assets (with balance sheet as now tax authority do not accept balance sheet) in annual property return </li></ul>
  12. 12. Developments of Last one year <ul><li>Case closed after investigation against CR officer </li></ul><ul><li>Case won in trial by NWR Officer </li></ul><ul><li>Case is won by WR & CR ofic ial after trial </li></ul><ul><li>Case is won by DOT official after trial in mumbai </li></ul><ul><li>Case won by 2 income tax officer in mumbai after trial </li></ul><ul><li>Case lost by C rly official in M umbai & punished for 5 yr imprisonment </li></ul><ul><li>Case lost by 2 SR officer in trial & 2 yr RI is imposed. appeal is being heard on 7 th Aug 2009 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Where you want to be ? <ul><li>It is true that No case may be initiated against any of Railway officer as 99% of them are straight forward officer </li></ul><ul><li>But even straight officers suffers a lot because some time their decision go against vested interest of few persons & some of these disgruntled element put a complaint against them . </li></ul><ul><li>So why not be ready for defense </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately in CBI cases , investigation starts after Raids & registration of case causing harrasements </li></ul>
  14. 14. Ignorance is no D efen s e <ul><li>Many time ,a man is not able to defend as he is ignorant about provisions of LAW & had not kept proper records ( of assets , reasons of decisions etc ) </li></ul><ul><li>Better hi r e professional like CA or Income tax consultant for keeping up proper financial records . This investment will pay rich dividends </li></ul><ul><li>Every govt person should know salient provisions of Prevention of corruption act 1988 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Avoid cases <ul><li>Prevention is better than cure </li></ul><ul><li>How </li></ul><ul><li>Do not indulge in any such activity willfully which can create problem for you in life </li></ul><ul><li>Do not be there where you should not normally be like contractor residence , contractor car etc </li></ul><ul><li>Do not talk on phone about money </li></ul><ul><li>Always record full reason of taking particular decision in file </li></ul>
  16. 16. B e prepared for defense in case of casuality (contd) <ul><li>Fraud – follow rules so that you can defend your action on later date . If rule is bypassed ,record reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Dissproportinate Assets – keep your account clear . Maintain cash book .it is must . Keep record of marriage gifts & gifts received on various occassions by you ,your spouse & childrens – Need not keep record of expenditure – avoid using credit card </li></ul><ul><li>Do not think that you are smartest person in the world & other are fools . </li></ul><ul><li>Always Be prepare for visit of investigation agency next morning ( they may not come but what is harm in self defense ) </li></ul>
  17. 17. How to defend the criminal cases in court <ul><li>All the case are fought on fact & legality . </li></ul><ul><li>Facts are provided by you & </li></ul><ul><li>legal aspect is taken care of by your Advocate. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore both have to work hard for defending a case </li></ul>
  18. 18. Prevention of corruption act 1988 - Various relevant provision <ul><li>Section 7 – Public servant taking gratification accepts or obtains or agrees to accept or attempts to obtain from any person, for himself or for any other person, any gratification whatever, other than legal remuneration, as a motive or reward for doing or forbearing to do any official act ( No demand but agreed to accept is sufficient to convict ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Section - 8. Taking gratification, in order, by corrupt or illegal means, to influence public servant - Whoever accepts or obtains, or agrees to accept, or attempts to obtain , from any person, for himself or for any other person, any gratification whatever as a motive or reward for inducing, by corrupt or illegal means, any public servant , whether named or otherwise, to do or to forbear to do any official act, </li></ul><ul><li>Section - 9. Taking gratification, for exercise of personal influence with public servant - </li></ul><ul><li>shall be punishable with imprisonment which shall be not less than six months but which may extend to five years and shall also be liable to fine </li></ul>
  19. 19. Prevention of corruption act 1988 Punishments <ul><li>Section 10. Punishment for abetment by public servant of offences defined in section 8 or 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Whoever, being a public servant , in respect of whom either of the offences defined in section8 or section 9 is committed, abets the offence, whether or not that offence is committed in consequence of that abetment , shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall </li></ul><ul><li>be not less than six months but which may extend to five years and shall also be liable to fine . </li></ul><ul><li>Section 14. Habitual committing of offence under sections 8, 9 and 12 - shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall be not less than two years but which may extend to seven years and shall also be liable to fine. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Prevention of corruption act 1988 <ul><li>13. Criminal misconduct by a public servant - (1) A public servant is said to commit the offence of criminal misconduct,- (a) if he habitually accepts or obtains or agrees to accept or attempts to obtain from any person for himself or for any other person any gratification other than legal remuneration </li></ul><ul><li>Section 13(1)d ii - by abusing his position as a public servant, obtains for himself or for any other person any valuable thing or pecuniary advantage; or </li></ul><ul><li>13 (1)– (e) if he or any person on his behalf, is in possession or has, at any time during the period of his office, been in possession property disproportionate to his known sources of income. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 13 (2) Any public servant who commits criminal misconduct shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall be not less than one year but which may extend to seven years and shall also be liable to fine. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 15. Punishment for attempt </li></ul><ul><li>Whoever attempts to commit an offence referred to in clause (c) or clause (d) of sub-section(1) of section 13 shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years and with fine </li></ul>
  21. 21. Prevention of corruption act 1988 <ul><li>19.Previous sanction necessary for prosecution </li></ul><ul><li>(1) No court shall take cognizance of an offence punishable under section 7, 10, 11, 13 and 15 alleged to have been committed by a public servant, except with the previous sanction </li></ul><ul><li>S uch sanction shall be given by that Government or authority which would have been competent to remove the public servant from his office at the time when the offence was alleged to have been committed </li></ul><ul><li>No finding, sentence or order passed by a special Judge shall be reversed or altered by a Court in appeal, confirmation or revision on the ground of the absence of, or any error, omission or irregularity in, the sanction required under sub-section (1), unless in the opinion of that court, a failure of justice has in fact been occasioned thereby; </li></ul><ul><li>Section 20 –presumption if recovery is with accused </li></ul>
  22. 22. Prevention of corruption act 1988 <ul><li>Section 20. Presumption where public servant accepts gratification other than legal remuneration </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Where, in any trial it is proved that an accused person has accepted or obtained or has agreed to accept or attempted to obtain for himself, or for any other person, any gratification or any valuable thing from any person, it shall be presumed, unless the contrary is proved , that he accepted or obtained or agreed to accept or attempted to obtain that gratification or that valuable thing, as the case may be, as a motive or reward such as is mentioned in section 7 or, as the case may be </li></ul><ul><li>( 2) Where in any trial of an offence punishable under section 12 or under clause (b) of section 14, it is proved that any gratification (other than legal remuneration) or any valuable thing has been given or offered to be given or attempted to be given by an accused person, it shall be presumed, unless the contrary is proved, that he gave or offered to give or attempted to give that gratification or that valuable thing, as the case may be, as a motive or reward such as is mentioned in section 7, or, as the case may be, without consideration or for a consideration which he knows to be inadequate. </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1) and (2), the court may decline to draw the presumption referred to in either of the said sub-sections, if the gratification or thing aforesaid is, in its opinion, so trivial that no inference of corruption may fairly be drawn. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Various stage of cases <ul><li>Registration of FIR </li></ul><ul><li>Investigation- to be ordered by SP </li></ul><ul><li>Report to SP through legal deptt </li></ul><ul><li>Sanction for prosecution </li></ul><ul><li>Registration of case & submission of Charge sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Recording of evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Argument </li></ul><ul><li>Judgement </li></ul>
  24. 24. Various stage of case <ul><li>After registration of case for investigation ,a thorough investigation is done </li></ul><ul><li>Witness statement are taken by I.O. </li></ul><ul><li>At last , accused is asked to give his defense </li></ul><ul><li>These fact are examined by legal deptt of CBI & based on evidence on record ,it is decided whether it is fit case for trial </li></ul><ul><li>If not , case is closed .if Yes ,regular case is registered </li></ul>
  25. 25. Sanction under section 19 <ul><li>In case CBI decide to prosecute the charged official , sanction for prosecution is asked from the appointing authority </li></ul><ul><li>If appointing authority ,on the basis of facts on record ,accord his approval for prosecution ,then charge-sheet is filed in the court . If he does not ,closure report is filed in court </li></ul>
  26. 26. How to defend your case on various stage <ul><li>Stage 1 – Receipt of charge sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2- framing of charge & examining of documents </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3 –Recording of evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 4 Statement of t he Accused under section 313 of Cr P C of 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 5 Argument under section 314 of Cr P C of 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment & </li></ul><ul><li>appeals if necessary </li></ul>
  27. 27. Stage 1- Receipt of Charge sheet How to defend <ul><li>All the Panchnama ,FIR & statement of witness are to be studied word by word & various point in favor & against are to be analyzed by the accused. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Analysis , a broad strategy for defense is to be prepared by Lawyer </li></ul><ul><li>Lot of time ( 2-3 years)is available between filing of charge sheet & framing of Charge .This time should be utilized in reading the case , consulting lawyers , reading various high court ,supreme court judgments & extracting judgments similar to one’s case </li></ul>
  28. 28. Stage 2 . Framing of Charge & examination of documents under section 294 of Cr P C of 1973 <ul><li>Framing of charge is first stage of start of trial .If one feel that his case is strong & credible evidence are not against him , a discharge application can be filed before framing of charge </li></ul><ul><li>The copies of the documents are available along with charge sheet also but here original document are shown. </li></ul><ul><li>Only those documents should be accepted which are either harmless or in favor of case .Even Panchnama can be denied . </li></ul><ul><li>All the documents can be denied if purpose is to prolong the case . </li></ul>
  29. 29. Stage 3 Recording of evidence <ul><li>Based on the statement given by witness to police , a questionnaire is to be prepared for cross examination of witness. It should be further supplemented during deposition by witness in the court . </li></ul><ul><li>All important points of deposition need to be noted . </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of cross examination is not to prove the witness liar but to extract an answer which are favorable to you . </li></ul><ul><li>These answers finally becomes basis for argument as court recognizes only deposition of witness given in court( Not the statement given to police during investigation) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Stage 4 Statement of t he Accused under section 313 of Cr P C of 1973 . <ul><li>After Recording of evidence (prosecution as well as defense) is over ,the accused is given a chance to explain his point of view . </li></ul><ul><li>This is the only time when accused is permitted to speak in court . A written statement can also be given </li></ul><ul><li>Although there is not much evidence value of this statement ,However facts, if any , not yet come in notice of court, are brought in notice of Judge , he may consider them while making his final judgment. </li></ul><ul><li>Accused can also act as own witness under oath .here he will be cross examined also. This has the evidential value .Howeve the accused can not be forced to answer such question which goes against him. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Stage 5 Argument under section 314 of Cr P C of 1973 <ul><li>After recording statement of the accused, Argument are held between prosecution & defense advocate orally in court . Here various decision ( with citation) of high court/supreme court are quoted by both the party to support their arguments </li></ul><ul><li>The Judge notes down salient points of arguments . </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid the omission or over looking of any crucial point during oral arguments , In addition to Oral argument , a written argument under section 314 of CR PC (optional) should also be submitted before conclusion of oral arguments as this is the only defense paper which remain on record which may help you in appeal in case judgement is gone against you. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Judgement <ul><li>Based on the evidence on record , argument ,counter argument & laid down legal principles , Hon Judge Finally announce his final judgement </li></ul><ul><li>If acquital- then happy ending </li></ul><ul><li>If conviction –quantum of sentence & fine is also announce either on same day or next day </li></ul>
  33. 33. Appeal in high court <ul><li>In case due to any reason, judgment is against you & then appeal is filed in high court , </li></ul><ul><li>Written argument submitted in session court will be helpful as appeal in high court is decided on the bases of documents on record . No new documents or witness is permitted in high court . </li></ul><ul><li>Only oral arguments are again done in high court where your advocate has to explain where Judge in session court had gone against the evidence on record & sprit of settled law while convicting you. </li></ul>
  34. 34. FACT YOU WILL LIKE TO KNOW <ul><li>The complainant & Investigation officer are interested witness . Their evidence value is low .Independent witness are necessary to establish the case </li></ul><ul><li>Panch witness is independent witness & his evidence value is very high . Cases are lost if independence of P anch is questionable like known to police or complainant or habitual panch or submissive </li></ul><ul><li>Case will continue even if the complainant become hostile witness </li></ul><ul><li>Many case are lost due to defective sanction order for prosecution like non application of mind </li></ul><ul><li>Tap recorded evidence are not acceptable as primary evidence .These are used as corroborative evidence only </li></ul><ul><li>No document can be introduced later on if not cited initially in charge sheet . There are many laid down procedure for collecting evidence like telephone recording ,recording of conversation ,voice sample ,writing Panchnamas etc .if they are not followed , evidence is not acceptable </li></ul>
  35. 35. FACT YOU WILL LIKE TO KNOW <ul><li>1988 act is spl act & over ride general provisions of law ,Cr PC etc unless silent </li></ul><ul><li>In DA case ,it is accused who has to prove his innocense wheras in all other case prosecution has to prove charge </li></ul><ul><li>Suspension of sentence is different from suspension of conviction </li></ul><ul><li>Every acceptance of illegal gratification whether preceded by demand or not, would be covered by Section 7 of the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 </li></ul>
  36. 36. Common problem faced by accused <ul><li>You are placed under suspension ,so your pass ,salary becomes half ,your DOT phone get disconnected </li></ul><ul><li>No money is available for defense as all bank accounts are seized & salary is half due to suspension- No money when you need it most </li></ul><ul><li>Advocates tries to take advantage of your ignorance demanding huge money at every stage </li></ul><ul><li>Your colleague starts maintaining distance from you </li></ul><ul><li>A depression is set in you & your family due to uncertain future </li></ul><ul><li>Be patient as after every night ,day comes </li></ul>
  37. 37. Case history in PC act <ul><li>Krishna Ram vs State of Rajasthan   [SUPREME COURT OF INDIA, 17 Mar 2009] </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal – Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988, s. 13(1)(D) r/w 13(2) – Appeal against conviction and sentence – Held, once it is proved that the money was recovered from the possession of the appellant, the burden of presumption as contemplated under s. 20 of the P.C. Act, 1988 shifts upon the appellant , </li></ul><ul><li>which he could not rebut through cross-examination of the prosecution witnesses or by adducing reliable and convincing evidence to prove that DW-1 advanced Rs.500/- as loan to the appellant through the complainant – High Court has rightly concluded that the explanation given by the appellant was not probable and reasonable – Appeal dismissed </li></ul>
  38. 38. Case history- sanction & improper investigation <ul><li>State of Madhya Pradesh vs Virendra Kumar Tripathi   [SUPREME COURT OF INDIA, 27 Apr 2009] Criminal – Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988, ss. 13(1)(e) r/w 13(2), 19(3)(1) and 17 proviso II – Circular D/- 09-02-1988 – Acquisition of assets disproportionate to the known sources of income – Framing of charge – Discharge claimed – Ground, investigation not conducted by the uthorized police officer, and sanction was not accorded in accordance with law – Accused submitted that sanction was to be accorded by the law Department after consulting the parent department of the applicant/accused i.e. Forest Department which was not done – Trial Court rejected the submissions – Appeal there against, allowed by High Court – </li></ul><ul><li>Order of High Court, whether proper? – Circular, provisions of Act esp. 19(3)(1), perused – Finding, advice of concerned Department was necessary – Whether absence of advice renders the sanction inoperative? – No – Undisputed fact, sanction was given by Department of Law and Legislative; State Govt. had granted approval of prosecution; grant of sanction was in the name of Governor of State – </li></ul><ul><li>Advice at the most is an inter-departmental matter – Court further observed that HC has failed to consider the effect of s. 19(3) wherein inter alia it is provided that finding etc. of Special Judge shall not be interfered with on ground of irregularity in sanction unless there is failure of justice – Prejudice or failure of justice not pleaded – Further Court noted that question of failure of justice cannot be entered into at the stage of framing of charge – Whether investigating officer was Authorized to conduct the investigation? – Yes – Deputy Superintendent of Police who conducted investigation in instant case, is duly uthorized officer u/s. 17© of Act – Appeal allowed. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Case history -trivial <ul><li>A. Subair vs State of Kerala   [SUPREME COURT OF INDIA, 26 May 2009] Criminal - Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988, ss. 7, 13(1)(d) r/w 13(2) and 20 - Conviction and sentence by Trial Court - Confirmation by High Court - Whether conviction proper or whether there is sufficient legal evidence on record to bring home the guilt of the appellant for the offence u/ss. 7 and 13(1)(d) r/w 13(2)? – </li></ul><ul><li>Held, No - Provisions perused, evidence of PWs examined - Best evidence that of complainant not tendered in evidence by the prosecution; no explanation by investigating officer as to why complainant was not tendered in evidence; in absence of examination of the complainant, there is no substantive evidence to prove the factum of demand; best evidence was thus unavailable – </li></ul><ul><li>Factum of demand thus remained unproved; thus offence u/ss. 13(1)(d) r/w 13(2) not made out – </li></ul><ul><li>(i) HC raised presumption available u/s. 20 of Act for offence u/s. 7 - Whether justified? - Held, No - S. 20 perused - When alleged gratification is too trivial, Court is not bound to draw presumption; in instant case amount involved was Rs. 25 only, which Court observed was trivial - Conviction and sentence set aside - Appeal allowed. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>This presentation is prepared just to make you conversant various provisions of LAW a nd about Care required to be taken in office work & management of your Money So that No problem is faced just because of careless ness </li></ul><ul><li>Do not walk knowingly in problem. </li></ul><ul><li>but if you landed in problem & need any help or have any quarry ,you are most well come ( [email_address] ) </li></ul>
  41. 41. Are you interested to proceed further <ul><li>No </li></ul><ul><li>Yes </li></ul>
  42. 42. Trap cases <ul><li>Every acceptance of illegal gratification whether preceded by demand or not, would be covered by the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 & punishment is 6 month to 7 year and fine </li></ul><ul><li>To start a case , </li></ul><ul><li>A Complaint is required </li></ul><ul><li>Complaint is to be verified in trap cases in presence of independant witness </li></ul><ul><li>Then actual incidence ie acceptance of money is to take place in presence of independant witness </li></ul>
  43. 43. How to avoid Trap cases <ul><li>Trap – do not accept money from any one. </li></ul><ul><li>Never meet suspected persons at his place or in his car or any other place where you have no reasons for being there. </li></ul><ul><li>Never talk about money either on phone or in person with suspected persons </li></ul>
  44. 44. How to defend trap case <ul><li>If money is recoverd from your possession ,you have to explain how it reached there otherwise under section 20 ,it is presumed that you have accepted the money. Explanation should be credible because mere acceptance of money even if there is no demand is sufficient to convict you </li></ul>
  45. 45. Some common aspect for defense <ul><li>CBI has to prove case beyond reasonable doubt . So create doubt in their story </li></ul><ul><li>The complainant & Investigation officer are interested witness . Their evidence value is low .Independent witness are necessary to establish the case . </li></ul><ul><li>Panch witness is independent witness & his evidence value is very high . Cases are lost if independence of P anch is questionable like known to police or complainant or habitual panch or submissive </li></ul><ul><li>Many case are lost due to defective sanction order for prosecution like non application of mind ,so find fault in sanction </li></ul><ul><li>Tap recorded evidence are not acceptable as primary evidence .These are used as corroborative evidence only </li></ul><ul><li>There are many laid down procedure for collecting evidence like telephone recording ,recording of conversation ,voice sample ,writing Panchnamas etc .if they are not followed , evidence is not acceptable . Learn about them & co- relate in your case </li></ul><ul><li>Read judgements of supreme courts & extracts favorable to your case may be shown to your lawyer </li></ul>
  46. 46. Case history –excuse of loan <ul><li>Mota Ram vs State of Haryana   [SUPREME COURT OF INDIA, 28 May 2009] Criminal - Prevention of Corruption Act, 1947, s. 5(2) - Indian Penal Code, 1860, s. 165 - Conviction by Trial Court - Upheld by High Court - Whether proper? - Held, Yes - Appellant employed as Ward Servant in Primary Health Center; misrepresented to complainant as to that he would help him get selected for such post if he pay him Rs. 2000/-; amount was paid, further demand was raised for Rs. 4000/- which was also paid; complainant was not selected, he demanded back the money which was repaid sporadically - Findings of facts by Courts below upheld – </li></ul><ul><li>Contention was raised that the amounts given were repayment for the loan taken from the complainant - No suggestion had been given and made to the complainant that he was in a position to lend money to the appellant ; moreover in cross examination the complainant stated that he had borrowed the amount from his brother in law - Conviction and sentence upheld - Appeal dismissed. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Case history -Precedence <ul><li>M. Radha Krishna Murthy vs AP -6 th march 2009 The trial Court found the evidence to be acceptable and directed the conviction. In appeal the High Court held that since part of the prosecution version about demand and acceptance has not been proved, the remaining part of the case cannot be accepted. It was pointed out that according to the prosecution an amount of Rs.4,000/- was demanded and accepted and the first vital part of the prosecution version was that payment of Rs.2,000/- said to have been accepted by the respondent is not proved, therefore, when the part of the same is not accepted the remaining part of the case shall also not be accepted. </li></ul><ul><li>Placing reliance on a decision of this Court in Hari Dev Sharma v. State (Delhi Admn.) (1977 (3) SCC 352) the conviction as recorded was set aside. The High Court found that the prosecution case was that there was demand and an amount of Rs.2,000/- was paid on 13.6.1989 which has not been proved and with regard to the trap conducted by the prosecution while the accused was receiving Rs.2,000/- from P.W.1 on 19.6.1989. Even if the trap is proved beyond all reasonable doubt, the prosecution version cannot be upheld in view of the aforesaid decision of this court . </li></ul><ul><li>SC observation- &quot;Precedent should be followed only so far as it marks the path of justice </li></ul><ul><li>In that view of the matter the judgment of the High Court is clearly unsustainable and is set aside and that of the trial Court is restored </li></ul>
  48. 48. What one should do <ul><li>Be happy </li></ul><ul><li>Do not get worried unnecessarily . You are not that unlucky 1%. </li></ul><ul><li>But be prepared with defense in case of eventuality </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy life & have a Bright Future </li></ul>
  49. 49. Smile like Rose

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