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RESPIRATORY
SYSTEM
Dr. A. R. JOSHI
Professor of
Physiology
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
• Respiration means exchange of gases
• Types :
– External respiration at lungs
– Internal respiration ...
BASIC FUNCTIONS OF LUNGS
• Ventilation of air
– Inspiration
– Expiration
• Diffusion of gases
• Perfusion of lungs by bloo...
NORMAL BREATHING PATTERN
• Respiratory rate : 14 to 18 /minute
• Tidal volume: 350 to 500ml
• RMV : 6 to 8 litres/minute
•...
MUSCLES OF RESPIRATION
• Inspiratory Muscles
• Expiratory Muscles
• Accessary Muscles
INSPIRATORY MUSCLES
• Diaphragm:
– Chief muscle
– Big surface area
– Changes vertical diameter of chest
– Innervation by p...
INSPIRATORY MUSCLES
• External Intercostal Muscles:
• Bucket handle movement of ribs
(Lower part of chest)
• Pump handle m...
OTHER MUSCLES
• Muscles of expiration
• Work only while coughing or sneezing
• Accessary muscles of respiration
• Work dur...
PREVENTION OF LUNG COLLAPSE
•Role of negative intra-pleural pressure
•Role of surfactant
REGULATION OF
RESPIRATION
• Nervous regulation – Role of
ponto-medullary respiratory centers:
• Inspiratory Center (DRGN)
...
REGULATION OF
RESPIRATION
• Nervous regulation– Role of reflexes:
• Coughing reflex
• Sneezing reflex
• Hiccough
• Degluti...
Chemical Regulation
Role of carbon dioxide: powerful action
1.Central action (chemo sensitive area)
2.Peripheral action (c...
DIFFUSION ACROSS RESPIRATORY
MEMBRANE
• Structure
• Factors affecting diffusion :
● thickness of membrane
● surface area o...
TRANSPORT OF GASES:
OXYGEN
• Arterial O2 19 ml / 100ml of blood
• Venous O2 14 ml / 100 ml of blood
• Oxygen carried by Hb...
OXYGEN CONCENTRATION IN
VARIOUS TISSUES
• Alveolar PO2 : 104 mm of Hg
• Arterial PO2 : 95 mm of Hg
• Venous PO2 : 40 mm of...
O2dissociation curve…
O2 Dissociation Curve
TRANSPORT OF GASES :
CARBON DIOXIDE
• Arterial CO2level : 48 ml/100ml blood
• Venous CO2level : 52 ml/100ml blood
• Transp...
CARBON DIOXIDE
CONCENTRATION IN VARIOUS
TISSUES
• Alveolar PCO2 : 40 mm of Hg
• Arterial PCO2 : 40 mm of Hg
• Venous PCO2 ...
HYPOXIA (Lack of Oxygen at tissue
level)
1. Hypoxic Hypoxia
• High Altitude
• Ventilatory defects like Asthma
• Diffusion ...
HYPOXIA ( CONT..)
2. Anaemic Hypoxia
e.g. Anaemia
Carbon Monoxide poisoning
3. Stagnant Hypoxia
e.g. Congestive heart fail...
OXYGEN THERAPY
• Useful in hypoxic hypoxia (high altitude,
hypoventilation, impaired diffusion )
• Limited value in other ...
HYPERBARIC OXYGEN
THERAPY
• Increases dissolved Oxygen –
at 2 atm.pressure - 4ml additional/dl
at 3 atm.pressure - 6ml add...
HAZARDS – OXYGEN THERAPY
• Irritation of airways
• Bronchopneumonia
• Retinopathy ( in premature babies )
• Derangement of...
ASPHYXIA
(Lack of oxygen and excess of carbon dioxide)
• Causes:
Foreign body obstruction in trachea
Strangulation
Paralys...
For assistance in Clinical
Physiology
• Dr. A.R. Joshi
Professor of Physiology
(mobile : 9423523322)
email: aniruddharj@ho...
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Respiratory system 8.02.13

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Respiratory system 8.02.13

  1. 1. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Dr. A. R. JOSHI Professor of Physiology
  2. 2. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM • Respiration means exchange of gases • Types : – External respiration at lungs – Internal respiration at tissues
  3. 3. BASIC FUNCTIONS OF LUNGS • Ventilation of air – Inspiration – Expiration • Diffusion of gases • Perfusion of lungs by blood through pulmonary circulation
  4. 4. NORMAL BREATHING PATTERN • Respiratory rate : 14 to 18 /minute • Tidal volume: 350 to 500ml • RMV : 6 to 8 litres/minute • Inspiration (active) : 2.5 to 3 sec • Expiration (passive): 2 to 2.5 sec
  5. 5. MUSCLES OF RESPIRATION • Inspiratory Muscles • Expiratory Muscles • Accessary Muscles
  6. 6. INSPIRATORY MUSCLES • Diaphragm: – Chief muscle – Big surface area – Changes vertical diameter of chest – Innervation by phrenic nerves – No fatigue – Works like involuntary muscle
  7. 7. INSPIRATORY MUSCLES • External Intercostal Muscles: • Bucket handle movement of ribs (Lower part of chest) • Pump handle movement of sternum (Upper part of chest)
  8. 8. OTHER MUSCLES • Muscles of expiration • Work only while coughing or sneezing • Accessary muscles of respiration • Work during exercise or disease
  9. 9. PREVENTION OF LUNG COLLAPSE •Role of negative intra-pleural pressure •Role of surfactant
  10. 10. REGULATION OF RESPIRATION • Nervous regulation – Role of ponto-medullary respiratory centers: • Inspiratory Center (DRGN) • Expiratory Center (VRGN) • Apneustic Center • Pneumotaxic Center
  11. 11. REGULATION OF RESPIRATION • Nervous regulation– Role of reflexes: • Coughing reflex • Sneezing reflex • Hiccough • Deglutition reflex
  12. 12. Chemical Regulation Role of carbon dioxide: powerful action 1.Central action (chemo sensitive area) 2.Peripheral action (carotid and aortic bodies) Role of hydrogen ions Role of lack of oxygen
  13. 13. DIFFUSION ACROSS RESPIRATORY MEMBRANE • Structure • Factors affecting diffusion : ● thickness of membrane ● surface area of membrane ● pressure gradient of gas • Diseases : Pulmonary fibrosis & oedema
  14. 14. TRANSPORT OF GASES: OXYGEN • Arterial O2 19 ml / 100ml of blood • Venous O2 14 ml / 100 ml of blood • Oxygen carried by Hb – 98% dissolved form – 2% • O2- Hb dissociation curve and its significance
  15. 15. OXYGEN CONCENTRATION IN VARIOUS TISSUES • Alveolar PO2 : 104 mm of Hg • Arterial PO2 : 95 mm of Hg • Venous PO2 : 40 mm of Hg
  16. 16. O2dissociation curve…
  17. 17. O2 Dissociation Curve
  18. 18. TRANSPORT OF GASES : CARBON DIOXIDE • Arterial CO2level : 48 ml/100ml blood • Venous CO2level : 52 ml/100ml blood • Transported as: ● bicarbonates : 70% ● carbamino compounds : 23% ● dissolved state : 7%
  19. 19. CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION IN VARIOUS TISSUES • Alveolar PCO2 : 40 mm of Hg • Arterial PCO2 : 40 mm of Hg • Venous PCO2 : 45 mm of Hg
  20. 20. HYPOXIA (Lack of Oxygen at tissue level) 1. Hypoxic Hypoxia • High Altitude • Ventilatory defects like Asthma • Diffusion defects like Pulmonary edema • AV shunts like Fallots Tetrology (PO2 of arterial blood is low)
  21. 21. HYPOXIA ( CONT..) 2. Anaemic Hypoxia e.g. Anaemia Carbon Monoxide poisoning 3. Stagnant Hypoxia e.g. Congestive heart failure 4. Histotoxic Hypoxia e.g. Cyanide poisoning (Note : Oxygen therapy is useful only in cases of hypoxic hypoxia, when PO2 of Arterial Blood is low )
  22. 22. OXYGEN THERAPY • Useful in hypoxic hypoxia (high altitude, hypoventilation, impaired diffusion ) • Limited value in other types of hypoxia • Oxygen with small quantity of Carbon dioxide to maintain respiratory drive
  23. 23. HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY • Increases dissolved Oxygen – at 2 atm.pressure - 4ml additional/dl at 3 atm.pressure - 6ml additional/dl. • Useful in CO poisoning, dysbarism, acute mountain sickness, locally in delayed wound healing & gas gangrene.
  24. 24. HAZARDS – OXYGEN THERAPY • Irritation of airways • Bronchopneumonia • Retinopathy ( in premature babies ) • Derangement of cerebral activity • Convulsions
  25. 25. ASPHYXIA (Lack of oxygen and excess of carbon dioxide) • Causes: Foreign body obstruction in trachea Strangulation Paralysis of respiratory muscles Drowning Stages: Stage of Hyperpnea Stage of Central excitation Stage of Central failure Treatment: Tracheostomy & oxygen therapy
  26. 26. For assistance in Clinical Physiology • Dr. A.R. Joshi Professor of Physiology (mobile : 9423523322) email: aniruddharj@hotmail.com

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