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  1. 1. RAJEEV SHARAN- NIFT BANGALORE (AP-06)ECO-FRIENDLY CLOTHINGWhen shopping for clothes, many people shop based on things like comfort or style, but not many people check forclothing’s eco-friendliness.More and more clothing companies are providing clothes made from eco-friendly fabrics. Demand for these clothesis increasing too. This makes sense given the environmental issues we’re faced with in today’s world.SETTING THE CONTEXT Textiles Production and Processing - Chemical Intensive Applications Associated Social and Environmental Concerns Growing Concerns - o Increasing industrial Pollution, o Industrial waste disposal problems, o Economic and social health of the farmers and industrial workers, o Lack of awareness and understanding of the positive effect a person can have. Unawareness about Environmental Sustainability – Ethical, Environmental and Socially responsible business structures are required.ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY 1. Need to believe in environmental sustainability – taking incremental steps in supply chain processes to make it happen. 2. Need to be aware about the social, economical and ecological benefits of environmentally sustainable products and development processes. 3. Care for the Environment Influence the supply chain to use Sustainable Processes, Run business operations in an environmentally friendly way, Work to conserve energy and reduce waste, Sustainable design approach - Explore and implement sustainable materials and products.SUSTAINABLE TEXTILESTextile products that have been environmentally friendly support communal harmony, as well as capable ofsupporting fashion needs.WHAT MAKES A FABRIC “ECO-FRIENDLY”?Eco-friendly fabrics generally have the following characteristics: Minimum use of chemicals and pesticides, Best land management practices, Sustainable farming practices, Eco-friendly certification (i.e. EU-Eco label certification), Animal friendly, Production adheres to fair trade practices RAJEEV SHARAN- ECOSPUN SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION 1
  2. 2. RAJEEV SHARAN- NIFT BANGALORE (AP-06)CLASSIFICATION - Eco Friendly Textiles Fibres MANMADE RECYCLED ORGANIC NATURAL FIBRES FIBRES Organic Corn/Soya Recycled Naturally Cotton Bean polyester Colored Cotton Organic Recycled Pineapple Wool polyester Lyocell Organic Silk Tencel, Lycra Hemp/Ramie /JuteEco Textiles: Any textile product, which is produced in eco-friendly manner and processed under eco-friendlylimits (defined by agencies like oekotex, ifoam etc.).Organic: Any crop cultivated by using organic principles of agriculture like organic manures and bio fertilizers canbe considered Organic. This is a crop that is cultivated without pesticides, chemicals and synthetic fertilizers (e.g.,organic cotton).Recycled/ biodegradable: Natural and synthetic fibres which are biodegradable or can be broken into pieces torecycle and produce textile fibres again are called recyclable fibres. These are recycled to produce recycled fibres,and then converted into textiles.Natural: Natural fibres- like cotton, linen, jute etc. which are obtained from natural sources and may be consideredecofriendly based on the process of cultivation and processing.THE FABRICSHere’s a list of eco-friendly fibres to look out for. Next time you’re shopping for clothes, look out for clothes thatare made from the following fibres (or other eco-friendly fibres): 1. Hemp - An amazing natural fibre. Some say hemp could have 25,000 uses. Hemp provides enormous benefit to the natural environment. This is true when used in products and when growing the hemp plant. 2. Jute - Similar to hemp, jute is a type of vegetable fibre used for thousands of years, with outstanding potential for the future. 3. Ingeo - Trademark for a man-made fibre derived from corn. 4. Calico - Fabric made from unbleached cotton. Also referred to as muslin. 5. Hessian Cloth - Coarse woven fabric made from jute or hemp. 6. Organic cotton - Cotton grown organically (without pesticides etc) RAJEEV SHARAN- ECOSPUN SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION 2
  3. 3. RAJEEV SHARAN- NIFT BANGALORE (AP-06) 7. Recycled Polyester - Polyester created from used polyester garments. 8. Bamboo Fibre - Bamboo fabric is very comfortable and 100% biodegradable. 9. Tencel® - Brand name for a biodegradable fabric made from wood pulp cellulose. 10. Ramie - Ramie fibres are one of the strongest natural fibres. Ramie can be up to 8 times stronger than cotton, and is even stronger when wet. 11. Organic Wool - Organic wool is wool that has been produced in a way that is less harmful to the environment than non-organic wool. 12. Organic Linen - Linen that is made from flax fibre. Could also refer to be linen made from other organically grown plant fibres. 13. FORTREL EcoSpun - Fibre made from plastic containers 14. Milk Silk - Silk made from milk 15. Soy Silk - Silk made from soybeans 16. Nettle fibre - Made from stinging nettle (commonly known as a weed) 17. Spider-web fabric - Fabric made from spider webs. Still in the experimental stages. 18. Pineapple fibre 19. Banana leaf fibre 20. Black diamond fibre 21. LyocellSUSTAINABLE PROCESSINGTextile wet processing using environmentally friendly agents and sustainable methods of processing in order tohave environmentally safe processing with less chemicals inputs and problems in effluent disposals etc. (e.g., use ofperoxide bleaching, natural dyes, azo free dyes.)WET PROCESSING – Environmental ConcernsImportant environmental concerns related to textile wet processing: Chemical intensive wet processing: scouring, bleaching, mercerizing, dyeing, printing etc. Heavy metals: iron, copper, lead etc, found in dyestuffs auxiliaries, binders etc. Residual dyestuffs, chemicals in water: due to poor fixation of colours. PVC and phthalates: used in plastisol printing paste. Formaldehyde: found in dispersing agents, printing paste and colorant fixatives. RAJEEV SHARAN- ECOSPUN SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION 3
  4. 4. RAJEEV SHARAN- NIFT BANGALORE (AP-06)Need for Ecofreindly Wet Processing –sustainable and beneficial methods. Eco friendly bleaching – Peroxide bleaching Eco friendly dyeing and Printing o Low impact dyes o Natural dyes o Azo Free dyes o Phthalates Free PrintingExplore into Bio Processing of Textiles Bio-processing can simply be defined as the application of living organisms and their components to industrial products and processes, which are mainly based on enzymes. Bio processing also offers the potential for new industrial processes that require less energy, less water and less effluent problems with effective results. o Enzymatic Desizing o Enzymatic Scouring o Enzymatic Bleaching o Bio polishing and Enzyme based softeners etc.Eco-Friendly Finishes and DyesAs well as the fabric used to make clothes, many clothes are dyed and/or have laminate finishes etc. Here are someeco friendly options: Biodegradable TPU Laminate - Solvent free TPU that can biodegrade in as little as 4 years. NanoSphere® Textile Finish - Self cleaning textile finish for clothing and other textiles. Non-Toxic Dyes - These can be better for health as well as the environment.OPPORTUNITY FOR SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTS Corporate Leadership – Huge Opportunities Key Driver – Rapidly increasing Consumer awareness and increasing demand for sustainable products NGO’s and Consumer Organizations – Enablers and motivational support to corporate Business benefits in using socially responsible business practices and sustainable products.COMPANIES GOING SUSTAINABLE Cutter & Bucks – fall’04 with 50 % organic Coop of Switzerland- Sum ’02 with 5% organic Gap Inc – launched first organic cotton collection in Sum’06. H&M – launched first collection in fall’05 Marks &Spencer - fall’03 with 5% organic cotton Nike – fall’02 with 5-10% organic cotton and Lycra Nordstrom – Sum’02 with 5 % Organic Pratibha Syntex - Successfully selling blended knits of organic cotton, Bamboo, recycle cotton and other eco fibres. Tree Hugger- launched his first Bamboo blended collection in sum 06. Timberland- Spr’03-Spr’06 with 5-10% organic Under the Canopy - Successfully running eco fashion business using all sustainable fibres. RAJEEV SHARAN- ECOSPUN SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION 4
  5. 5. RAJEEV SHARAN- NIFT BANGALORE (AP-06) Fortrel® EcoSpun® The Renewable Resource EcoSpun2™ The Power of Performance! RAJEEV SHARAN- ECOSPUN SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION5
  6. 6. RAJEEV SHARAN- NIFT BANGALORE (AP-06)ECOSPUN (ECO-FI)Eco-fi , formerly known as EcoSpun, is a high-quality polyester fiber which has been developed by the U.S.company Wellman Inc. Many different fabrics are made using Eco-fi, including fleece fabrics which are warm,durable, weather resistant, lightweight and comfortable. They are very soft to the touch.Ecospun is a polyester fiber made from 100% recycled plastic bottles. Eco-fi can also be blended with other fibers,such as wool, cotton and tencel, for enhanced qualities. Eco-fi is used mostly for vests, jackets, pants, blanketthrows and accessories. It is also used in carpets, home furnishings and fibrefill.LIFE CYCLETIMELINE OF ECOSPUN In 1993, Wellman, Inc., introduced EcoSpun, a revolutionary fibre made from 100 percent recycled plastic soda, water and food containers. The United Nations awarded Wellman with the first Fashion Industry Award for Environmental Excellence. Apr 22, 1994 - In fact, they were made from Fortrel EcoSpun, a fabric derived from PET ( polyethylene terephthalate) bottles that have been cleaned. Some of these fabrics are 100 percent EcoSpun fibres. Others are a blend of EcoSpun and cotton or wool. RAJEEV SHARAN- ECOSPUN SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION 6
  7. 7. RAJEEV SHARAN- NIFT BANGALORE (AP-06) Oct 12, 1995 - Thats because Fortrel EcoSpun is a real fabric, said Alison Deyette, a fashion consultant with Wellman Inc. of New Jersey, which turns bottles into ball “Just about anything in your wardrobe you can make with EcoSpun,” March 20, 2005 New York Times* Models sauntered down a catwalk showing off the latest work of designers. Every garment was made with fibres spun from bamboo, corn, organic cotton and materials that promoters said were eco. Apr 12, 2008 - Since taking over the company, Foss has expanded its work force from 320 employees to 460 and created new product lines like Ecospun, created from recycled plastics. The company was recently named the "Innovation Rocks" award winner by the New Hampshire Division of Economic. Jan 21, 2009 - Ecofi Felt formerly known as Ecospun is a polyester felt made from 100% post consumer recycled plastic bottles. It takes 10 plastic bottles to make 1 pound of Ecofi fibre As a frame of reference it takes 17 bottles to make enough fibre for a sweatshirt.WELLMAN’S LONG HISTORY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY In 1965 began producing nylon and polyester staple fibers and plastic resins from recycled raw materials. Began recycling PET bottles for polyester fiber in 1978. In 1979 established a PET bottle recycling facility in Johnsonville, SC. Introduced Fortrel® EcoSpun®, the first 100% post consumer recycled polyester textile fiber, in 1993. An Engineered Resins facility that uses recycled nylon and polyester. Wellamid® Ecolon® nylon resin, made from recycled nylon post-consumer carpet, goes into many molded automotive end-uses. Wellpet® PET polyester resins are available from post-consumer materials.WELLMAN’S ENVIRONMENTAL AWARDS Fashion Industry Award for Environmental Excellence by the United Nations Environmental Programme (1993). Green Star from the Environmental Action Coalition (1993). Edison from the American Marketing Association for innovation and excellence (1993). Keep America Beautiful Award (1994). White House Award from the President’s Council on Sustainable Development (1996).ECOSPUN®-THE RENEWABLE RESOURCE Wellman sources Fortrel® EcoSpun® staple products produced from certified 100% postconsumer plastics. EcoSpun® staple fibres are available in a range of deniers for various applications which may include: o 100% & blended apparel & accessories o Fibrefill applications o Industrial substrates o Nonwoven consumer goods.ECOSPUN2™-THE POWER OF PERFORMANCE! RAJEEV SHARAN- ECOSPUN SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION 7
  8. 8. RAJEEV SHARAN- NIFT BANGALORE (AP-06)EcoSpun2™ is a 1.4 denier, multi-channel cross-section fiber designed for performance moisture management. Unique cross-section facilitates wicking and moisture vapour transport. 100% post-consumer recycled for performance apparel applications. Multi-channel fibre SEMECOSPUN® CERTIFICATION EcoSpun® suppliers certify raw material source and content. EcoSpun® is independently tested and certified to be produced using 100% post-consumer recycled raw materials by the North Carolina Centre for Applied Textile Technology. RAJEEV SHARAN- ECOSPUN SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION 8
  9. 9. RAJEEV SHARAN- NIFT BANGALORE (AP-06)PLASTIC FACTS The 51 billion plastic bottles in landfills end-to-end would wrap around the earth 5 times. For each billion bottles not in landfills --over 1/4 million barrels of oil are saved; eliminating 150,000 tonnes of harmful air emissions that contribute to global warming, acid rain, smog Amt. of petroleum saved yearly by using post-consumer bottles in manufacturing process = enough power to supply Atlanta for a yr. % of PET bottle being recycled 2004 2005 2006 22% 23% 34% Over 860 million lbs. of recycled PET used in U.S. manufacturing applications include: fiber for carpet, apparel, strapping, sheet, film, food, non-food containers. 1 Lb. of Fibre = Approximately 10 Bottles RAJEEV SHARAN- ECOSPUN SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION 9
  10. 10. RAJEEV SHARAN- NIFT BANGALORE (AP-06)2006 RESULTS Foss produced 36,500,000 lbs. of fiber. This would equal 365,000,000bottles saved from landfills. Saving: o 91,250 barrels of oil o 64,734 tonnes of emissionsFOSS & ECOSPUN 10,000 yd2of indoor/outdoor carpet = 100,000bottles Truck load of carpet pad (32oz) = 240,000bottles Truck load of baled fiber = 450,000bottles Truck load of vinyl coated substrates = 87,500bottles Potential Bottles Used in a Year Total bolts sold = 12,925,000bottles Total 9”x12” sheets sold = 4,300,000bottles Total 3’ x 6’ rolls of automotive carpet = 3,822,000 bottles. Total bottles consumed making Foss products for Wal-Mart = 21,047,000AUTO BUILDS & ECOSPUN 16 Million Vehicles Manufactured Yearly16 Yearly. If the car interiors were made using Ecospun - That would equal 4,192,000,000bottles saved from landfills Saving: o 1,048,000 barrels of oil o 743,466 tonnes of emissions Potential Bottles Used in Auto Industry Full trunk/load floor = 76 bottles Full seat = 92 bottles Floor (face only) = 68 bottles Headliner = 15 bottles Package trays = 11bottles RAJEEV SHARAN- ECOSPUN SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION 10
  11. 11. RAJEEV SHARAN- NIFT BANGALORE (AP-06)How is Ecospun Made?Here’s how the Ecospun process goes: 1. Plastic containers are collected from curb side and community recycling centres. 2. The containers are sorted by type and colour. 3. All labels and caps are stripped off. 4. The plastic containers are then washed. 5. Then they are crushed. 6. Then they are chopped into flake. 7. The flakes are then melted and extruded to create fibre. 8. The fibre is crimped, cut, drawn, then stretched into the desired length (based on its strength), then baled.Fortrel® Ecospun™ is a registered trademark of Wellman Inc, and is manufactured by Foss ManufacturingCompany.ECOSPUN RESIN RAJEEV SHARAN- ECOSPUN SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION 11
  14. 14. WHAT IS ECOSPUN USED FOR?Ecospun, whether by itself or blended, can be used in many products. Here are some examples: clothing (eg, vests, jackets, pants) blankets carpets wall coverings automobile interiors various home furnishings fiberfill (eg, filling material for cushions) craft feltBENEFITS Made without depleting earth’s natural resource Lowers emission Keeps bottles out of landfill. Bottles FDA approved High quality PET resin Meets industry requirements for fiber (tenacity, shrinkage, colorfastness, dyeability, UV stability) Can be blended into any PET textile applicationLIMITATIONS Many people avoid eco-spun because they are made of plastic. They are not dye able and are often see through. They will fuzz and pill easily. When used in wearable’s they are often referred to as itchy and irritating because they do not “breathe” allowing for air flow and the plastic itself can irritate skin, well that and they are often see through and shiny when exposed to light which could also be very irritating. SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION FORTRAN Ecospun
  15. 15. CONCLUSIONEcospun is a fabric having capacity to keep billions of plastic PET bottles out of the worldslandfills each year. For every one billion plastic bottles created, 18 tons of harmful air emissionsare produced and 2.5 million barrels of oil are used, contributing to acid rain, global warming, andsmog.Cost is always not much different than original polyester and other synthetic fibres and its returnto the environment makes it very profitable for anyone. SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION FORTRAN Ecospun