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How to Develop Thinking skills

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"Teaching is an art". Rajeev Ranjan
Thinking is an individual act, however completely dependent on surroundings, right from parents, family, society, peers, state, nation, altitude , latitude and academia.

Thinking is an act. It is a process to become individual. Its integrity develops an individual into a fine human being. Journey of thinking process starts right from beginning of life to the last breath taken by a human being. In fact, it makes us different from other existed creatures.

Thinking is an act of learning. Thinking can also be processed and developed. It is nurtured. Individual grows in each and every moment of his life. Every single passed moment in an individual’s life is source of learning for him, which shows the light for leading the next moment of life.

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How to Develop Thinking skills

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  3. 3. " Teaching is an art". Rajeev Ranjan 3
  4. 4. " Teaching is an art". Rajeev Ranjan 4
  5. 5. 5 I would like to share - I think 22 Types of thinking skill –Brief definition Beauty of thinking How to draw best within Life skills How to develop thinking skill Thinking process- relevant words Acquiring life skills Think-what? Thinking- no thinking Think-Thinking-Thought Learning environment Language and thought
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  8. 8. 8 Thinking process is on its way to reach an unidentifiable destination. Let first check our destination, plan to reach the destination and organize our thought to make it concrete and within our reach so that we should work properly.
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  14. 14. 14 Academia can be the key factors. Education brings a massive change and shapes an individual to become a fine human being. It opens the wings to be an independent individual. Education helps individual to reach a new height to see the world’s real life experiences. Individual weaves a new sphere to become more practical, more skilled professional, more compassionate and integrated personality. (Note- a number of intellectuals never attended academic institution but they gave a new direction to society).
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  17. 17. 17 Thinking /ˈ θ ŋk ŋ/ɪ ɪ Skill /sk l/ɪ Noun 1. the process of considering or reasoning about something. "the selectors have some thinking to do before the match" Noun the ability to do something well; expertise. "difficult work, taking great skill" expertise , skilfulness, expertness, adeptness, adroitness, deftness, dexterity, ability, prowess, mastery, competence , competency, capability, efficiency, aptitude , artistry, art, finesse, flair, virtuosity, experience, professionalism, talent, cleverness, smartness, ingenuity, versatility, knack, readiness, handiness; informal know-how "once again, he demonstrated his skill as a politician"
  18. 18. 18 Thinking /ˈ θ ŋk ŋ/ɪ ɪ Skill /sk l/ɪ Synonyms intelligent, sensible, reasonable, rational , reasoning; logical, analytical;  thoughtful, reflective, meditative,  contemplative, pensive, philosophical;  rareratiocinative "he seemed a thinking man" https://www.google.co.in/webhp?sourceid=chrome- instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=skill Verb train (a worker) to do a particular task. "there is a lack of basic skilling" https://www.google.co.in/webhp?sourceid=chrome- instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=skill
  19. 19. 19 What is the thinking skills? Thinking skills are the mental processes that we apply when we seek to make sense of experience. Thinking skills enable us to integrate each new experience into the schema that we are constructing of "how things are". www.brainboxx.co.uk/a3_aspects/pages/ThinkingSkills.htm
  20. 20. " Teaching is an art". Rajeev Ranjan 20 What is thinking ability? 1. Ability to think clearly and rationally about what to do or what to believe. 2. Ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking. 3. Ability to understand the logical connections between ideas. philosophy.hku.hk/think/critical/ct.php
  21. 21. What are lower order thinking skills? Lower order thinking is the foundation of skills required to move into higher order thinking. These are skills that are taught very well in school systems and includes activities like reading and writing. In lower order thinking information does not need to be applied to any real life examples, it only needs to be recalled and slightly understood. If a person only obtains lower order thinking skills they will not be prepared for real life situations such as the labour market. https://sites.google.com/site/bloomstaxonomy1/lower-order-thinking " Teaching is an art". Rajeev Ranjan 21
  22. 22. " Teaching is an art". Rajeev Ranjan 22
  23. 23. 1. To understand, infer, connect, categorize, synthesize, evaluate, and apply the information they know to find solutions to new and existing problems. 2. Equipping students to be able to reason, reflect, and make sound decisions. 3. Wisdom and judgment are crucial aspects 4. Meaningful learning :-Analyze, Evaluate, and Create 5. Individual ability be able analytical, creative and practical in his approach. 6. Equipping students to be able to identify and solve problems in their academic work and in life 7. “Being able to think” means students can solve problems and work creatively http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/109111/chapters/Introduction.aspx http://www.readwritethink.org/parent-afterschool-resources/tips-howtos/encourage-higher-order-thinking-30624.html " Teaching is an art". Rajeev Ranjan 23
  24. 24.  Thought refers to ideas or arrangements of ideas that are the result of  the process of thinking. The word "thought" may mean:-  a single product of thinking or a single idea ("My first thought was ‘no.’")  the product of mental activity ("Mathematics is a large body of thought.")  the act or process of thinking ("I was frazzled from too much thought.")  the capacity to think, reason, imagine, etcetera ("All her thought was applied  to her work.")  the consideration of or reflection on an idea ("The thought of death terrifies  me.")  recollection or contemplation ("I thought about my childhood.")  half-formed or imperfect intention ("I had some thought of going.") Webster's II New College Dictionary, Webster Staff, Webster, Houghton Mifflin Company, Edition: 2, illustrated, revised  Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1999, ISBN 978-0-395-96214-5, page 1147 " Teaching is an art". Rajeev Ranjan 24
  25. 25.  Thought refers to ideas or arrangements of ideas that are the result of  the process of thinking. The word "thought" may mean:-  anticipation or expectation ("She had no thought of seeing him again.")  consideration,  attention,  care,  or  regard  ("He  took  no  thought  of  his  appearance" and "I did it without thinking.")  judgment,  opinion,  or  belief  ("According  to  his  thought,  honesty  is  the  best  policy.")  the ideas characteristic of a particular place, class, or time ("Greek thought")  the  state  of  being  conscious  of  something  ("It  made  me  think  of  my  grandmother.")  tending to believe in something, especially with less than full confidence ("I  think that it will rain, but I am not sure.") Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Second Edition, 2001, Published by Random House, Inc., ISBN 978-0375425998, page 1975 " Teaching is an art". Rajeev Ranjan 25
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  29. 29. 29 Effect of Learning Environment So learning environment should be able to satisfy the brain’s enormous curiosity and hunger for novelty, discovery and challenge because thirst for search of meaning of a human being can not be stopped, only channelled and focused.
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  31. 31. 31 Language is essential to express our thoughts. Thinking is lifeless without language. Language is means to express in forms of Verbal & Written. We organize our thought in a language form. The more we rich in language, the more we able to express, explore and analyze our thoughts in a well formed and in a systematic way.
  32. 32. 32 Critical thinking Barahal (2008), who defines critical thinking as "artful thinking. CT is “skillful, responsible thinking that facilitates good judgment because it 1) relies upon criteria, 2) is self-correcting, and 3) is sensitive to context” (Lipman, 1988, p. 39); CT is “purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, as well as explanation of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological, or conceptual considerations upon which that judgment is based” (Facione, 1990, p. 3); Critical Thinking is a process when we scrutinize the situation, identify the thing and situation and then react to the situation towards reaching a goal. It helps us to deepen our observation to the micro level where we weigh the situation to atom level. Credit goes to the Neo-Marxist Frankfurt School, which originated around 1930 and proposed a new learning approach “Critical Theory”. It is basically a sociological and philosophical approach of thinking.
  33. 33. 33 Critical thinking Critical thinking is at the core of most intellectual activity that involves students learning to recognise or develop an argument, use evidence in support of that argument, draw reasoned conclusions, and use information to solve problems. Examples of critical thinking skills are interpreting, analysing, evaluating, explaining, sequencing, reasoning, comparing, questioning, inferring, hypothesising, appraising, testing and generalising. http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/generalcapabilities/critical-and-creative-thinking
  34. 34. 34 Creative thinking A way of looking at problems or situations from a fresh perspective that suggests unorthodox solutions (which may look unsettling at first). Creative thinking can be stimulated both by an unstructured process such as brainstorming, and by a structured process such as lateral thinking. Creative thinking involves students learning to generate and apply new ideas in specific contexts, seeing existing situations in a new way, identifying alternative explanations, and seeing or making new links that generate a positive outcome. Ex.- Thinking up ways to increase the number of blood donors, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/creative-thinking.html http://www.brainstorming.co.uk/tutorials/creativethinking.html Creative thinking is the process which we use when we come up with a new idea. This creative thinking process can be accidental or deliberate. http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/generalcapabilities/critical-and-creative-thinking
  35. 35. 35 Creative thinking Creative Thinking is a novel way of seeing or doing things that is characteristic of four components-fluency (generating new ideas), flexibility (shifting perspective easily), originality (conceiving of something new), and elaboration (building on others' ideas). (NCERT, Life Skills VII, P23) “Creative thinking is a kind of thinking that focuses on exploring ideas, generating possibilities, looking for many right answers rather than just one. The creative person knows that there is always room for improvement.” (Robert Harris)
  36. 36. 36 Lateral thinking:- The term was coined by the Maltese-born UK psychologist Dr. Edward de Bono in his 1970 book 'Lateral Thinking.‘ Noun-the solving of problems by an indirect and creative approach, typically through viewing the problem in a new and unusual light 1. An effective way to learn how to think in order to systematically generate new ideas. 2. Lateral thinking is solving problems through an indirect and creative approach, using reasoning that is not immediately obvious and involving ideas that may not be obtainable by using only traditional step-by-step logic. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lateral_thinking
  37. 37. 37 Convergent thinking :-the ability to use logical and evaluative thinking Divergent thinking :- ability to elaborate, other options , alternate Objective:-Well thought and well formed decisions Convergent thinking is a term coined by Joy Paul Guilford as the opposite of divergent thinking. It generally means the ability to give the "correct" answer to standard questions that do not require significant creativity, for instance in most tasks in school and on standardized multiple-choice tests for intelligence. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convergent_thinking Problem solving technique in which ideas from different fields or participants are brought together (synthesized) to find a single optimum solution to a clearly defined problem. http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/convergent- thinking.html Qs- Should we try this? Objective:- Possibilities, Generate new and different ideas, correlate The psychologist J.P. Guilford first coined the terms convergent thinking and divergent thinking in 1956. Divergent thinking is a thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions. ... By contrast, divergent thinking typically occurs in a spontaneous, free-flowing, 'non-linear' manner, such that many ideas are generated in an emergent cognitive fashion.
  38. 38. 38 Conceptual thinking Implementation thinking Conceptual thinking consists of the ability to find connections or patterns between abstract ideas and then piece them together to form a complete picture. Conceptual thinking is the ability to understand a situation or problem by identifying patterns or connections, and addressing key underlying issues. Conceptual thinking includes the integration of issues and factors into an conceptual framework. psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Conceptual_thinking Implementation thinking is the ability to organize ideas and plans in a way that they will be effectively carried out. Conceptual thinking is the ability to identify patterns or connections between seemingly unrelated objects. For some, conceptual thinking is a natural process but not everyone can think in this way. https://www.reference.com/world-view/thinking
  39. 39. 39 Holistic thinking Dualistic thinking The term "holistic thinking" refers to a big picture mentality in which a person recognizes the interconnectedness of various elements that form larger systems, patterns and objects. Thinking holistically is the opposite of analyzing something, which involves breaking down a larger system into its details. https://www.reference.com/world-view In this way, we focus on what benefits our project most at any given moment — rather than on categorically ruling out options. Instead of asking, “Should I write fiction or non-fiction?” Maisel suggests you might ask, “What shall I write today?” Instead of, “Should I do research or should I write today?” you might ask, “What does the book need today?” http://reptitude.com/ Dualistic thinking, according to William Perry's model of intellectual development, is the intellectual ability to understand good and evil but not the nuances in between. He believed it was the base level of intellectual development that most college freshmen possessed. https://www.reference.com/world-view/thinking Dualistic Thinking is an Excuse Dualistic thinking arbitrarily imposes limits on what we will consider doing, or not doing. We rule out options based on this kind of stark, exclusionary, yes-no thinking. “Oh, I can’t do that, it’s too ——!” “Oh, I don’t work like that, it’s too ——–!” http://reptitude.com/creativity/dualistic- and-holistic-thinking/
  40. 40. 40 Systems thinking Relativistic Thinking Systemic Thinking (known, in non- academic circles, as Pattern Thinking) is a simple technique for making sense of challenging situations and developing simple interventions for transforming them. Systems thinking is the cognitive ability to study and understand systems of many kinds, integrating information from different sources and different types. Systemic Thinking enables people to deliberately and systematically gain significantly deeper insights into challenging situations Systems thinking has been defined as an ap proach to problem solving. http://systemicthinking.com/ No absolute truth or validity All points of view are equally valid, and that all truth is relative to the individual. Relativism is the belief that there's no absolute truth, only the truths that a particular individual or culture happen to believe. If you believe in relativism, then you think different people can have different views about what's moral and immoral. Example:-"That is your truth, not mine;" "It is true for you, but not for me;" and "There are no absolute truths.“ https://carm.org/what-relativism https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/relativism
  41. 41. 41 Dialectical thinking The art or practice of arriving at the truth by the exchange of logical arguments. (Philosophy) disputation or debate, esp intended to resolve differences between two views rather than to establish one of them as true. Thinking of passivity and aggression, considering impulsivity and withdrawal, looking at love and hate as well as reviewing different answers to morality questions. Dialectical thinking is when a person examines or holds two polar opposite thoughts. https://www.reference.com/ http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Dialectical+reasoning
  42. 42. 42 Innovative thinking Intuitive thinking Innovative thinking involves generating new ideas or new ways of approaching things to create possibilities and opportunities. "Innovation starts with a question," Gregersen says. "Are you asking enough questions of the right kind?“ Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without proof, evidence, or conscious reasoning, or without understanding how the knowledge was acquired. Intuitive Thinking learner values: Experiencing competence (in self and others). Inventing tools. Finding patterns. Being able to know, control, predict, and explain. http://bb.plsweb.com/Christy_test/Accessibility https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intuition
  43. 43. 43 Logical thinking Parallel thinking Thinking that is coherent and logical Logical thinking – the process of progressing a thought process in a linear way. It is probably the dominant thinking process in western society – and many others too. Logical thinkers observe and analyze phenomenon, reactions and feedback, and draw conclusions based on that input. They can justify their strategies, actions and decisions based on the facts they gather. e.g. A sales representative modifies a presentation of a product to emphasize its user-friendly qualities https://www.thebalance.com/logical-thinking-definition-with-examples-2059690 Parallel thinking – this is the process of avoiding group conflict by all adopting the samThe best known example of parallel thinking is De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats.e m Parallel thinking is defined as a thinking process where focus is split in specific directions. When done in a group it effectively avoids the consequences of the adversarial approach (as used in courts). In adversarial debate, the objective is to prove or disprove statements put forward by the parties (normally two).ode of thinking at the same time. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallel_thinking
  44. 44. 44 Structured thinking Strategic thinking Structured thinking – another way of describing critical thinking; using templates and models to think exhaustively about something. Structured thinking is a process of putting a framework to an unstructured problem. Having a structure not only helps an analyst understand the problem at a macro level, it also helps by identifying areas which require deeper understanding. https://www.analyticsvidhya.com › Business Analytics Strategic thinking is defined as a mental or thinking process applied by an individual in the context of achieving success in a game or other endeavor. As a cognitive activity, it produces thought. Strategic thinking is a process that defines the manner in which people think about, assess, view, and create the future for themselves and others. Strategic thinking is an extremely effective and valuable tool. One can apply strategic thinking to arrive at decisions that can be related to your work or personal life. www.cssp.com/CD0808b/CriticalStrategicThinkingSkills/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strategic_thinking
  45. 45. 45 Positive thinking Associative thinking Positive thinking – although often referred to as an attitude rather than a distinct thinking process, Positive thinking is a mental and emotional attitude that focuses on the bright side of life and expects positive results. A positive person anticipates happiness, health and success, and believes he or she can overcome any obstacle and difficulty. a. “See the positive side, the potential, and make an effort.” ~Dalai Lama b. If the winter comes Can spring be far behind! (PBS) www.successconsciousness.com Associative thinking – the process of linking one thought or idea to another. The essence of creativity lies in associative thinking. Edward Burnett Tylor coined the term "associative thinking", characterizing it as pre-logical in which the "magician's folly" is in mistaking an imagined connection with a real one. Associational thinking — drawing connections among questions, problems or ideas from unrelated fields — is triggered by questioning, observing, networking and experimenting and is the catalyst for creative ideas. (Erica Swallow) courses.educ.ubc.ca/etec540/May08/KilistoffA/associative%20thinking.html
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  47. 47. 47 Radiant thinking Magical thinking Radiant Thinking is the underlying theory and philosophy behind Mind Mapping. Buzan (2003). This is a specific form of associative thinking where the thinking radiates out from a central idea. Radiant thinking usually begins with the central concept or problem at the center, and various ideas and solutions radiating out from that point. Each new point becomes the center of its own radiant thoughts, eventually generating branch after branch of diverse thought. One advantage to radiant thinking is that it can incorporate all thoughts--even those that do not directly relate to the central problem.(Sahar Samy) Magical thinking (fundamentally irrational) is a term used in anthropology and psychology, denoting the fallacious attribution of causal relationships between actions and events, with subtle differences in meaning between the For example: "I got up on the left side of the bed today; therefore it will rain." two fields. ( www.psychologytoday.com)
  48. 48. 48 Cognition means the process by which knowledge and understanding is developed in the mind. Oxford Dictionary defines ‘Cognitive’ that is connected with mental process of understanding. Humans generate knowledge and meaning through sequential development of an individual’s thinking abilities i.e. mental processes of recognition, recollection, analysis, application, creation, understanding, and evaluation. It focuses on internal states of human mind like motivation, problem solving, decision -making and attention. The learner requires assistance to develop prior knowledge and integrate new knowledge.
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  50. 50. 50 Asks Questions Learning is a complex phenomena. Questioning helps to simplify this complex phenomena. Smart teacher always keeps himself ready with smart questions. He brings out the best from students mind. Question felicitates learners to speak out the right things. It’s a path showing, a spark , a current….. http://www.slideshare.net/rajeevelt/questioning-technique-70 Effective Questioning Help Individual to Think Concretely This link can be helpful.
  51. 51. 51 Asks Questions What is this ---- Why is it important— How does it help ------- Why does it happen – Is it relevant ----- What are the difficulties ------ What are the ways to overcome difficulties— Can we modify ----- What are the points which we can add or delete or modify -----
  52. 52. 52 Give him Time We should respect the dignity and integrity of individual. We should nurture his nature to come out from within. If we ask something, we should give him time to come out with several relevant points.
  53. 53. 53 Listen to him   Human beings are habituated to talk much and listen less. We should listen individual’s ideas, view points, suggestions with patience. Give the space to think and share
  54. 54. 54 Trust him Better result comes when we trust individual’s ability. Better result comes when we allow him to lead the show. Each and every individual sees the world in his/her unique way. Parent, siblings, society, teachers, principal, boss, head of institution should trust the ability of an individual to see the things in a unique way. We should at least listen sometimes or other.
  55. 55. 55 Trust him Elders/Seniors’ faiths make individual’s self esteem strong. I hope, we will not loss anything if we listen someone’s idea. It is in our hand to accept those points, use some of good points, modify them, and indeed, reject those points in a mild way. A number of world’s great achievers achieved high however, at earlier phase of his life or career his views/ ideas were rejected or ignored by colleagues and seniors
  56. 56. 56 Facilitate him   We grow in every moment of life. We are learners. Proper guidance, proper training and proper facilitation lead an individual to walk on right path. Share existing knowledge Give respect to individual’s opinion Widen individual’s horizon to make out the things Help individual to identify most relevant pros and cons Help individual to find out/explores various alternates
  57. 57. 57 Facilitate him We grow in every moment of life. We are learners. Proper guidance, proper training and proper facilitation lead an individual to walk on right path. Appreciation and award for better imagination and outcomes a.Help individual to come up with brilliant ideas b.Help individual to take initiation to solve problems c.Help individual in showing his vision
  58. 58. 58 Could we consider these points once again? Build Self Efficiency & Self Esteem Formation of habit to define and redefine a situation, outcomes Give time to build or generate new ideas Nurturing the ability to take risk Creating Free Error Threaten environment
  59. 59. 59 Could we consider these points once again? Welcome Error at any level {“To Err is human”} Develop ability to initiate and become self responsible Develop ability to visualize prospective opportunity Develop ability to visualize prospective obstacles/difficulties
  60. 60. 60 Could we consider these points once again? Followings can be helpful in developing concrete thinking…. Brain Game helps individual to take challenge Logic Puzzles:- Crossword puzzles, Logical problems, Riddles, Sudoku, Word problems Board Game:- Chess
  61. 61. 61  Key Points for Acquisition of Life Skills :- “Give Opportunity , Trust Him, Try More S/He Will Certainly Initiate To Learn”  Encourage your learner to participate actively  Encourage your learner to think and give adequate time to answer  Please do not stamp with negative adjective if your learners speak less and do not participate as per as your expectation
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  64. 64. " Teaching is an art". Rajeev Ranjan 64
  65. 65. " Teaching is an art". Rajeev Ranjan 65
  66. 66. 66" Teaching is an art". Rajeev Ranjan
  67. 67. Rajeev Ranjan Principal B.Ed(English), PGDTE & Psy. Counselor English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad Email .Id : rajeevbhuvns@gmail.com Website: www.rajeevranjan.net 67" Teaching is an art". Rajeev Ranjan
  68. 68.  World Health Organization, Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, <www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/ottawa_charter_hp.pdf>, WHO, 1986.  14 World Health Organization, Life Skills Education in Schools, WHO Programme on Mental Health, WHO, 1997.  National Curriculum Framework( NCF,2005)  Bond ( Tim ) , 1986 , Games for Social and Life Skills , Hutchinson Co Ltd,  http://www.interventioncentral.com/academic-interventions/reading-comprehension/keywords-memorization-strat  Teach 21 http://wvde.state.wv.us/teach21/  http://www.livestrong.com/article/191710-importance-of-teaching-life-skills-to-children/  http://www.preservearticles.com/2011111517239/essay-on-the-concept-and-importance-of-life-skill-education.html  https://www.britishcouncil.gr/en/life-skills/about/what-are-life-skills  http://www.timesofmalta.com/articles/view/20131124/education/Teaching-life-skills-in-schools.496090  https://www.theguardian.com/teacher-network/teacher-blog/2014/mar/09/teaching-learning-curriculum-life- skills-teacher-career  http://www.unicef.org/lifeskills/index_resources.html  Heckman J and T Kautz. 2012. “Hard Evidence on Soft Skills.” NBER Working Paper 18121.  www.rajeevranjan.net  http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/prince-charles/9836204/Schools-are-failing-to-teach-life-skills-and- leaving-youth-unemployable-Prince-Charles-warns.html  http://www2.ed.gov/offices/OVAE/AdultEd/OCE/LifeSkills/intro.html  68" Teaching is an art". Rajeev Ranjan
  69. 69.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thought  http://www.asa3.org/ASA/education/think/critical.htm  http://www.asa3.org/ASA/education/think/methods.htm#i  http://www.ed.ac.uk/institute-academic-development/postgraduate/taught/learning-resources/presentations  http://www.usnews.com/education/blogs/college-admissions-playbook/2014/06/23/5-tools-to-develop- critical-thinking-skills-before-college  http://www.forbes.com/sites/work-in-progress/2012/03/27/how-to-develop-5-critical-thinking- types/#5ab0740b7838  http://www.thinkingschoolsinternational.com/the-tsi-approach-and-training/thinking-skills/  http://www.christianschoolproducts.com/articles/2012-January/Featured-Articles/Teaching-Students-to-Think- Critically.htm  https://www.britishcouncil.gr/en/life-skills/about/what-are-life-skills  De Bono, E. (1991). The Direct Teaching of Thinking in Education and the CoRT Method, dalam Maclure, S. (1991). Learning to Think Thinking to Learn (pp. 3-14). Oxford: Pergamom Press.  Beyer, B.K. (1991). Teaching thinking skills: A hand book for secondary school teachers. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.  Campbell, L., Campbell, B. & Dickinson, D. (1996). Teaching and learning through multiple intelligence. London: Allyn and Bacon.  http://www.unicef.org/lifeskills/index_resources.html  Heckman J and T Kautz. 2012. “Hard Evidence on Soft Skills.” NBER Working Paper 18121.  www.rajeevranjan.net   69" Teaching is an art". Rajeev Ranjan

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