What is the thinking skills?
Thinking skills are the mental processes that we
apply when we seek to make sense of
experience. Thinking skills enable us to integrate
each new experience into the schema that we are
constructing of "how things are".
Barahal (2008), who defines critical thinking as "artful thinking.
CT is “skillful, responsible thinking that facilitates good judgment because
it 1) relies upon criteria, 2) is self-correcting, and 3) is sensitive to
context” (Lipman, 1988, p. 39);
Critical Thinking is a process when we scrutinize the situation, identify
the thing and situation and then react to the situation towards reaching a
goal. It helps us to deepen our observation to the micro level where we
weigh the situation to atom level. Credit goes to the Neo-Marxist Frankfurt
School, which originated around 1930 and proposed a new learning
approach “Critical Theory”. It is basically a sociological and philosophical
approach of thinking.
Critical Thinking Creative Thinking
CT is “purposeful, self-regulatory
judgment which results in
interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and
inference, as well as explanation of the
evidential, conceptual, methodological,
criteriological, or conceptual
considerations upon which that
judgment is based” (Facione, 1990, p. 3);
Creative thinking involves students
learning to generate and apply new
ideas in specific contexts, seeing
existing situations in a new way,
identifying alternative explanations,
and seeing or making new links that
generate a positive outcome.
Ex.- Thinking up ways to increase the
number of blood donors,
" Teaching is an art". Rajeev Ranjan 34
Questioning/Inquiry based learning
Understanding of fact/formula is a good act of learning ,
however our goal of learning should be to know the
ways/means/methods/techniques/reason (“why” and
“how”). Everyone knows the formula for the area of a
triangle - half into base into height. But why it is so?
Millions of people might had seen the falling a fruit from a
tree but minute observer Newton noticed and developed a
desire to know “ why” and “how”.
Educator instigates spark of learning “ why” and “how” and
helps learner to taste himself/herself the “essence of
learning”. Let us learn to think “ why” and “how”!
" Teaching is an art". Rajeev Ranjan 35
Questioning/Inquiry based learning
What are the possible reasons for this
events/accidents/result etc ?
What were the important factors ?
Why these factors became so crucial/game changing?
What can be other best possible options?
How did you come to know these factors? Would you
like to mentions some of them?
What do you think? (Open ended questions)
Do you think so? Support your answer with
" Teaching is an art". Rajeev Ranjan 36
Habit formation for
" Teaching is an art". Rajeev Ranjan 37
Problem solving activities
related to personal life,
school life, and
a. Brain game and
" Teaching is an art". Rajeev Ranjan 38
Critical thinking is at the core of most intellectual
activity that involves students learning to recognise or
develop an argument, use evidence in support of that
argument, draw reasoned conclusions, and use
information to solve problems. Examples of critical
thinking skills are interpreting, analysing, evaluating,
explaining, sequencing, reasoning, comparing,
questioning, inferring, hypothesising, appraising,
testing and generalising.
World Health Organization, Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion,
<www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/ottawa_charter_hp.pdf>, WHO, 1986.
National Curriculum Framework( NCF,2005)
Bond ( Tim ) , 1986 , Games for Social and Life Skills , Hutchinson Co Ltd,
Cottrell, S. (2005) Critical thinking skills. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan
Paul, R.W. (1995). Critical thinking: How to prepare students for a rapidly changing world.Santa Rosa, CA:
Foundation for Critical Thinking.
McPeck JE. Teaching Critical Thinking: Dialogue and Dialect. New York, NY: Routledge; 1990.
45" Teaching is an art". Rajeev Ranjan