INSTITUTE OF AIRHOSTESS TRAINING FRANKFINN AIR TRAVEL MANAGEMENT
INTRODUCTION AIR TRAVEL MANAGEMENT GIVES BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF ARRANGEMENTS MADE BY THE VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONS FOR PASSANGER TRAVEL AND AIRLINE FLIGHT OPERATIONS.IT ALSO GIVE THE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT WORLD GEOGRAPHY.IT TELLS US ABOUT THREE LETTER IATA CITY CODES,AIRPORT CODES,ISO CODES,TIM,OAG ITINERARY PLANNING,CONSTRUCTION FORMULA,GI,MPM,TPM,HIP,RT,CT,PAT AND GIVES US EXTRA KNOWLEGDE ABOUT TRAVEL DOCUMENTS.IF WE DON’T HAVE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT AIR TRAVEL MANAGEMENT THAT MEANS WE DON’T KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT AIR TRAVEL INDUSTRY.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT <ul><li>I AM EXTREMLY HAPPY THAT I HAVE BEEN GIVEN THIS ASSIGNMENT TO WORK ON AND I HAVE REALLY WORKED HARD TO PROVE MY SELF AND DONE WHAT I COULD HAVE.SO FOR THAT I WOULD LIKE TO THANK SPECIALLY MR.MANMOHAN SINGH KOHLI WHO TEACHES US AIR TRAVEL MANAGEMENT AND HAVE FULLY COOPERATED ME IN ALL ASPECTS,I WOULD ALSO THANK OUR CENTER HEAD MR. HARDEEP SINGH AND TRAINING COORDINATOR MRS.AMRINDER KAUR.SO IN THE END I WOULD LIKE TO SAY THAT I TOOK MY ASSIGNMENT AS GREAT WORK FOR ME TO DO. </li></ul>
TASK 1 <ul><li>HISTORIES OF THE FAR EAST COUNTRIES. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THAILAND </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MALAYSIA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INDONESIA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NEW ZEALAND </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NATURAL ATTRACTIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THAILAND </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MALAYSIA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INDONESIA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NEW ZEALAND </li></ul></ul>
Archaeological discoveries around the north- east hamlet of Ban Chiang suggest that the world's oldest Bronze Age civilization was flourishing in Thailand some 5,600 years ago. Successive waves of immigrants, including Mons, Khmers and Thais, gradually entered the land mass now known as Thailand, most slowly traveling along fertile river valleys from southern China. Sukhothai declined during the 1300s and eventually became a vassal state of Ayutthaya, a dynamic young kingdom further south in the Chao Phraya River valley. Founded in 1350, Ayutthaya remained the Thai capital until 1767 when it was destroyed by Burmese invaders. In 1782, the first king of the present Chakri dynasty, Rama I, established his new capital on the site of a riverside hamlet called Bangkok (Village of Wild Plums). Two Chakri monarchs, Mongkut (Rama IV) who reigned between 1851 and 1868, and his son Chulalongkorn (Rama V, 1868-1910) saved Thailand from western colonization through adroit diplomacy and selective modernization. Today, Thailand is a constitutional monarchy. Since 1932, Thai kings including the present monarch, H.M. King Bhumipol Adulyadej have exercised their legislative powers through a national assembly, their executive powers through a cabinet headed by a prime minister, and their judicial powers through the law courts. THAILAND HISTORY
The Big Buddha Samui's most popular attraction, The Big Buddha sitting 15 meters tall was built in 1972 by the local society to give visitors a place to pay respect to The Lord Buddha. This monumental landmark is placed on the island's Northern shore. Namuang Waterfall Na Muang Waterfall is located 10 km south from Nathon at Ban Thurian. There are 2 waterfalls. Na Muang one is 18 meter high and can be reached by vehicle. Na Muang two is about 80 meters high and can only be reached by a 30 minute walk. The waterfalls are the most scenic on the island TAHILAND ATTRACTIONS
Hin Ta - Hin Ya Strangely shaped rocks at south Lamai. A local story tells of an old couple whose ship was wrecked in the bay. Their body's were washed ashore to create the rocks Sawadee Shrine The Brahma of Sawadee is an important being..a central image for reverence and faith. The number of visitors is rising every day because people have faith in His greatness extending out kindness and mercifulness and thus creating happiness and peacefulness to to those coming to pay Him respect. (located at the IT Complex, Lamai)
Hin Lad Waterfall Hin Lad Waterfall is located 2 km south of Nathon Town.He can be reached by a 3-4 kilometer walk down a country foot walk. In evergreen, rain forest setting with palms and creepers, the waterfall have several levels with a cool pool for a fresh water swim. Magic Buddha Garden The magic Buddha garden is hidden in the hills of Samui. You can see several statues, temples and waterfalls which are build by one man in the last 20 years.
Scuba Diving The "Coolest and Newest" adventure on Samui. Completely safe and fun for all ages. As seen on TV. No experience necessary. Enjoy the Ride. RB Samui Diving, snorkeling, fishing. There are many scuba diving schools located around Samui, offering a wide range of dive facilities. There are also tours available for snorkeling, fishing and excursions. The area of Koh Samui, Koh Tao, Koh Phangan and Angthong Marine National Park are very famous dive places.
With beaches and mountains, temples and beautiful architectures, a holiday in Thailand is a refreshing experience. Eat, drink, shop or even do some adventure. The glitzy dance clubs and swanky stores dot all over the cities of Thailand. Whether you shop till you drop or rave in a throbbing night out - choice is yours.
<ul><li>Evidence of a Hindu-Buddhist period in the history of Malaysia can today be found in the temple sites of the Bujang Valley and Merbok Estuary in Kedah in the north west of Peninsular Malaysia, near the Thai border. The spread of Islam, introduced by Arab and Indian traders, brought the Hindu-Buddhist era to an end by the 13th century. Islam was established as the religion of the Malays, and had profound effect on Malay society. </li></ul><ul><li>The arrival of Europeans in Malaysia brought a dramatic change to the country. In 1511, the Portuguese captured Malaka and the rulers of the Melaka Sultanate fled south to Johor where they tried to establish a new kingdom. They were resisted not only by the Europeans but by the Acehnese, Minangkabau and the Bugis, resulting in the sovereign units of the present-day states of Peninsular Malaysia. </li></ul>After World War II and the Japanese occupation from 1941-45, the British created the Malayan Union 1946.This was abandoned in 1948 and the Federation of Malaya emerged in its place. The Federation gained its independence from Britain on 31 August 1957.In September 1963, Malaya, Sarawak, Sabah, and initially Singapore united to form Malaysia, a country whose potpourri of society and customs derives from its rich heritage from four of the world's major cultures - Chinese, Indian, Islamic and Western. MALASIA HISTORY
NATION SPORTS COMPLEX The National Sports Complex situated on a 200 acre site in Bukit Jalil is the venue for sports and other functions. It houses the National Stadium, Putra Stadium, National Aquatic Centre, National Hockey Stadium and National Squash Centre. This uniquely designed mosque embodies a contemporary expression of traditional Islamic art, calligraphy and ornamentation. Its most striking feature is the multi-fold umbrella-like roof which symbolizes the aspirations of an independent nation. Standing prominently against the skyline is the sleek and stylish 73m high minaret. The national mosque serves serves as the principal mosque for the city dwellers. NATIONAL MOSQUE MALASIA ATTRACTIONS
SULTAN ABDUL SAMAN BUILDING A stately, historic building rich in character, it was built in 1897 to house several important government departments during the British administration. This Moorish-inspired building, topped by a shiny copper dome and a 40m high clock tower, is a major landmark in the city. It serves as the backdrop for important events such as the National Day Parade on August 31 and the ushering in of the New Year. This heritage buildings now occupied by the Supreme Court and the Textile Museum. DATARAN MERDEKA Facing the Sultan Abdul Samad Building is Dataran Merdeka or Merdeka Square, an immaculately-tufted 8.2 hectare area of historical interest. A 100 meter-high flagpole marks the spot where the Malayan Flag was hoisted on August 31, 1957 signifying the independence of the country from British rule. At the opposite end of the square is an inviting spot where visitors can relax amid soothing rushing waters of fountains, elegant colonnades and colorful beds of zinnias and marigolds. Beneath the square is Plaza Putra, an underground food, leisure and entertainment complex.
RUMAH PENGHULU ABU SEMAN The heritage centre of the Badan Warisan Malaysia (Heritage of Malaysia Trust) is located in a mock Tudor building dating from 1925. In the garden is a bamboo hut built by Orang Asli of the Temiar community and a restored Malay timber house known as the Rumah Penghulu. This was formerly the residence of a local headman in Kedah. It is beautifully decorated throughout with intricate carvings and has been furnished to reflect a house in the early thirties with some wedding accoutrements. A guided tour and viewing of a video documentary on the restoration is available.The centre hosts regular exhibitions with a heritage theme and has a gift shop and reference library. CAMMONWEALTH HILL AND FAMILY PARK Located at the north of the National Sports Complex is a memorial park for the Kuala Lumpur '98 Commonwealth Games Commonwealth Hill. Major plazas located here are Plaza Bendera, Plaza Komanwel, Plaza Central which highlight the history and information on all the nations which took part in the Kuala Lumpur '98 Games. Plaza Pandangan (Scenic Plaza) is the highest point from where you can get a breathtaking view of the National Sports Complex and Kuala Lumpur skyline. Trees surrounding a man made lake reflect the abundance of Malaysia's natural tropical resources.
SUNGAI KUYOH This landscaped garden is a recreational area for a leisure stroll along the river. Lush and shady trees line the river bank. Exercise stations are provided at certain places along the rive bank for light work-outs making it a pleasant experience. NATIONAL ART GALLERY Located on a 5.67 acres site at Jalan Temerloh, the National Art Gallery is flanked by the National Theatre and the National Library. Built with aesthetics and functionality in mind, the art gallery creates a space for the preservation, development, exploration and experimentation of the various facets of art in Malaysia. There are a number of galleries housing various permanent and temporary exhibitions. Amenities available include a creative centre, a sculpture garden, a photography and graphics studio, and auditorium, a library, a restoration space, a book shop and a cafe.
THE NATIONAL THEATER Permanent home of the National Theatre Company and the National Symphony Orchestra, the National Theatre is responsible for the development of all forms of theatrical art in Malaysia. Designed as a functional building which not only reflects the beauty of form, the National Theatre is equipped with state-of-the-art equipment while still the national heritage and traditional Malay design. retaining Drama, dance and musical performances are held regularly. NATIONAL MONUMENT Designed by the famous sculptor, Felix de Weldon, this 15.54m high bronze monument was constructed in 1966 to honor the country's fallen heroes during the Communist in urgency. It is one of the largest freestanding sculptures in the world.
KUALA LUMPUR BIRD PARK One of the largest bird parks in the region the Kuala Lumpur Bird Park houses over 5,000 birds, with 90% local and 10% imported from overseas. The park spans 2-8 hectares of enclosure, 3.2 hectares of free flight aviary and 0.5 hectare devoted to the hornbill. ASEAN SCULPTURE GARDEN Waterscape and landscape is combined harmoniously in this garden located just below the National Monument. It has a collection of prize-winning sculptures by some of the finest artists in the ASEAN region.
<ul><li>The first people to live on these islands probably came from mainland Malaysia . From about AD700 the island’s wealth of spices and their position on important trade routes drew seafarers from many other nations . Indian merchants brought the Hindu religion and Arab traders brought Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1500s and 1600s the Portuguese and British struggled to control the islands, but it was the Dutch who succeeded in 1798. Under Dutch rule the islands developed a sense of unity. They fought for independence and declared Indonesia a republic in 1949. Since independence the army has been a powerful political force. It squashed a communist rebellion in 1965 and has occupied East Timor since a rebellion in 1975. Two leaders have dominated recent history. The independent nation’s first president was Ached Sukarno , who gave Indonesians a real feeling of national identity. A military coup led to a takeover by general Suharto, who has encouraged greater political and religious tolerance. </li></ul><ul><li>A fast-growing population means that poverty is a problem on the islands, even though the government has increased food production, industry and healthcare. Most Indonesians are farmers and some practice slash-and-burn agriculture, cutting down the forest and moving on once the soil is exhausted. Indonesian life is filled with ancient tradition drawn from Buddhist, Hindu and folk sources even though most people are Muslims. Each island follows its own customs. </li></ul>INDONESIA - HISTORY
JAKARTA RICE TRACE IN BALI HARBOUR AT LAMALERA BUDDHA AT BORABDAR
<ul><li>Singapore rose in importance during the 14th century under the rule of Srivijayan prince Parameswara and became an important port until it was destroyed by Portuguese raiders in 1613. The modern history of Singapore began in 1819 when Englishman Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles established a British port on the island. Under British colonial rule, it grew in importance as a centre for both the India - China trade and the entrepôt trade in Southeast Asia, rapidly becoming a major port city. </li></ul><ul><li>During World War II , Singapore was conquered and occupied by the Japanese Empire from 1942 to 1945. When the war ended, Singapore reverted to British control, with increasing levels of self-government being granted, culminating in Singapore's merger with the Federation of Malaya to form Malaysia in 1963. However, social unrest and disputes between Singapore's ruling People's Action Party and Malaysia's Alliance Party resulted in Singapore's expulsion from Malaysia. Singapore became an independent republic on 9 August 1965 . </li></ul><ul><li>Facing severe unemployment and a housing crisis, Singapore embarked on a modernisation programme that focused on establishing a manufacturing industry, developing large public housing estates and investing heavily on public education. Since independence, Singapore's economy has grown by an average of nine percent each year. By the 1990s, the country has become one of the world's most prosperous nations, with a highly- developed free market economy , strong international trading links, and the highest per capita gross domestic product in Asia outside of Japan . </li></ul>SINGAPORE HISTORY
SINGAPORE ATTRACTIONS A FLOWER OF BOTANIC GARDEN VISITORS AT INSECT GARDEN
DOLPHINS DOING THEIR JOB ATTRACTIONS EVERYWHERE MUST PRAISE THE CAMREMAN
BESIDE CAENAGH BRIDGE SIDE VIEW OF CAVNAGH BRIDGE WORLDS LARGEST FOUNTAIN MERLION
Terrace HousesCityArchitecture ALEXANDRA ARCH SOUTHREN RIDGES Alexandra arch
Canopy walk River anderson bridge SINGAPORES CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICTS SKYLINES UNDERWATER WORLD
PASSPORT PASSPORT IS USED AS A MEANS OF IDENTIFICATION.IT IS ALSO AN EVIDENCE OF A PERSON HAVING ENTERED ANOTHER COUNTRY LEGALLY.THERE ARE DIFFERENT TYPES OF PASSPORT – -NORMAL PASSPORT. Most countries issue a normal passport which complies with the defination given previously. -DIPLOMATIC OR COUNSELOR PASSPORT. Issued to diplomatic,counsular and other government officials on missions entitling the bearer to diplomatic as counsular status under international law and custom. -GOVERNMENT/OFFICIAL/SPECIAL/SERVICE PASSPORT. Issued to the people who are serving as a high govt. offical for that particular time or till they are in service.once their term gets over the passport seizes to be invalid. -TEMPORARY OR AD-HOC PASSPORT. This passport is issued to people who go to HAJ.they apply a passport to a govt. body called as WAKF board where it issues as a temporary passport. -OTHER PASSPORTS. International red cross,nansen ``Laissez-Passer’’ issued by international organization such as united nations and the international red cross. -JOINT PASSPORT. Some countries allow persons travelling together to hold a joint passport,which may include a spouse or children or both.
VISA TO ENTER ANY COUNTRY THE PERSON MUST HAVE THE ENTERY PERMISSION TO THAT COUNTRY WHICH IS KNOWN AS VISA.TO ENTER ANY COUNTRY THE PERSON SHOULD HAVE THE VISA FOR THAT PARTICULAR COUNTRY.THE VISA IS ISSUED BY THE AMBASSY OFFICIALS OF THAT COUNTRY,ALL DEPENDS ON THE FILE PREPARED BY THE PERSON WHO HAVE APPLIED,IN CASE HE IS REJECTED,HE/SHE CAN APPEAL WITHIN 24 DAYS OF REJECTION.
HEALTH CERTIFICATE IN ORDER TO GO ANYWHERE ABROAD,AN INDIVIUAL NEEDS TO HAVE A HEALTH CERTIFICATE BECAUSE IT IS CONCERNED AS A VITAL PART TO TRAVEL TO OTHER COUNTRY.ITS NECESSARY TO CONFERM THT THE PARTICULAR INDIVIUAL IS NOT SUFFERING FROM ANY COMMUNICABLE DISEASE LIKE CHOLERA AND YELLOW FEVER.SO A PERSON MUST HAVE THE HEALTH CERTIFICATE TO TRAVEL TO SOME COUNTRY.IF THE PERSON IS VACCINATED AGAINST CHOLERA,THE DATE OF THE VACCINATION MUST BE VALID FOR AT LEAST SIX MONTHS THAT WILL ASSURE THAT THE PERSON IS SAFE FOR AT LEAST THIS PERIOD.SAME SI THE CASE WITH YELLOW FEVER BYUT HERE THE VACCINE IS VALID FOR AT LEAST TEN YEARS.
CUSTOM THIS PART INCLUDES THE ARTICLES THAT AN INDIVIUAL CAN IMPORT AND EXPORT.IN THIS COMES THE ITEMS ONE CAN CARRY WITH HIM/HER DURING THE FLIGHT LIKE CLOTHES,UTENSILS ETC.IT ALL DEPENDS UPON THE FLIGHT BY WHICH THE PERSON IS TRAVELLING.THEY HAVE FIXED THE WEIGHT THAT AN INDIVIUAL CAN CARRY WITH HIM.THERE ARE SOME ARTICLES ON WHICH TAX IS CHARGED TO CARRY THEM LIKE ALCOHOL ETC.
CURRENCY THIS IS AN IMPORTANT ASPECT OF TRAVELLING TO SOME COUNTRY LIKE IF A PERSON LIKES TO GO TO AUSTRALIA HE MUST HAVE WITH HIM EFFICIENT AMOUNT OF AUSTRALIAN DOLLAR NECESSARY FOR HIS SURVIVAL.
INSURANCE INSURANCE IS ALSO A VITAL COMPONENT FOR GOING ABROAD.THIS IS DONE FOR THE PURPOSE THAT IF THE INDIVIUAL SUFFERS FROM SOME DISEASE THEN HE/SHE IS TO BE CURED BY THE GOVT. OF THAT COUNTRY.THIS IS ALSO BASED ON AGE SYSTEM AS IF FOR OLD AGED PERSON THE INSURANCE IS OF HIGH AMOUNT AS COMPARED TO THAT OF A YOUNG LAD.
MEALS N CODES SOME CODES OF MEALS- AVML- ASIAN DIAN VEGETARIAN MEAL. BBML- INFANT BABY FOOD. CHML- CHILD MEAL. ABML- DIABITIC MEAL.
MEAL CODE NAME MEAL GIVEN TO FOODS AVOIDED FOODS INCLUDED AVML ASIAN/INDIAN VEGET-ARIAN MEAL ON REQUEST MEAT, POULTRY, FISH, SHELLFISH, EGGS INDIAN STYLE VEGETARIAN MEAL. BBML INFANT, BABY FOOD INFANTS GERBER, HEINZ, CERELAC.
CHML CHILD MEAL CHILDREN STRONG SPICES, BIG PIECES GRAVIES. BITE-SIZED PIECES OF FOOD LIKED BY CHILDREN ,NUTRITIONALLY BALANCED DBML DIABETIC MEAL DIABETICS/PANCREATIC DISEASES STARCH SUGAR, CARBOHYD-RATES LEAN MEAT, FISH, VEGETABLE, FRESH FURITS.
Thai Airways accommodates the varying requirements of our passengers, such as communication, visual difficulties or mobility concerns. Please telephone reservations, on 0870 6060911, giving as much notice as possible. Wheelchairs are available free of charge and should be requested through our reservations department at least 24 hours prior to departure. OTHER SERVICES
ITINERARY FOR MR . Jack D’ Souza ADDRESS - MAHAN NAGAR, HOUSE NO 246, NEAR KRIPAM AUDITORIUM , NEW DELHI. POSTAL CODE - 110011 CITY - NEW DELHI TELEPHONE HOME – 01822-246222 BUSINESS - 9714222245 DATE OF BOOKING 1 st CONTACT DATE METHOD : PHONE , PERSONAL VISIT, LETTER, TELEX, FAX , OTHER DAY DATE LOCAL TIME FLIGHT NO. CLASS REMARKS / HOTELS CONTACTS , ETC. FROM CITY / AIRPORT DEL DEP ARR DEP ARR DEP ARR DEP ARR DEP TO TO TO TO F A R E VALID PASSPORT – DR 453209 ENTRY VI SA / RE – ENTRY PERMIT TRANSIT VI SA FOR OTHER DOCUMENTS REQUIRED VACCINATIONS <ul><li>CHOLERA </li></ul><ul><li>YELLOW FEVER </li></ul>RECOMMENDED PREVENTIVE TREATMENT PNR TICKET / VOUCHER NUMBERS PAYMENT DETAILS TAX ( ES ) AIRPORT TAX (ES) PREPARED BY: MS. RAJDEEP KAUR TRAINER- MR. M. S KOHLI THURSAY 11 SEP 1130 hrs TG217 Y Y Y Y Y BKK KUL SIN JKT FRIDAY 11 SEP 1815 hrs TG143 SATURDAY 13 SEP 1600 hrs SATURDAY 13 SEP 1730hrs TUESDAY 16 SEP 0500 hrs TUESDAY 16 SEP 0630 hrs THURSDAY 18 SEP 0730 hrs THURSDAY 18 SEP 1000 hrs SATURDAY 20 SEP 2015 hrs TG223 TG218 TG220 TO DEL ARR SUNDAY 21 SEP 0730 hrs TG217 Y HEALTH CERTIFICATE , CURRENCY 876 1,20,000/- (including taxes) 067 VIA PERSONAL VIST HOTEL CANBERRA HOTEL COUNTDOWN THE LOUIS (HOTELS AND RESORTS) THE STERLINGS 11 SEP 18 th AUGUST DELHI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT DELHI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
-- PROTECTED SPECIES OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS (E.G. CORAL OR CACTI) OR PRODUCTS MADE FROM THESE -- FLOWERS, BULBS, PLANTS AND FRUIT -- DRUGS AND MEDICINES -- FAKE DESIGNER GOODS -- WEAPONS (REAL OR FAKE) AND AMMUNITION -- ART AND ANTIQUES -- EROTICA -- POLITICALLY- AND RELIGIOUSLY-SENSITIVE TEXTS WARNING: THE POSSESSION OF DRUGS SUCH AS CANNABIS, COCAINE, HEROIN, AND XTC WILL BE HEAVILY PUNISHED THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. THIS APPLIES TO EU COUNTRIES AS WELL AS COUNTRIES OUTSIDE THE EU.
Yes – 3 oz or Yes Smaller container Yes – 3 oz or Yes Smaller container Yes yes Yes – 3 oz or Smaller container yes Bug and mosquito sprays and repellents Corkscrews Deodorants made of gel or aerosol
Hair Straightener or Detangler Knitting and Crochet Needles Knives – except for plastic or round bladed butter knives. Liquid foundations Liquid Foundations Liquid sanitizers Liquid Mascara Yes - 3 oz or smaller yes Container Yes yes No Yes Yes - 3 oz or smaller Container Yes - 3 oz or smaller Container Yes - 3 oz or smaller Container Yes - 3 oz or smaller Container Yes Yes Yes Yes
Camcorders yes yes Laptop Computers yes yes Mobile phones yes yes Pagers Yes Yes Personal Data Assistants (PDA’S) Yes Yes
IT IS THE PRIME VEHICLE FOR INTER-AIRLINE COOPERATION IN PROMOTING SAFE, RELIABLE, SECURE AND ECONOMICAL AIR SERVICES - FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE WORLD'S CONSUMERS. THE INTERNATIONAL SCHEDULED AIR TRANSPORT INDUSTRY IS NOW MORE THAN 100 TIMES LARGER THAN OTHER INDUSTRY AT ITS FOUNDING, IATA HAD 57 MEMBERS FROM 31 NATIONS, MOSTLY IN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA. TODAY IT HAS OVER 270 MEMBERS FROM MORE THAN 140 NATIONS IN EVERY PART OF THE GLOBE. IN BOTH, ITS ORGANIZATION AND ITS ORGANIZATION AND ITS ACTIVITY, IATA HAS BEEN CLOSELY ASSOCIATED WITH ICAO –INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION. AN IT WAS IN 1945.
· · IATA SERVES AS AN INTERMEDIARY BETWEEN AIRLINES AND PASSENGER AS WELL AS CARGO AGENTS VIA NEUTRALLY APPLIED AGENCY SERVICE STANDARDS AND CENTRALIZED FINANCIAL SYSTEMS. · A LARGE NETWORK OF INDUSTRY SUPPLIERS AND SERVICE PROVIDERS GATHERED BY IATA PROVIDES SOLID EXPERTISE TO AIRLINES IN A VARIETY OF INDUSTRY SOLUTIONS. · FOR GOVERNMENTS, IATA SEEKS TO ENSURE THEY ARE WELL INFORMED ABOUT THE COMPLEXITIES OF THE AVIATION INDUSTRY TO ENSURE BETTER, LONG-TERM DECISIONS. · IATA PROMOTE SAFE, REGULAR AN DECONOMICAL AIR TRANSPORT FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE PEOPLE OF THE WORLD, TO FOSTER AIR COMMERCE AND TO STUDY THE PROBLEMS CONNECTED THEREWITH · IATA COLLABORATION AMONG THE AIR TRANSPORT ENTERPRISES ENGAGED DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY IN INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT SERVICES · IATA CO-OPRATE WITH INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS. IATA ALLOWS AIRLINES TO OPERATE SAFELY, SECURELY, EFFICIENTLY AND ECONOMICALLY UNDER CLEARLY DEFINED RULES .
UFTAA WAS FOUNDED IN 1966 BY THE MERGE OF INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF TRAVEL AGENCIES (IFTA) AND THE UNIVERSAL ORGANIZATION OF TRAVEL AGENTS ASSOCIATION (UOTAA). IT NOW FORMS THE ONLY GLOBAL FEDERATION OF THE TRAVEL AGENTS ASSOCIATION AND THUS REPRESENTS TRAVEL AGENTS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. UFTAA MEMBERSHIP IS CONSTITUTED BY THE NATIONAL TRAVEL AGENTS ASSOCIATION OR ORGANIZATION IN EVERY PART OF THE WORLD, WHO REPRESENT ABOUT 32,000 TRAVEL AGENCIES WITH OVER A HALF A MILLION EMPLOYEE HANDLING 70% OF THE INTERNATIONAL AIRLINE BOOKINGS. FULL MEMBERS OF THE UFTAA ARE THE NATIONAL TRAVEL AGENTS ASSOCIATION OR ORGANIZATION.
TO TAKE ACTION WHEN APPROPRIATE TO ASSIST IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM.
NATIONS, INCO IN WHICH IT HOLDS ITS CONSULTATIVE STATUS, AND WTO, UFTAA DEALS WITH ALL THE PROBLEMS IN RELATION TO THE TRAVEL INDUSTRY, DEVELOPING AND RECOMMENDING TO ITS MEMBERS NEW OR IMPROVED PROFESSIONAL TECHNIQUES FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE TRAVEL AGENTS. UFTAA ALSO ENCOURAGES THE PREPARATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS OF LEGAL, ECONOMICAL AND SOCIAL SURVEYS IN CONNECTION WITH THE TRAVEL AGENCY PROFESSION. IN THE FIELD OF PROFESSION TRAINING IT CO-OPERATES IN THE TRAINING OF EXECUTIVES AND EMPLOYEES OF THE TRAVEL AGENTS BY CIRCULATING TRAVEL STUDY COURSES AND BY ESTABLISHING UNIFORM STANDARDS. UFTAA ALSO PROVIDES AN INSURANCE POLICY TO THE TRAVELING PUBLIC, KNOWN US “UFTAA EXTRA SURE” THIS INSURANCE; IS ONE OF THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE POLICIES IN THE WORLD FOR THE TRAVELERS AND IS MARKETED AT A MODEST AND TRAVEL AGENT SHARE IN COMMISSION AVAILABLE, THE LARGER PART, USUALLY MORE THAN THAT OFFERED BY THE INSURANCE COMPANIES FOR TRAVEL INSURANCE, BEING RECEIVED BY THE SELLING TRAVEL AGENT. UFTAA REPRESENT THE INTEREST OF THE TRAVEL AGENTS ON A PERMANENT BASIC THROUGH ITS DIRECT ACCESS TO THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OR PRINCIPLES SUCH AS IATA, IRU, UIC AND TO INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION SUCH AS THE UNITED
LEADING NEWSPAPER PUBLISHER IN HONOLULU HAD AN IDEA TO ORGANIZE ALL TRAVEL FROM THE OCCIDENT TO THE PACIFIC AREA IN A CONSISTENT, OPPORTUNITIES AND THE CREATION OF FRESH OPPORTUNITIES THROUGH THE MULTI-MEDIA PUBLICITY. PATA‘S FIRST CONFERENCE WAS HELD IN 1952 AND ITS HEADQUARTERS ESTABLISHED IN SAN-FRANCISCO, U.S.A IN 1953. PATA HAS ITS OWN DIRECTOR FOR EUROPE WHO IS BASED IN LONDON AND WORKS TO PROMOTE THE TOURIST TRAFFIC FROM THE EUROPE MARKETS TO THE PACIFIC REGION. PTA’S FIRST ASIAN OFFICE WAS OPENED IN MANILA, PHILIPPINES IN THE YEAR 1976
INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO), SPECIALIZED TECHNICAL AGENCY OR THE UNITED NATIONS CREATED AS A PERMANENT BODY ON APRIL 4, 1947 FOR THE PURPOSE OF PROMOTING THE SAFE AND ORDERLY DEVELOPMENT OF CIVIL AVIATION THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. THE AGENCY SETS INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS NECESSARY FOR THE SAFETY, EFFICIENCY, AND REGULARITY OF AIR TRANSPORT.
THE CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION, ALSO KNOWN AS THE CHICAGO CONVENTION, ESTABLISHED THE INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO), A SPECIALIZED AGENCY OF THE UNITED NATIONS CHARGED WITH COORDINATING AND REGULATING INTERNATIONAL AIR TRAVEL. THE CONVENTION ESTABLISHES RULES OF AIRSPACE , AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION AND SAFETY, AND DETAILS THE RIGHTS OF THE SIGNATORIES IN RELATION TO AIR TRAVEL . THE CONVENTION ALSO EXEMPTS AIR FUELS FROM TAX. BETWEEN STATES ON TECHNICAL PARTICIPATED. THE CHICAGO CONVENTION GOVERNS RELATIONS BETWEEN STATES ON TECHNICAL AS WELL AS COMMERCIAL SUBJECTS CONNECTING INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPOT SUCH AS:
FLYING OVER TERRITORY OF CONTRACTING STATES (AIR SERVICES), · CUSTOMS, · RULES OF THE AIR SPREAD OF DISEASE, · NATIONAL OF AIRCRAFT, · FACILITATION (CUSTOMS, ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION, ETC), · DOCUMENTS (RECOGNITIONS OF CERTIFICATES & LICENSES, ETC.) · INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS AND PRACTICES, INCLUDING THOSE FOR CARRIAGE OF DANGEROUS GOODS. STATISTICS, FINANCE, TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE ETC
THE BOARD PRINCIPAL SET FOURTH IN THE WARSAW CONVENTION IS “THE CARRIER IS LIABLE TO THE PASSENGER, SHIPPER OR CONSIGNEE, UNLESS IT CAN PROVE THAT IT HAS TAKEN ALL NECESSARY MEASURE TO AVOID DAMAGE THE BURDEN OF PROOF IS THUS SHIFTED FROM THE CLAIMANT, WHERE IT NORMALLY RESTS, AND PLACED ON THE CARRIER”. IN 1929, THE WARSAW CONVENTION-AN INTERGOVERNMENTAL AGREEMENT CONCLUDED WITH SEVERAL AMENDMENTS AND ADDITIONS WHICH INCLUDES THE LIABILITY OF AIRLINES FOR DEATH OR INJURY TO PASSENGER AND FOR LOSS, DAMAGE OR DELAY TO BAGGAGE AND CARGO IN MOST INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL. IN THIS CONVENTION A LIMIT PRESCRIBES THE AMOUNT FOR WHICH THE CARRIER IS LIABLE.
TASK - 3 TRAVEL ORGANIZATION REQUIREMENTS MERITS OF THESE ORGANIZATIONS
WHAT DO THE ORGANIZATIONS DO AND WHAT ACTUALLY THEY ARE ? IATA-INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION Over 60 years, IATA has developed the commercial standards that built a global industry. Today, IATA’s mission is to represent, lead and serve the airline industry. Its members comprise some 230 airlines - the world’s leading passenger and cargo airlines among them - representing 93 percent of scheduled international air traffic. Representing… IATA seeks to improve understanding of the industry among decision makers and increase awareness of the benefits that aviation brings to national and global economies. It fights for the interests of airlines across the globe, challenging unreasonable rules and charges, holding regulators and governments to account, and striving for sensible regulation. Leading… IATA’s aim is to help airlines help themselves by simplifying processes and increasing passenger convenience while reducing costs and improving efficiency. The groundbreaking Simplifying the Business initiative is crucial in this area. Moreover, safety is IATA’s number one priority, and IATA’s goal is to continually improve safety standards, notably through IATA’s Operational Safety Audit (IOSA). Another main concern is to minimise the impact of air transport on environment. Serving… IATA ensures that people and goods can move around the global airline network as easily as if they were on a single airline in a single country. In addition, it provides essential professional support to all industry stakeholders with a wide range of products and expert services, such as publications, training and consulting. IATA’s financial systems also help carriers and the travel industry maximise revenues. … For the benefit for all parties involved: For consumers, IATA simplifies the travel and shipping processes, while keeping costs down. Passengers can make one telephone call to reserve a ticket, pay in one currency and then use the ticket on several airlines in several countries. IATA allows airlines to operate safely, securely, efficiently and economically under clearly defined rules. IATA serves as an intermediary between airlines and passenger as well as cargo agents via neutrally applied agency service standards and centralised financial systems.
UFTAA The United Federation of Travel Agents’ Associations (UFTAA) emanates from the Universal Federation of Travel Agents’ Associations created in Rome, Italy, on November 22nd, 1966. UFTAA was originally founded as a result of a merger of two large world organisations, FIAV and UOTAA, recognising the need to unify travel agencies and tour-operators into one international federation. In 1989, coming from Brussels, UFTAA set up its General Secretariat in the Principality of Monaco.
UFTAA REPRESENT THE INTEREST OF THE TRAVEL AGENTS ON A PERMANENT BASIC THROUGH ITS DIRECT ACCESS TO THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OR PRINCIPLES SUCH AS IATA, IRU, UIC AND TO INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION SUCH AS THE UNITED - NATIONS, INCO IN WHICH IT HOLDS ITS CONSULTATIVE STATUS, AND WTO, UFTAA DEALS WITH ALL THE PROBLEMS IN RELATION TO THE TRAVEL INDUSTRY, DEVELOPING AND RECOMMENDING TO ITS MEMBERS NEW OR IMPROVED PROFESSIONAL TECHNIQUES FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE TRAVEL AGENTS. UFTAA ALSO ENCOURAGES THE PREPARATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS OF LEGAL, ECONOMICAL AND SOCIAL SURVEYS IN CONNECTION WITH THE TRAVEL AGENCY PROFESSION. IN THE FIELD OF PROFESSION TRAINING IT CO-OPERATES IN THE TRAINING OF EXECUTIVES AND EMPLOYEES OF THE TRAVEL AGENTS BY CIRCULATING TRAVEL STUDY COURSES AND BY ESTABLISHING UNIFORM STANDARDS. UFTAA ALSO PROVIDES AN INSURANCE POLICY TO THE TRAVELING PUBLIC, KNOWN US “UFTAA EXTRA SURE” THIS INSURANCE; IS ONE OF THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE POLICIES IN THE WORLD FOR THE TRAVELERS AND IS MARKETED AT A MODEST AND TRAVEL AGENT SHARE IN COMMISSION AVAILABLE, THE LARGER PART, USUALLY MORE THAN THAT OFFERED BY THE INSURANCE COMPANIES FOR TRAVEL INSURANCE, BEING RECEIVED BY THE SELLING TRAVEL AGENT.
HOW THEY HELP <ul><li>IATA IS PROMOTING SAFE, REGULAR AND ECONOMICAL AIR TRANSPORT FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE PEOPLE OF THE WORLD. </li></ul><ul><li>IATA CONTROLS THE WHOLE AIR TRAFFIC. </li></ul><ul><li>IATA ACTS AS THE PROBLEM (IF ANY) SOLVER AMONG THE AVIATION UPCOMING AND ALL EXISTING ONES. </li></ul><ul><li>IATA KEEPS THE ALL ORGANIZATIONS COLLECTIVE AND CO-OPERATIVE. </li></ul><ul><li>IT DECIDES THE ROUTES TO BE FOLLOWED BY THE DIFFERENT AIRLINES. AND ALSO THE TIMINGS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF THAT ROUTES. </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS THE IATA WHO GIVES THE AUTHORIZATION TO A PARTICULAR TRAVEL AGENT TO BE THE GSM ( GENERAL SALES A MANAGER) OF A PARTICULAR AIRLINE. </li></ul>
<ul><li>COORDINATION OF FARES AND RATES AGREEMENTS IS ENTRUSTED TO IATA. </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS THE UFTAA WHO KEEPS ALL THE TRAVEL AGENCIES COLLECTIVE AND CO-OPERATIVE. </li></ul><ul><li>IT ENSURES THE MAXIMUM POSSIBLE COHESION, PRESTIGE, PROTECTION, AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE ECONOMIC, JURIDICAL, AND SOCIAL SPHERE FOR THE TOURIST TRADE ECONOMY. </li></ul><ul><li>IT ACTS AS A SOLE REPRESENTATIVE OF THE TRAVEL AGENCY PROFESSIONAL AT INTERNATIONAL AND WORLDWIDE LEVELS. </li></ul><ul><li>UFTAA ALSO ENCOURAGE THE PREPARATIONS AND PUBLICATION OF LEGAL, ECONOMY AND SOCIAL SURVEYS IN CONNECTION WITH THE TRAVEL AGENCY PROFESSION. </li></ul>
IF THESE ORGANIZATIONS WERE NOT THERE WHAT WOULD BE THE ADVERSE EFFECTS THERE WOULD BE NO AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLS. TICKET RESERVATION WOULD BECOME DIFFICULT. THERE WOULD BE NO INSURANCE FOR THE PASSANGERS. NO SERVICE FOR PASSENGERS WOULD BE AVAILABLE. NO BOOKING WOULD BE POSSIBLE BY PHONE CALLS. THERE WOULD BE NO SECURITY FOR THE PASSANGERS. PROBLEMS WOULD ARISE IN IMPORT AND EXPORT. THERE WILL NOT BE ANY RULES IN THE AVIATION INDUSTRY. THERE WOULD BE NO AIMS AND OBJECTIVES. THE AIRWAYS WILL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR DEATH,INJURY,LOSS/DAMAGE TO THE BAGGAGE/LUGGAGE.
OTHER FOUR COUNTRIES LONDON FRANCE ITALY SWITZERLAND
HISTORY OF LONDON At the turn of the 21st century, London hosted the much derided Millennium Dome at Greenwich , to mark the new century. Other Millennium projects were more successful. One was the largest observation wheel in the world, the "as a Millennium Wheel", or the London Eye , which was erected temporary structure, but soon became a fixture, and draws four million visitors a year. The National Lottery also released a flood of funds for major enhancements to existing attractions, for example the roofing of the Great Court at the British Museum . The London Plan , published by the Mayor of London in 2004, estimated that the population would reach 8.1 million by 2016, and continue to rise thereafter. This was reflected in a move towards denser, more urban styles of building, including a greatly increased number of tall buildings ,  and proposals for major enhancements to the public transport network. However, funding for projects such as Crossrail remained a struggle. On July 6 , 2005 London won the bid to host the 2012 Olympics . However, celebrations were cut short the following day when, on July 7 , 2005 , London was rocked by a series of terrorist attacks . More than 50 were killed and 750 injured in three bombings on London Underground and another aboard a double decker bus near Russell Square in King's Cross.
ATTRACTION PLACES The Natural History Museum - Based in South Kensington near Hyde Park this museum is our favourite Adjacent to the Green Park is St. James's Park. You can really enjoy these parks on Sundays when they are closed to traffic. Inside the park you can see St. James's Palace that was originally built on the site of a lepers` hospital.
Tate Gallery - Named after Sir Henry Tate it holds approx. 10,000 art pieces. For a hundred years it has been a house of works of art. There is a mixture of old and modern collection that makes it so impressive. National Portrait Gallery - Located off Trafalgar Square it has over 7,000 paintings, sculptures and photographs. It contains illustrations of the people like; William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, Queen Elizabeth I and many others who have shaped the history of this Country
FRANCE HISTORY The signs of the first known settlement in France was discovered in 1940, in the southwest region of France, inside the caves, in the form of wall paintings. They indicate the traces of a reasonably creative and expressive cave society who dominated the area during the Paleolithic ages. The Tour de France, which kicks off July 5, is a grueling test of human endurance, a three-week 2,175mile (3,500 km) race stretched over 21 stages, nine of them in the mountains. But in some ways the modern Tour is easier than races past. In the early 20th century, competitors pedaled the dirt roads of France through the night on fixed-gear bikes, evading human blockades, route-jamming cars and nails placed on the road by fans of other riders. Between stages, teams feasted on banquets and champagne; before climbs, they fortified with cigarettes. The race was the brainchild of Henri Desgrange, a Parisian magazine editor who launched it in 1903 with 60 riders in a bid to boost circulation. It worked: Tour coverage helped Desgrange's magazine boom, and the race soon became more popular than he could have dreamed. With fans lining the roads to see riders up close, by the 1920s the Tour included more than 100 cyclists from throughout Europe. But as the competition grew fiercer and the race more commercialized, champagne and nicotine gave way to more effective--and insidious--performance boosters. In 1967, British rider Tom Simpson died midrace after taking amphetamines, prompting the event to adopt drug-testing. In 1998 authorities disqualified the Festinate team after finding the red blood cell--boosting drug EPO in their car. The winner of the 1996 race, Bjarne Riis, admitted in 2007 that he had used EPO, just months before Floyd Landis became the first Tour winner stripped of his title on charges of using synthetic testosterone in 2006. The Tour now tests athletes rigorously--stage winners are screened daily--although the victor in this year's race will still be allowed a sip of champagne.
FRANCE ATTRACTIONS Eiffel tower Notre dame in paris David Lefranc Aix-en-Provence
Le Chateau d' Amboise Arc de Triomphe Pont des Amours, Annecy Bay of Cannes, La Croisette
HISTORY OF ITALY The migrations of Indo-European peoples into Italy probably began about 2000 B.C. and continued down to 1000 B.C. From about the 9th century B.C. until it was overthrown by the Romans in the 3rd century B.C., the Etruscan civilization dominated the area. By 264 B.C. all Italy south of Cisalpine Gaul was under the leadership of Rome. For the next seven centuries, until the barbarian invasions destroyed the western Roman Empire in the 4th and 5th centuries A.D., the history of Italy is largely the history of Rome. From 800 on, the Holy Roman Emperors, Roman Catholic popes, Normans, and Saracens all vied for control over various segments of the Italian peninsula. Numerous city-states, such as Venice and Genoa, whose political and commercial rivalries were intense, and many small principalities flourished in the late Middle Ages. Although Italy remained politically fragmented for centuries, it became the cultural center of the Western world from the 13th to the 16th century. Italy became an integral member of NATO and the European Economic Community (later the EU) as it successfully rebuilt its postwar economy. A prolonged outbreak of terrorist activities by the left-wing Red Brigades threatened domestic stability in the 1970s, but by the early 1980s the terrorist groups had been suppressed. “Revolving door” governments, political instability, scandal, and corruption characterized Italian politics in the 1980s and 1990s. On May 8, 2008, Berlusconi was sworn in for his third term as prime minister and announced his cabinet choices, including Franco Frattini as foreign minister and Giulio Tremonti as economics minister. Berluconi's cabinet remains dominated by center-right politicians and includes few women. On July 23, 2008, the Senate and lower chamber approved a bill that grants immunity to the four most powerful elected officials while they are in office, including the prime minister, the president, and the speakers of the two chambers of Parliam
SWITZERLAND HISTORY Present-day Switzerland is since around 500 BC inhabited by the Celtic tribe of the Helveti. The area gets known as Helvetia and as a result of the Gallic wars it becomes under that name part of the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC until the 4th century. After the collapse of the Roman Empire the region is invaded by germanic tribes, like the Burgundians and the Alemans. From the eight century, when it becomes part of the Frankish Realm it shares the history of the southern parts of Germany . In the feudal German Empire the Habsburgs become in 1278 rulers of Austria , one of the German counties. Austria includes at that moment Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden. These cantons form a confederation agains Austria in 1291: Switzerland, but not yet under that name, has started to exist, still inside the German Empire. Between 1315 and 1388 the Swiss Confederates inflicts three crushing defeats on the Habsburgs, whose aspiration to regional dominion clash with Swiss self-determination. During that period, five other localities join the original three in the Swiss Confederation. Buoyed by their feats, the Swiss Confederates continuously expand their borders by military means and gain formal independence from the Holy Roman Empire in 1499. In the Peace of Westphalia treaties in 1648 the sovereign independence of the full members of the Swiss Confederation is recognized. French revolutionaries, supported by Swiss revolutionaries, invade Switzerland and proclaim the Helvetic Republic as a French puppet state in 1798. Switzerland is re-established in 1803 as a French protectorate; canton sovereignty is largely restored. Finally in 1813 independence is restored. In 1848 after a brief civil war between protestant liberals seeking a centralized national state and catholic conservatives clinging on to the old order, the majority of Swiss Cantons opt for a federal state. The new constitution establishes a range of civic liberties and made far-reaching provisions to maintain cantonal autonomy to placate the vanquished catholic minority. The civil war brings the liberal Freisinn/Radicalisme (Freethinking, F) to power. The Swiss amend their constitution extensively in 1874, establishing federal responsibility for defense, trade and legal matters, as well as introducing direct democracy by popular referendum. Freisinn remains the dominant current, and in 1894 it is organized into the Freisinnig-Demokratische Partei der Schweiz (Freethinking Democratic Party of Switzerland). This party has an abolsute majority until 1919. Since then other parties, like the Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz (Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, SPS), the Schweizerische Konservative Volkspartei (Swiss Conservative People's Party, KVP) and since 1921 the Bauern-, Gewerbe- und Bürgerpartei (Peasants', Industry and Citizens' Party, BGB) become dominant and join the government (the KVP in 1912, the BGB in 1929 and the SPS in 1943). These parties are part of the executive Federal Council, of which alternating members are president for a year. The KVP is renamed Konservativ-Christlichsoziale Volkspartei der Schweiz (Conservative Christian Social Party of Switzerland, KCVPS) in 1957 and Christlichdemokratische Volkspartei der Schweiz (Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland). The BGB merges with parts of the liberal Demokratische Partei der Schweiz (Democratic Party of Switzerland, DPS) into the conservative Schweizerische Volkspartei (Swiss People's Party, SVP). Women are granted the right to vote as late as 1971. v
SWITZERLAND ATTRACTIONS Berne . The Benedictine Abbey of Maria Einsiedeln lucerne The Chapel Bridge in Lucerne being reconstructed after a fire.
The Baroque Jesuit church in Lucerne. The Swiss Transport Museum in Lucerne . The Säntis cableway. Château de Chillon on Lake Geneva .
TASK - 4 YOU MUST CHOSE MY PACKAGE BECAUSE I AM TAKING YOU TO THE WORLDS FAMOUS TOURIST COUNTRIES AND THERE AUSOME PLACES.YOU SHALL BE PICKED BY THE PERSONAL CAR THAT WILL TAKE YOU TO THE HOTEL FROM THE AIRPORT ITSELF AND WILL ALSO TAKE YOU TO THE TOURIST PLACES AND YOU WILL NOT BE CHARGED FOR THIS SERVICE.I SHALL ADJUST YOUR TOUR ACCORDING TO YOUR BUDGET.I WILL ALSO GET YOU THE TICKET OF FAMOUS AIRWAYS THAT WILL PROVIDE EXTRA INGLIGHT SERVICES.I WILL ARRANGE FIVE STAR HOTELS FOR YOU THAT WOULD MAKE YOU FEEL AS YOU ARE IN HEAVEN.ONE THING MORE,THE COUNTRIES THOSE I HAVE SELECTED FOR YOU ARE NOT SO FAR FROM ONE ANOTHER,THIS WILL ALSO MAKE YOU FEEL FRESH AND ALSO WILL HAVE GOOD PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT ON YOU.
PACKAGE FOR FOUR COUNTRIES REQUIRING LESS DOCUMENTS TO GO TO THESE FOUR COUNTRIES YOU JUST NEED PASSPORT AND VISA.THE OTHER FORMS AND FILES ARE NOT NEEDED FOR THESE FOUR COUNTRIES AND IT IS TO EASY TO APPLY FOR THESE COUNTRIES.
TASK - 5 The International Air Transport Association is an international industry trade group of airlines headquartered in Montreal , Quebec , Canada , where the International Civil Aviation Organization is also headquartered. The main objective of the organization is to assist airline companies to achieve lawful competition and uniformity in prices . The Director General is Giovanni Bisignani . IATA was formed in April 1945 , in Havana , Cuba . It is the successor to the International Air Traffic Association, founded in The Hague in 1919, the year of the world's first international scheduled services. At its founding, IATA had 57 members from 31 nations, mostly in Europe and North America . Today it has over 240 members from more than 140 nations in every part of the globe. For fare calculations IATA has divided the world in three regions: South, Central and North America. Europe, Middle East and Africa. IATA Europe includes the geographical Europe and Turkey , Israel , Morocco , Algeria and Tunisia . Asia, Australia, New Zealand and the islands of the Pacific Ocean. To this end, airlines have been granted a special exemption by each of the main regulatory authorities in the world to consult prices with each other through this body. However, the organisation has been accused of acting as a cartel , and many low cost carriers are not full IATA members. The European Union 's competition authorities are currently investigating the body. In 2005, Neelie Kroes , the European Commissioner for Competition, made a proposal to lift the exception to consult prices. In July 2006, the United States Department of Transportation also proposed to withdraw antitrust immunity  . IATA teamed with SITA for an electronic ticketing solution  . IATA assigns 3-letter IATA Airport Codes and 2-letter IATA airline designators , which are commonly used worldwide. ICAO also assigns airport and airline codes. For Rail&Fly systems, IATA also assigns IATA train station codes . For delay codes, IATA assigns IATA Delay Codes . IATA is pivotal in the worldwide accreditation of travel agents with exception of the U.S. , where this is done by the Airlines Reporting Corporation. Permission to sell airline tickets from the participating carriers is achieved through national member organizations. IATA regulates the shipping of dangerous goods and publishes the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations manual, a globally accepted field source reference for airlines' shipping of hazardous materials . IATA maintains the Timatic database containing cross border passenger documentation requirements. It is used by airlines to determine whether a passenger can be carried, as well as by airlines and travel agents to provide this information to travellers at the time of booking. IATA publishes standards for use in the airline industry. The Bar Coded Boarding Pass ( BCBP ) standard defines the 2-Dimensional (2D) bar code printed on paper boarding passes or sent to mobiles phones for electronic boarding passes. In 2004, IATA launched Simplifying the Business - a set of five initiatives which it says will save the industry US$6.5 billion every year. These projects are BCBP , IATA e-freight, CUSS (common use self-service), Baggage Improvement Programme (BIP) and the Fast Travel Programme.
<ul><li>BECAUSE TRAVELERS OPERATE IN A CIRCLE AS THEY START TO PLAN TRIPS AND BOOK THEM. THEY DREAM ABOUT A DESTINATION OR ACTIVITY. THEY PLAN AND RESEARCH THEIR TRIP OR VACATION. THEY BOOK THEIR TRAVEL, HOTEL, RESORT, TOUR, OR ATTRACTION. WHEN THEY RETURN HOME FROM THEIR TRIP, THEY SHARE THEIR TRAVEL STORIES, TRAVEL BLOGS, TRAVEL PHOTOS, PICTURES, AND TRAVEL VIDEOS FROM THEIR VACATION. IF YOU ARE A HOTEL OPERATOR, THEN TRAVELERS ARE BLOGGING ABOUT YOUR HOTEL ONLINE. IF YOU ARE A TOURISM BOARD OR DESTINATION OR CVB, THEN TOURISTS AND TRAVELERS ARE BLOGGING AND PODCASTING ABOUT YOUR DESTINATION WHEN THEY GET HOME. </li></ul>IMPORTANCE OF TRAVEL ORGANIZATION IN TRAVEL INDUSTRY
<ul><li>ENHANCING THE TOURISM, HOSPITALITY AND AVIATION INDUSTRY. </li></ul><ul><li>PACKAGES FOR OUR CLIENTS. </li></ul><ul><li>DISCOUNTS FOR BUSINESSMAN,FAMILIES AND GROUPS. </li></ul><ul><li>EARNING GOOD MONEY. </li></ul><ul><li>MAKING APPROPRIATE TRAVEL ARRANGEMENTS AND RESERVATIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>SELL INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS, INCENTIVES AND CONFERENCE TRAVEL ARRANGEMENTS. </li></ul><ul><li>DISCOUNT FOR THE CLIENTS. </li></ul>WHERE ARE YOU IN THIS CONTEXT
BIBLIOGRAPHY WWW.YAHOO.COM WWW.MAKE MY TRIP.COM WWW.GOOGLE.COM TRAVEL TOURISM MAGAZINES