Introduction To Javascript

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Introduction To Javascript

  1. 1. A Quick Intro to Javascript Rajat Pandit (rajat_pandit@ipcmedia.com) Thursday, September 24, 2009 1
  2. 2. Data Types Object Function Numbers Strings Booleans null - a value that isn’t anything undefined - default value for variables and parameters, value of missing members in the object etc Thursday, September 24, 2009 2
  3. 3. Objects Objects can contain data and methods Objects can inherit from other objects An object contain an unordered collection of name/value pairs Values can be any type including other objects JSON Thursday, September 24, 2009 3
  4. 4. Object Literals Objects are wrapped in { } Names can be string Value can be an expression ; used for separation , separate pairs Object literals can be used anywhere a value can appear Thursday, September 24, 2009 4
  5. 5. Creating a new Object new Object() { } - Preferred format Both are the same Objects are passed by reference not by value === operator compares references, not values, true only if the operands are the same object Members can be removed using the delete operator delete myobject[name]; Thursday, September 24, 2009 5
  6. 6. Object Example var myobject = { name : “Jack Appleseed”, “data”: { foo: 10, bar: 20} }; var data = myobject.data; var foo = myobject.data.foo; Thursday, September 24, 2009 6
  7. 7. Object Augmentation New members can be added to any object No need to define a new class myobject.format.colormodel = ‘foo’; myobject[another_new_member] = 34; Thursday, September 24, 2009 7
  8. 8. Object Augmentation String.prototype.trim = function() { return this.replace(/^s*(S*(s+S+)*)s*$/, "$1"); } More on prototype in the next few slides Prototype library does the same Very messy approach, pollutes the expected behavior Thursday, September 24, 2009 8
  9. 9. typeof Prefix Operator The typeof prefix operator returns a string identifying the type of value Use instanceof instead Type typeof object ‘object’ function ‘function’ array ‘object’ number ‘number’ string ‘string’ boolean ‘boolean’ null ‘object’ undefined ‘undefined’ Thursday, September 24, 2009 9
  10. 10. Array Array inherits from Object (like every other object in JavaScript) No need to provide length when creating a new one Unlike object they have a length member and is always 1 larger than the highest subscript Do not use for ... in for arrays Appending new item mylist[mylist.length] = ‘foo’ Thursday, September 24, 2009 10
  11. 11. Array var my_array = ['abc', 'xyz', 'foo']; var my_object = {foo: 10, bar:20, baz:200} Array.prototype.this_is_super_lame = 'fooo'; for (x in my_array) { console.log(x + ‘-’ + my_array[x]); } Output: Output: 0 - abc 0 - abc 1 - xyz 1 - xyz 2 - foo 2 - foo this_is_super_lame - fooo Thursday, September 24, 2009 11
  12. 12. Array Methods concat join (can also be used for concatenating multiple strings) pop push slice sort splice Use Objects when you think you need associative array (PHP Developers) you are should be using Object not Array. Thursday, September 24, 2009 12
  13. 13. Checking for Array value.constructor === Array value instanceof Array Thursday, September 24, 2009 13
  14. 14. Function They are first class Objects Can be passed, stored and returned just like any value Inherit from object and store name/value pairs Function can appear anywhere an expression can appear Thursday, September 24, 2009 14
  15. 15. Function Cont... Functions can be contained inside other functions Inner function has access to the variable and parameters of the function it is contained within This is static or lexical scoping The scope that inner function has access to continues even after the parent function has returned. This is called Closure Thursday, September 24, 2009 15
  16. 16. Function Cont... Function inside an object is called a method When invoked with too many arguments, the rest are ignored When invoked with fewer arguments, the rest are set to undefined No type checking Thursday, September 24, 2009 16
  17. 17. Function Cont... When a function is invoked in method format, this refers to the object containing it. var foo = { baz: 10, bar: function() { console.log(this.baz); // cant access baz // directly } }; foo.bar(); Output 10 Thursday, September 24, 2009 17
  18. 18. Function Cont... When object is invoked in function, this refers to the global object var global_variable = 5; function test() { console.log(this.global_variable); } test(); Output 5 Thursday, September 24, 2009 18
  19. 19. Function Cont... When new Function is used (implicit return is optional), then this returns the new object created var Test = function(id) { this.something = id; this.foo = function() { console.log('this is a test: ' + this.something); } } var o = new Test(10), i = new Test(111); o.foo(); i.foo(); Thursday, September 24, 2009 19
  20. 20. Function (arguments) When function is invoked, in addition to its parameters it has a special parameter called arguments Contains all arguments from invocation arguments.length will tell you how many arguments were passed arguments is not of type Array even though it has length Thursday, September 24, 2009 20
  21. 21. Function (arguments) Code: var foo = function() { var a = new Array(); console.log( typeof a ); console.log( typeof arguments ); console.log( arguments instanceof Object ); console.log( arguments instanceof Array ); } foo(); Output : object object true false Thursday, September 24, 2009 21
  22. 22. (global) Object As crockford says, the object that dare not speak of its name It is the container for all global variables and all built in objects On browsers window is the global object Variables defined with a var makes it local to the scope Thursday, September 24, 2009 22
  23. 23. GLOBAL VARIABLES ARE EVIL Un-namespaced values can clobber each others values Use of it should be minimized or gotten rid of totally Variables defined in the function / module should start with var otherwise they have a global scope Thursday, September 24, 2009 23
  24. 24. Inheritance OOP ensures code reuse Two forms of OOP - Classical - Prototypal Thursday, September 24, 2009 24
  25. 25. prototype JavaScript functions work as methods, constructors and modules It has Prototypal Inheritance, instead of classical inheritance This offers great expressive powers All objects are directly or indirectly linked to Object.prototype Thursday, September 24, 2009 25
  26. 26. prototype Each object is linked to its parent via a magic link When a member is accessed the compiler looks at the object and then looks up to its parent via the magic link It keeps going all the way up to Object.prototype Thursday, September 24, 2009 26
  27. 27. prototype my_object = { my_object_parent foo: 10, = { Object bar:15 bar: 10, prototype prototype Looking for my_object.foo, found it in the object itself Looking for my_object.baz looks in the object and if it doesn’t find it there it goes to my_object_parent which is my_object.prototype Looking for my_object.some_random_member can’t find it in the object, look at my_object_parent, can’t find it there either, goes to Object can’t find it there and is set to undefined Thursday, September 24, 2009 27
  28. 28. prototype Augmenting the ancestor will have an affect on all the children, even the ones that were created before the augmentation Augmentation can be done via the prototype property that each object has Thursday, September 24, 2009 28
  29. 29. prototype var Test = function(id) { this.something = id; this.foo = function() { console.log('this is a test: ' + this.something); } // implicit return not required } var o = new Test(10), i = new Test(111); o.foo(); i.foo(); Test.prototype.new_function = function() { console.log('i am a new function'); } o.new_function(); Thursday, September 24, 2009 29
  30. 30. Prototypal Inheritance var BiggerConstructor = function() {}; BiggerConstructor.prototype = new Test(); var a = new BiggerConstructor(); a.new_function(); Another way of doing Inheritance function object(o) { function F() {}; F.prototype = o; return new F (); } Thursday, September 24, 2009 30
  31. 31. Singleton There is no need to produce a class-like constructor for an object that will have exactly one instance This is typical of JavaScript applications Use an object literal to get started instead Thursday, September 24, 2009 31
  32. 32. Singleton You have seen it before The methods of a singleton can enjoy access to shared private data and private methods var singleton = { firstFunction: function(a,b) { }, secondFunction: function(c) { } } Thursday, September 24, 2009 32
  33. 33. Module Pattern The methods of a singleton can enjoy access to shared private datum and private methods Variables defined in a module are only visible in a module Variables defined in a function are only visible to the function Function can be used as module containers Thursday, September 24, 2009 33
  34. 34. Module Pattern var my_module = function() { var privateVariable, privateFunction = function() { // stuff }; return { firstMethod: function(a,b) { // can access privateVariable // can access privateFunction } } }(); my_module.firstMethod(); Thursday, September 24, 2009 34
  35. 35. Privileged Methods Methods in the return object are called Privileged methods They have access to the secret information Has access to private variables and methods Obtains its secret information through closure Thursday, September 24, 2009 35
  36. 36. Power Constructor function PowerConstructor() { var that = {}, privateVariable = 40; that.firstMethod = function(a,b) {// private access} that.secondMethod = function(c) {// private access} return that; } Many Patterns here private variables (var) private methods (inner functions) privileged methods (that.firstmethod) no more need for use of new my_object = PowerConstructor(); Thursday, September 24, 2009 36
  37. 37. Resources Coding convention http://javascript.crockford.com/ code.html Linting JavaScript http://jslint.org Mozilla Developer Center for JavaScript https://developer.mozilla.org/en/ JavaScript Thursday, September 24, 2009 37

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