Conflict: conflict is an integral part of everyday life of an individual or organization According to W.Wrigley “when two people in business agree upon a point one of them is unnecessary”.
MEANING & definitionof conflictConflict has been defined in manyways can be considered as an Follet defines “The appearanceexpression of hostility, negativeattitudes , aggression , rivalry it is of difference of opinions , ofassociated with situations thatinvolve contradictory interests interestsbetween two opposing groups CHUNG & Megginson : “ the struggle between incompatible or struggling needs ,wishes ,ideas , interests or people .
Features of anconflictPONDY identifies 5 Conflict occurs whenstages of ‘conflictmanagement Latent individuals are not able tostage, perceived stage take alternative course of,Felt stage ,Manifest actionconflict &Conflictaftermath Conflict is a dynamic process as it indicates a series of events .each series is inter- linked
THE PROCESS OF CONFLICT Latent conflict Perceived conflict Felt conflict Manifest conflict conflict aftermath
LATENT CONLICT Latent means exist but not yet developed. Citing Collins “observed that social life is above all struggle forFor example:•Competition for scare resources power and status regardless of the•Communication barrier type of structure .An inventible•Divergence of subunit goals and power differential between•Role ambiguities groups and between individuals ,produce latent conflict in all social relations” Latent conflict exists whenever individuals, groups,organisations or nations have difference.
PERCIEVED CONFLICT This is a stage at which members become aware of a problem Incompatibility of needs is perceived and tension begins as the parties begin to worry about what will happen. Sometimes conflict may be perceived when latent conditions are not in existence in the system. Such a situation arises when one party percieves the other to be likely to frustrate his or her goals.
FELT CONFLICT Emotional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety,For tenseness and frustration isexample: known as felt conflict.In consistency in demand fromthe organisation and individual It is that stage when the conflictneeds may create a conflictsituation. is not only perceived but actually felt. Parties to the conflict feel that they have some conflict among themselves. Parties becomes emotionally involved and begin to focus on differences of opinion and opposing interest.
MANIFEST CONFLICT This is the stage where conflictFOR EXAMPLE becomes visible.:If A does not interact with B,it In this stage the two parties tomay be either because A and Bare not related in a conflict show a clearorganizational sense, orbecause A has withdrawn a too conflictful behavior.stressful relationship, orbecause A is drawn away from In other words the behavior ofthe relationship by othercompeting demands upon his conflicting parties include thetime. statements , action and reaction to each other.
CONFLICT AFTERMATH If the conflict is merely suppressed but not resolved the conflict may explode in more serious form until they are rectified or until the relationship dissolves. this is called conflict aftermath. The conflict is genuinely resolved to the satisfaction of all participants. The basis for more cooperative relationship may be laid.
Preventive measures in conflict management Establishing common goals : The major reason for conflict is the incompatible goals . This is true in case of conflict between individuals and organizations , the basic measure is to find the cause conflict GROUP conflicts can be reduced using measures of incentive system
Reduction in Interdependence : The main reason for inter- group conflict is interdependence among them It is however understood that physical conflict is resolved through physical separation but is an false claim Physical separation is never an solution as it adds up to space between the conflicted Reduction in shared resource: another solution to reducing conflict is to minimize the shared resource base The best possible solution is making optimum use of resources Trust & communication :Trust is optimum. I ndividual and group members should be encouraged to communicate openly
NEGOTIATIONNegotiation is an attempt to reacha satisfactory exchange among or Negotiation refers to interactionbetween the parties with others . It can be defined as a decision making process among independent parties who do not share identical values Negotiation strategies : Negotiation and bargaining are used interchangeably . (a) Distributive bargaining (b) Integrative Bargaining
Distributive bargaining The most identifying feature of distributive bargaining is that it operates under zero sum conditions . One person wins at the cost of other . When two or more parties negotiate over price , it is known as distributive bargaining Both parties negotiate with their target and resistance points . They try to get the other party .
Integrative Bargaining Integrative Bargaining is a win- win strategy where both the parties win Integrative bargaining is preferred to distributive as the latter has win Example “ if we take into consideration an example when a salesman sells a product he is able to convince the customer , interactive bargaining require both the parties to meet an consensus
ISSUES INNEGOTIATIONBiases prevent people Biases hindrances infrom negotiatingrationally and getting negotiation process:the most of that they a. People tend to be overlycan of a situation affected by frame of presentation of information in a negotiator b. People at times assume they will gain at the loss of other party c. The judgment of people tend to be anchored upon irrelevant information such as initial offer d. People tend to be overconfident concerning the likelihood of attaining outcome that favor the individuals involved
Guide to be a good negotiatora. Consider and respect the norms of other party view pointb. Have a well laid down strategyc. Emphasize on win - win strategyd. Try and create a climate congenial for both parties for mutually rewarding relationshipe. Give reasonable concessions to other parties